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Full text of "Truth's advocate and monthly anti-Jackson expositor"

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TRUTH'S 

AND 

raOMTBIiY 

Anti-J^ek^eii Expositor < 



BY AN ASSOCIATIOX OF INDIVrDUAI.8. 



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CINCINNATI: 
LODGE, VHOMMEDIEU, AND UAMMQNO^ PRINTERS. 

1828. 



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I. 



V V' 



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INDEX. 



A 

Addieii, - " • *^-' " ■ " "^ 

AdmiiusU'nUoQCoavcutioii, i^ B%t^- • " - 31 

Another Pas<i<i'it, - • " ' " ' ^*^ 

Adams, J. Q. Vindication of, . . - - 321 

n 

Bargain the, - - - - - " 98,181/^/^ 

Burr, Jackson, and - - 203, 219, 311, 343, 347, 35C 

C 

Convention Virginia, ----- 36 

Company the - - - - - - 63 

Correction, - - ' - = - 120 

Chieftain Militar» - \ - - - 143 

Charges and Proof, - - - 2^ " 146 

Committee of Ways and Mean? report of, - " - - 177 

Characters and Conduct, - ! - - i»* ^P 

Confessions Precious, , . . - . 237 

Campbell G. W. Letter to, - - - - 392 

D 

Decisive,Sign, - - - - - - !»*• 

Daniel Congressman, - - , - - Se? 

Electoral Ticket, Ind. - - - - - 00 

Extermination, - - - - -' ■ 110 

Extracts of Letters, - - - - - 119 

F 

Fraud Exposed, - - - - - - 114 

Farmer of Tennessee, - - - - - 1 6# 

Fire and Faggot, . - - . . 3G0 

Fromentinjudge, . . - - . 363 

Groanings of one A. J. , . . . j i<P" 

H 

Hereof Two War^, - 111, 142, 182, 238, 266, 308, 353, 389 

Harris John, - . - . . 195 

Gen. Jackson, - - - ■ - - 80 

Domestic Relations of, - - - - 4, 117 

American System and, - - - - - 20 ./<^/: 

Letters to, - - - - - 25, 64, 153, 261 ' 

Jefferson and^ - - - - - - 34 

and New* Orleans, - - - - . 35 

Threats of, - - - - - . 2(9, 306 



Lil'c of. Jactason, - - - 41 

MilitarrPr tensions of, • . • • • 81 

Civil Qunlitication'-. - ... - |Qj 

Violein .,■ of; - - . ' f ' m ^^^ 

Land "spoculafions, .... /" 'i2,« ^3I| ^4' 

Literature and Principles of, - ^-^V -^ ,iJl 

True Character of. - - - - -210, 289 

Livingston and, - - - - - op^ 

Dickinson and. - - - . . 233. 34^ 

Veracity «f, - - - ■ - - 27i 

Swnrtwoiit and, ----- og; 

Gov. Shelby and, - - - - . or) 

Wadi«oii and, - - . - . 321 

f>:onomy of, - - - - fUS 

A Negro Tr.-tder, - - - . 3:^, 

Bttrrismot - - -•-...-. . 3,13^ jr,, 

[:i Florida, - - . 3p, 

Commiiiissioner. - --•-.<► 

l.ei;i?lator. ------ 3^*, 

• Spanish Officers, ---.--- 

Jnckson Samuel attack on, - - . .07 

K 



Kendall and Penn, 
liCgit-lativt; in.-truction, 



L 



.New Lie. 
i\('\v-.?fi-sey, 
Ne«-Orl«vin~ Pageant at. 

t>pp^ili<... 



o 
p 



KcmlnUcenccs, 
Kcflertions Giirrral, 
Ki'igi! of Tetroi, 
KetrcnchnKiit UepoH. 

Satan Quotii , 1 

Sloane's Rcmcvv. 



K 

S 
T 



li 



Literature and Priociplcs, > - 2(^, . 

MiKi Worship. - - - . - 4j, 

Military Preti'ii?ioiK», - - . . . 

Xiilliia .Men Siv, - - - . , 

McGraw, Thomas - . - . , 



12: 

'2C< 



P.irlic*. 

Pftjiliral Statistic?. 

Poopic of the United State?, to . - 39 

Preeidoncy in IS'ii!. - . . . 

Question the, 



.I'.i 



TnrilVllie. - . . . 

J.a. ■■'?' 

Wood's John. - pn 111 ,-. o^ 

■Uhi.fUn-bing Committee,- - ' - "•'"''^2! 



TUrTH'S ADVOCATE 

AND 

MONTHLY ANTI- JACKSON EXPOSITOR. 



CINCINNATI, OHIO, JANUARY, 1828. 



''.■ } 



i 



ADDRESS. 

It is usual, when u new work is an- 
nouiicf'l, to make known the reason? 
which i.iduce the publication, a;;d llie 
pri^ri|>lcs upon wiiich it is to be coii- 
ducled. ^Vith this usage, the Editors 
of tiic proposed work deem it their 
duty to comply. 

It is now well understood, that be- 
fore the present Administration of the 
National (iovemr.ient was arranged, 
when oidy the chief executive officer 
was chosen, and when no course of 
.^ measures could possibly have been in- 
dicated, the elements of a malignant 
opposition were put in a train of com- 
bination. The nucleus was supplied ; 



and unsupported by any color of e\i- 
Jence. 

In the progress of this combination, 
iis aggregalioiis have been of a most 
-ingular chtiractei'. Elements not mere- 
ly without :iny quality of adhesion, but 
even s(roiif,ly rc{)ulsivc, have become 
united, apparenily in the closest amity. 
— It is well known, that to the early 
machinations of the arch-intriguer, C;;!- 
houn, and to tlic subsequent unlicensed 
and profligate assaults of the satellites 
of Gen. Jackson, the high-mi:. ded and 
estimable Crawford was libelled into 
discredit with his countrymen. His, is 
a striking exam])Ie. of wliat may be ■ f- 



fected by the (lan.;g of unmea-urcd 
by one of the defeated rival candidates. ' detraction. And, strange fatuitj! this 
In the celebrated Sw;.rtwout letter was > man, once regarded as the very -ou! of 
commenced that system of unjust ac-! honor, is iiow ibund in association witli 
cusation, dark insinuation, and low in-: his ioul defamers, his unprincipled dc- 
vective, which has been pursued and jstroyers. There is a mos^slruositv in 
amplitied with an unrelenting intensity connexions so unnatural, well ci'.icula- 
to the present time. We /io?c know, ^ ted to terrily aid coniound the minds 
thiiX the original motto of this combi- of upright men. It indicates an alanrs- 
nation was, '• JVe ictll put doztJii the Ad- , ing de^tilulion of the moral sense, most 
iniiijftration, though pure as the angrl.< ; fatally confirmed by the conduct of the 
/hnl mhiistcr in heaven."' Wc know, too, ! principal parties, 
that its mode of warfare, and its insti-u- An individual of no common preten- 
ments of attack have been, and con- [ sions, dccei\i(:g himself with the vain 
tinue to be, in unde^nating accordance ' fancy that he neither seeks nor de- 
with such a motto. jclines otlice, and attempting io [nss the 

As this opposition was partly organ- ' same deceptior. upon others, so far for- 
iz'^'d, and put in action before the Ad- 1 gets wliaf is due, even to appearance?, 
ministration had commenced, it neces- , as to become an active agent in giving 
sarily follows that their destruction was I ciiculation to a false cliarge of degrad- 
resolved on, without regard to their j ing protligacv, against his Iale coni- 
ncts. And as they had attempted no j petitor. Polliiciais, statesmen, jurists^ 
measures, there could be nothing to (men who occupy hish stations, who 
condemn; consequently there could ex- possess various knowledge, reversing 
ist no ground of accusation, but such all established rules for ascertaining 
as falsehood and calumny miglit supply. ! truth, lend t'le weig'it of their names, 
Tlius, we sec, that the combiivtiun or- land the intlnencc of" their talents, to 
ganiz?d to prostrate the Administration, [make plausible that wliich they admit 
is one of the most extraordinary experi- can be sustained !)y rto tangible pr(>of". 
ments tliat ever was attempted. It is ' Tiiey prartirally adopt the dctest;;blr 
neitlier more nor Ics'^, than an elTort of , doc'.riiies of ihe Inquisition, that acct;- 
defeaied aspirants for office, (o pros- salion atiaches guilt, \vhich tlie accused 



trate their more smcessful rivals by 
pouring upon them torrents of obloquy 
tnd reproaches, unfounded in truth. 



must wipe away bv testimony. Char- 
ges are made, whicli, without i!ie clear- 
est proof, honorable aicn should be 



ADDRLSN. 



asliamcd to utter, and when promptly";' violeut fc'elinf;s and sudJen impulses: 
contradict' il, liy the partic- iinplirntod. in?aiiablc of prai>e, iinplacalk- iti oi.- 
aro ju^iitied on tlie monslrou? po^iiion. niiiy; di?ti:igui.-l'.cd Ibr i:o irilellectiial 
tkit denial is «ol aciiuittal; but that c-xiellei cc, bui abou ding in the i^ame 
t!ie accu-cd mu-t e«iaMi?!i his iano- irats tliat securc-s immunity to the 
ccncc. In proof of this, il is only nc- tiger of the dt-scit, the bully of the 
cossary to suggest the cahminy*pr6pa-'hiiCv;-tield,a id the tyrant of Uic tavirn. 
gated by Gen. J.'M^kBon. upon the fabi-i- 1 For more than tifty >ears of riis lijc, as 
catcd autiiority of Mr. BuchVmix, and a public man, he was known or,!v as an 
the more recent O'tp, circulatfjBasiainst am'iitious preteiid-T, who attempted to 
Mr. Adaii> uul V'v'cliitor bv IMr. Cole- ! di-chargciiie duties ofditferent otiices. 



man a -d .Mr. Rilciiie, wiil.out evcn»a|3Mi 
name to support it. 

This moan and orlious vice ^lyiiitr. 
adopted by tlie chiel^ains, as cfWe very 
essence and vitality of tiie combination, 
extends to all its active mi.'inber5. A 
strikiiij; instance has recently occurred 




ii cd them all, under an ac- 
^d sense of his own ircomiu - 
Tiie glare b£ a brief, succesi- 
ful military career, nas converted this 
mere common morttd, into ahA^o and a 
salesman. U'j|p; otiif rs Ijave ac<iuircd 
bv vears of clos* t'lought and deep re- 



in oui- own state. An assembla<:e of tlectio'i, Ijv the toil and labor nf actual 
men, who, as individuals, set some va- ! experience, is attained iiy liini, witluui 
lue upon their characters, have not : cither. lie is set up like tlje i)raz"i' 
been ashamed to make the following! image of Nebuchadnezair in ti e plaii - 
declaration: lof Dura, to he woreliip])ed bv a whoh^ 

"i?«rj/,vrf,Tl.nt w..rri;anl Internal Iinrrove-P^""!'.'*^'^'''' '"» refusal to pay him liom- 

inpiitiiind iXiciu -tic Miimficturcs iis iwip of iiic [ age is accounted a mo-t heinous crime. 
prime int.T. ?ts of tin- Unioi.. !ir:l j.re snitificl " Jt has ever been thus. The extremes 

that our laiorile aindi'lale, xuilike his unliltcal /• • i 11 • • , 

• - '^ '01 violence and obfe.|uiousn.ss run into 



opponciil, is fiicndlj li Uinse grtal inlcfcsls. 

With the notorious facrliefore t^.em, 
that t!ic administration are ilic avow- 



oach other. Tiie bigot is an idolater, 
tlie idolater is a bigot and persecutor. 
We wordcr tliat the Jews, who had 



edad%ocatesot tl^e measures here ap- 1 witnessed the miracles of the liv.._ 
proved ; and the eciually notorious fact, | God. could be so be'otled as !o wor-'iip 
that Gei>. Jackson is claimed both by j;, nioltcn calf, and we tlni;k this is a 
tiie advocates ar.d oppos-.-rs of lhe>c ; crossness of ignorance, in'o which we 
miasures, it is surely strange, that ' could not fall. Let us honestly ask 
men should haziir.l declarations of this ourselves, in how. much we are wi^cr. 
kind, and, at liie same tim^ expect to 'or better, if we loin to prostrate lonu 
escape the ip)utation of conlenvdng! tried, fai'.Lful, upright public men, by 
''""'I'! t > ! *'«•* l»->'tnm r>i!nuii of bold frd.-ehood and 

With this untoward sy-.!cni of defa- 1 dan'orous "denunciation; or if wo rais^ 
mation on one hand, there is connected | our voices to utter adulation, fulsome 
on the other, a system of adulation c- i a;;d false ci-ough to nauseate and dis- 
.jually faise,df_'radiuu',a!id deleterious. I gnst anv well organized mind. 
A inirc mortal m.an, most distiiictM Such is the slate of our countrv: 
marked by the weaknesses and vice^swli the cliaract.r of the etlorls made 
that defor.n Inmianity, is set up atul a- ; [f<-<-p;il flo7ni' the wise and the worthy, 
ilorned with perfections almost divine, and to exalt the unfit and the undo- 
No onS denies to him the chara. ter of serving Like every people that b;i* 
l»0!U -ly in iiis private coi.tnicts. B-\ ond , preceded us, we are vieldirAour-erv ev 
tins truth < an a-lvance but little to re-lviclims to the blustering effcfts of am- 
cosnmend him. Be h»s rendered public biiion, and^the Abtle marbi-.ations 
services.but each has boe.i tari-.i<!ied by ' of^ts tools and dupes. All primili\ c 
some flagrant wron.u'v.perpetralod in llie eoverinients were, and must be repub- 
merc wantonnets 'if power. An impar- licae. Despoti-m ever has origii ated, 
lial exposition ofbiscb.ai-.'rler.presefiti aid always mu-t originate in t!ie do- 
it, full of blemi-bes and defects; un- 1 minion acfpiiicd bv a military leader, 
fultivated, und;,>ripli!:ed, nwrked by 'overthc feelings aiid adcciioRS of h'is 



ADDRESS. 



viQuntrymen. All known monaichics I points lliat relate to the Presidential 



have tims been founilcd, and we have 
liardlj a case in liistory, where liie tir> 
adv.ciros were as undissuised as tiiosi- 
whic'* are now passinfj before us. We 
Rnef-rat danger, as idle a d riJieulons. 



This cor.(ide;!ce, this securitv, are as 
panquly of strengih^a sliicld and hue 
ier for llie assailants. We deride its 
ideots, or doriourice as enemies, those 



catl^'ass. The falsehoods, caiiininies, 
iiul misrepresent.ilions, started by the 
L'QiTibiiiiition, in every month, shall be 
presented, reviewed, exposed, ai d re- 
futed, as iliey arc got up: the authors 



ii atcertained, aiid suiyccled to the cas- 
tigatioi) ihey may jjeserve. In this 
dcparLment of the work, the necessary 
biograplical slfetches shall be drawn 



who warn us o^ our danger. So did with a sirict regard to truth, but with 



the Jews denounce their propliet: 
so do pas-ion aid prejudice ever le- 
gard tile saggcstiOTis of caution and of 
foretiiouglit. V^et it is not less the 
dut) of \lie patriot to sound the alarm, 
and proclaim tiie daiiger. 

Bui this is not euough. The danger 
mu-t not o:ily he made known: it must 
he met and repelled. To coi tribute 
soni-'thing to an object so imporlani, 
the present work is proposed. 

It is Ijclicvcd that there is vet a large 
majority ofdie good ^ense and th.e calm 
judgment of the American People un- 
coiilaminaied with tiie mania of oppo- 
sition. The infectioTi has readied but 
lew. except those who were predis- 
posed to receive it; and now an eflort 
should be made to arrest a;.d stay its 
furtlicr progress. In a coiitest so im- 
portant, even "//« weak cm give so7nc 
fwlp.'' And no one can kiiow but that 
it may be his part to stand ^•betwcm the 
living ani the dca<J,aiir/ skiij ihc phfrtir.'' 

In proportion as eHbrts are made to 
, ibusc and mislead the imhlic misid, 
I ou".(eracti:igefll)rts become necessary 
to diirusc correct inform;!t:o:i. Tiie 
torrents of misrepresentation aiid false- 
liood that flood the country, tlirouLfii i 

the channels of the opposition presses, I mined that the most fastidious shall 
must lie met, and rolled back to over- 



lUtie attention to encomium. 
• As exaggerated calogj- is a part of 
''^c sjjstem of falsehood relief upon, 
and employed h_v (he combinatioii, lo 
force their prominent chieftains into 
pui)lic esteem, it shall be an especial 
object of the work to make known their 
true characters. Neither tiie hero of 
Tennessee, nor his compeer of New 
York, will be con.-idcred a sui)ject too 
hig!>, nor the most despicable of the 
new converts of Ohio, a subject too low 
for animadversion. The audacity of 
the great nod the proiligacy of the lit- 
tle shall ])e alike exposed. Besides (he 
avowed partizar;s, tlie notaiile crew of 
po]itic:il s/iiHjiT--, who affect to occupy 
neutral ground, but who, like their pre- 
decessors of a former struggle, dcsfgn 
to deceive and plunder all, sliall re- 
ceive their proper share of notice. 

Great care shall be taken not lo de- 
part from t.'ie principal title of (he 
work. Tr.uTn's Aftvor.vTE should dis- 
seminate nothing but truth; and nolli- 
ii:g of e,uestionabic veracity shall' lie 
promulgated as true. (^JThe moat scru- 
pulous pains sliall be taken tjisecure 
full coiilidence in whatever is stated 
as fact. \>.\ this particular, it is dctsr- 



.vhelm their authors. It is a fatal' spect to the style a;?d manner of v.ri- 
truth, that calunviv soars oa the wings 
of an eagle, whilst correcting truth 
pursues her with .the creep of a snail. 



at a cri^like the present, when false- 
hood is*sys'em Uic uliy disseminated i:; 
air^ie forms thaidtSappoi||ted amhition 
and hungry expectati-.w can devis'e. 

As one means of effecting the proper 
counteraction, it is |)ropo'-cd to collect, 
:.rrange, and conden-e monthly, llie 
I'.irrent facts necessary to conunuiii 



tind no ground of objection. W'ith le- 



tin 
I 



ing,it would be idle to give aatpledge, 
n this, a- in other cases, tastes i-it to 
be disputed. At i!;-c5e;;t. tlse pul.lic 
appetite, in liierary and jx-liffeal mat- 
ter, is a go.Tl (!; ;•! sated wiLh strong 
viands. A ire of cayenne is 

received w.... . .,. ilc relish; it is 

consequently inferred that a vigorous 
style, well intcrspc.--.ed withrtj;illiets, 
will be the most acccptahM^' 

Tile work -.vill be free from'lhe rc- 
slraiiit.i of advciti.-in_" custom and ii,o\- 



.I'e rorr. Tt informaMon on lhejg|fious ' en.mvnfe-.l palror.ag.?. It depends nn- 



GE.\KRAL JAfKSON'S 



on no joi)S and fears the loss of i.o cus- 
tomers. It will owe no obligations, 
and Le sul)je< t to no accusation ol in-i 
gratitude. Trui.'i. ihercfoie, can be 
and sIikU be plainly "-poken. To do so 
puts no man's bread in jeopard v. — 
VVhctlicr it be spoken of the wisdom 
of the Pre>ident in lioldint; it a pulilic 
duty to n.-lain men in oJlice, wiio aid 
in dcfamii.g his character, ad <ontn-l 
butc whjil they may to uiiderniinf his 
adniinittraiion: whether it relate to 
(he headol a department on the fences; 
or to one of his deputies in the mire;, 
or whether it concern a vetcRin dc- i 
famer, or a reckless noviciate: a foreisrn 
or a native renofjado, tlie w riler will 
have nothing to con^ull but the moral 
sen^e of the conimueity, ar.d the adap- 
tation of his ^'phrases to the matter.'^ ! 
These [iroposals are submitted toj 
tJiosc, and to those only, who believe ! 



that the suggestions here m.ide are 
fouiided ifi truth, arid who are willing 
to uive etTeclive aid to the proposed 
wiirk, irorn a conviction that it is reccs- 
sary, aid from a wish that it sl.ould 
succeed. SjcIi are requested to de- 
vote a small portion of their means to 
dcl'ray the expenses, ai.d a modicum of 
their time to )ii\e it circulation. 

The Editors, though ihev do lot 
choose to l|.:zon their nanw^s to the 
public, intend to evade no lair respon- 
sibility. They are not ^stipendiary ad- 
zoralef,'" but are ^ principled partiznns;^ 
stimulated to action by a deep sense of 
the duly, which, as (ree citizens of (he, 
as yet. only free government on earth, 
they owe to honorable public iunctiona- 
rics grossly calumni.ited; to the cha- 
racter of tiieir cbinury; to themselves, 
and to their children. 



VIEW 

or GEN. JACKSON'S DOIVZ-^STIO RELATIONS, 
IX REFERENCE TO HIS FITNESS 

FOR THE PRESIDENCY. 



There is no subject connected with 
the Presidential canvass, upon which 
the su[iporters of Gen. Jackson have 
evinced mi re])oli'ical generalship, tiian 
that which sta.sds at the head of ihts 
article. They have asserted, with a 
species of deateninsr ( it\. that to (ouch 
it, was a violation of all the cliariiies 
and all the decencies of life. They have 
thrown out upon every one who was 
not confounded into tilonce by their 
dcnunciatioDS, torrent after torrent of 
opprol riuin, evidently intended to over- 
whelm with tlie noise of ilu'ir re- 
proaches, all wlioni Ihev could not gag 
l>y iiitiniidalion. 1 l.'ave marked the 
einplo}rn.'ni of these means and their 
ellcct--: a; il I have been alike unmoved 
liy the violence of one party, or the 
thivcring moderation of many amongst 



I the other. M\ own Judgment has long 
lieen clearly satisfied, that it was an 
affair in which the National cliarac- 
j ter, the National interest, and the Na- 
, tional morals, were all deeply involved, 
■ and that, therefore, it was a proper 
subject ot public invesliiration. and cx- 
I I'Osurc. This, it was my determina- 
I tion should, at a proper time, take 
place. In my judirment. (hat time is 
now, and I proceed upon my own rc- 
spnnsibilily, and wiihou( consnl(a(ion 
with a siniile individual, (o (he per- 
formance of what 1 deem a solemn 
;du(y. 

Whatever may be (lioui.'h( or said of 
olhcr olhces, every candid man must 
I agree that the otlice of President ne- 
cessarily brint's (he immediate family 
of the oihcer, into direct connexion 



DOMESTIC RELATION*. 



xrith the public. It is impossible to 
separate them from public observation. 
If t'le President he a married man, hi;- 
wife at least, must share the distinc- 
tion of the station he occupies. If slie 
does not, the reason will be sought 
after. If she does, her <iualificatioii for 
the station, her character, and stand- 
ing, her personal defects, or excellen- 
cies, must all he drawn out, aid made 
subjects of remark, and will bo com- 
mended, caricatured or ridiculed, as 
they mav furnish occasion. 

It has so happened, in oilier coun- 
tries, as well as in our own, that high 



ful. This enquiry must and will be 
made in all cases, where the station or 
liic emploNmcntsof the husband iicccs,- 
sarily plates his wife in connexion with 
society. Such being the relation in 
rthich the wife of a President is placed, 
the character and the interest of the 
ration must be more or less affected by 
her capacity, or incapacity to acquit 
herself with credit, in the elevation to 
which she is called. If she be weak 
and vulgar, she cannot escape becom- 
it g a theme for ridicule, a portion of 
wliicii, and its consequent contempt, 
must attach to her husband, and to the 



Iv eifted men have associated them- people that have selected him for their 



selves, in th.e connubial relation, with 
ignorant and vulgar women. This as- 
sociation never fails to lessen our re- 
spect for the individual. We feel that 
it impeaches his taste, his jiidgnvnt, 
or his moral conceptions. Whilst, how- 
ever, it would ml operate to deter 
us from employing iiim as a lawyer, or 
a mccnarric, or confiding in his judg- 
ment as am'TcliUi t, it would assuredly 
indispose us to eng.-tge him as our cler- 
gyman, or to select liim as the guai^ 
dian of our daughters. And for this] 
plain reasoT', that it would involve an 
intimate intercourse, where tliere was 
notliing of example or precept to re- 
Commc; d it. 

Every prudent and discreet person, 
f!ntru<tcd with the charge of a famil\, 
holds it a duty to examine well the 
female character where they cultivate 
acquai:itance. If the female family 
head be destitute of thecliaracferistics 
and accomplishments which adorn the 
station she moves in, it never fails to 
produce an unfavorable effect upon 
lier connexions. A talented husband, 
or great wealth, may insure her a cold 
endurance, hut they can do no more. 
This law of society is more irrevocable 
than any law of the Medes and Per- 
sians. It is founded in the pure morals, 
exquisite sensii)ility, and pervading in- 
fluence of the female sex, in every 
Christian country. An attempt to sub- 
vert it, an elfort to inculcate the doc- 
trine, that an enquiry into the charac- 
ter of a man's wife, for the purpose of 
regulating intercourse with his family, 
is an uniiallowed invasion of the do- 
mestic sanctuarv.can never be success- 



chief ruler. If she be intelligent and 
accomplished, the influence of her tal- 
ents, her virtues, and her manners, must 
inevitably reflect a mild and benignant 
lustre upon all around her, and upon 
all connected with her. VVhen, then, 
in our country, a man is suggested as 
a candidate for the Presidency, the fa- 
thers and husbands, the matrons and 
the maid-ns of the land, have a deep 
stake in knowing the character of his 
wife; and if she be a weak and vul- 
gar woman, for that reason alone, his 
pretensions should be passed by. But 
if astai 1 be cast on her, which, in gene- 
ral cases, excludes the unfortunate sulv 
ject from society altogether, then the 
investigation and enquiry becomes dou- 
bly indispensable. It applies not only 
to the propriety of permitting her to 
occupy the station proposed, but it 
touches also tlie character and qualifi- 
cations of the husband. 

I am far from insisting that whisper* 
and surmises, insinuations and suspi- 
cions, wliether of ancient or recent 
origin, arc sufficient reasons for making 
these investigations. Present correct 
conduct, and the possession of counte- 
nance and res])ect from reputable per- 
sons, should be received to silence all 
these. But when the stigma is affixed 
by legislative acts and judicial records, 
tlie case is widely dilTerent. It then 
calls foreh(iuiry; and tiiere is no es- 
cape from the conchi>ion. We must 
see a degraded female placed at the 
head of the female society of the na- 
tion, or wc must proclaim and urge 
the fact as a ground for excluding hex 
husband. 



GENEUAL JACXSON'.S 



The case of Gen. Jackson and his: 

%Tife, i>:, in every rc?pecl, an unrommo:. 
one. Whi.-rever lie was know;!, pult- 
lic rumor had circulated suspicion* a' 
(o the correctness of his matrimonial 
aUiaricc, long before he was dreamcii 
of as a man, in whose connubial con- 
^exio^.^ tlic nation could liave anv pos- 
fciblc interest. It wh- no case cf mere 
surmise against an unmarried female, 
arisin;^ out of possible ii'discrction, and 
resting upon a peculiar freedom of 
manners too little recardful of the re- 
straints of society. On tlie fontrary, 
it involved an accusation of the most 
exceptionable character, extendins; to 
fhc gentleman a? well as to the lady, 
and resting lor proof, upon a h gisla- 
tive act, and the record of a court of 
justice. It was an accusation of gross 
adultery, in wliich outrage upon the 
right* of (he liushand was urged against 
Gen. Jackson, and desertion from her 
hu-band to the arms of a pammour, 
was charged against tlic wile. Sucli 
■were the charges; such the evidence 
npon which they rested. Whether 
Iruc or false, necessarily became a 
matter of public concern, from tlie fact, 
that tiic parlies accused were present- 
ed as candidates for the most conspi 
cuouf station in o'lr country, in which 
the accused female must be placed at 
the head of the female society of the 
land. Were she iniioccnt of the crimes 
alleged against her, their long circu- 
lation, the strong evidence to sustai- 
them, and Iho serious manner in wliich 
they alf't li'd tjio present claim-; of her 
husiiand, conduced to call for invcii- 
gallon. An upright and an honorable 
man. confident of the purity of his wife, 
and sensible that he occupied a statioi; 
which coniiec ted that purity v.-ith the 
eharacler of his country, would have 
rejoiced at an opportunity to repel a 
lo:ig endured calumny. He would 
have seen, in a call for inquiry and in- 
vestigation, no spirit but that of manly 
patriotism. lie would have regarded 
the man whn movi-d it, as the fiieiid of 
him-el( a:.d of the coinlry, and lie 
v.onld have met it, rejoicing as one who 
l»as found a peaii of great price. It 
liiLs not been so received; it has not 
been so met. V\liy it has not. there 
Can be but one opinicr. ' 



Mrs. Jackson w.is the wife of Lewis 
Robards. of (ilercer county, Iv i.tucky, 
then a component part of tne Coininon- 
wcalih of Virginia. l>i DeciniDer, 
'790, Lt;wis Robards applied to the 
Legislature of \ irgi.,ia, ciiarging bis 
wife wiih aduhery, and ibr that cause 
praying a divorce. Such proof was 
otlered a? induced the Legislature (o 
act upon the charge. A law was passed 
directing a judicial investigation, and 
providing that if it were found true, 
Lewis Robards should stand divorced 
Irom bis wife. The>.e proceedings were 
instituted and proseculerf 'o tinal trial. 
In September, 1703, twelve men. con- 
stituti'.g a jury, after bearing proof, 
declared upon their oaths, that Mrs. 
Robards was guilty of the aduhery 
charged upon her, and Lewis Robard* 
oi)tained the divorce pravcd for. The 
law of Virginj;;, ;ind the record o( the 
Kentucky court are inserted at the end 
of this review, so as to place the mat- 
ters be\oiid all dispute. 

Tills fact bcieg thus esiablisiied. the 
question fairly presents itself to a Chris- 
tian and moral people, ought a convict 
ed adulteress and her paramour hus- 
band to br- placed in the hisbest offices 
of this free and Christian lairl? It it 
u.-eless to answer with ranlins vitupe- 
ration. It is a [ilain and a fair ques- 
tion; one which every citizen has a 
light to ask: one wliich no citizen 
should be denounced for asking. Was 
I lie offence cemmiltcd? Can bipse of 
(ime eradicate its contamination? Par- 
ly prejudice, party passion, miy answer 
•IS the.y please. Those who value good 
character, and the institutions, at.d mo- 
ral sentiments that prescn'e it, can give 
but one answer. 

An answer has been rittr m].tcd. not 
!)y denying the f ict of l!ie adultery, but 
l>y ailmitting. and attempting to excn-c 
it. This vindication is the work of abb- 
men; it has been skillully adapted to 
the sympathies and the passions of the 
nvilliliide, totally disro;iardieg all mo- 
ral feeling and just intelligence. It 
>'iall be reviewed and exposed, not by 
ajipeals to passion and ^u^gar preju- 
dice, but b_> submitting such a com- 
mentary as is applica'ile to every ca^e 
similarly rircuinstanced. 

The Na-hville c'.rainiltcc commence 



DOMESTIC RELATIONS. 



their vindicalioa by noticing an allega- 
tioa against tin- cliastitv of Mrs. Jack- 
son, which none hati jjeforc objectcil 
against her, in any tangibl;! form. A 
numixM- oi \vitiioss('« arc i)rouglit for- 
ward, whotcstifv that her liiisband was 
jcalons of her before she was acquaint- 
ed with Gen. Jackson. Judge Overton 
is made to namellie iidividual of whom 
lier iiiisljand \va« jealous, and to slate 
tliat sonieofttie facts transpired u-.der 
his own observation. 1 am unalde to 
perceive how these facts can lie d<'cm- 
ed elucidatory of Mrs. Jackson's good 
conduct. Bill I rely nothing upon 
them as proof again-l her. I would l)e 
the last man to imjioach a lady's chas- 
tity, upon t!)e si:glc circumstance of 
ber l!usl)ai-dis jealousy; x'et every nuin 
must admit, that tliat jealousy is very 
odd evidence to bring forward in sup- 
port of her character. And when a 
second fit of jealously turns out to be 
well founded, it is singular enougli to 
allege t!)c lirst to excuse it. Such, 
however, is the case I)efore us. 

Jud^e Overton professes loije conu- 
zant ofnll the facts implicating the con- 
duct of Gen. Jackso'i aiid Mrs. Robards 
at their early acquaintance, and also, 
many of the f-icts that relate to Mrs. 
Kobards.ard Kcr husband. lie comes 



happily together." He conversed with 

Robards, who expressed regret for 
what had passed, acquitted his wife of 
all impropriety, and joined in re(jucst- 
ing the Judge's good oilic;.s to restore 
harmony, and this the Judge under- 
took, in consequence of Robard's assur- 
ance, that he would give up "all non- 
sensical notions about jealousy."' 

In Marcli, I7G9, Judge Overton wa« 
at Mrs. Donalson'5,mi»t!ier of Mrs. Rob- 
ards, iu Tennessee, where he and Gen. 
Fack.son about that time became board- 
ers. The Judge "frequ-.-ntly convei-s- 
ed with Mrs. Robards, on the subject of 
livi-.gliapi)ily willi her liusband,'" and 
she assured him of her disposition to 
do so. He communicated this to Rob- 
ards and his mother, aiid received their 
thaidcs, and Robards and his wife be- 
came re-uiited in 1788, or 1780. Ih 
the arrangement for re-nnion, Rohard»i 
agreed to reside in Tenttessee, and for 
a time at Mr^. Donalson's. "Not many 
montiis elapsed before Rob.irds became 
je;dous of Jackson," atid his upbraid- 
ings reached tlie ear of the Judge, who 
remonstrated with him, but to ro ef- 
fect. The Judge then informed Jack- 
son, who determined to remonstrate 
with Robards. This resulted in a 
quarrel, and Jaclcson left the house to 
brward as the apologist of them i)oth, | board elsewhere. ''Robards remained 



at this time; and it may he fairly as- 
sumed, that he makes the best case for 
them. His statement is also published 
at tb.c close oC this article, and I sliall 
make it the basis of my exposition. 

Judge Overton lived in the family of' tb.is, again Mrs. Donnlson told t!iQ 
Robards";; mother, with Robards i'.i:d ; Judge, "her daugitter intended to g» 



several montlis with his wife, and then 
went to Kcfitucky in company with 
Mr. Thomas Crutcher." There came a 
report, that " Ruhards intended lo corns 
and lake his wife lo Ke.nlncky."' After 



his wife, in 1787 and in 1788. They 
lived utihappily, in consequence of his' 
jealousy; and in t!;e fall or summer of 
1787, Mrs. Rohards's brother, at the 



don-n the River to Natchez, to some of 
their friends, m ordek to kecp out of 
THE WAY OF Robards, a? she said he 
had threatened to haunt her." Jack- 
request of Robards, v.ho had said, he sot) became greatly distressed, and 
did not intend to live witii her any i made the judgu his cor.lidcnt, commu- 
longer, removed her to her mother's in' nicating "his inlc.ntions of s^oin;^ h 
Tennessee, leaving Robards in Kcu-\^'\'rilchez u-itk Col. Slark, irithn-homjlrs. 
lucky. This removal "was said to be ; Eobarrh -u-as to descend the river, sm/ing 
a final separation at the instance of that she had no friend or relation to 
Robards." The whole family held I ^o n-ith her, and crsif I in preventing Mr. 



Mrs. Robards blameless 

After her departure, the elder Mrs. li 



I S!arJc, his fumit;i and Mrs. Robards from 
heinis massacred by the fiidians.'^ He 



Robards spoke to Judge Overton, who wotitaccordinglv.aiid returned in Mav>, 
was about to settle in Tennessee, to|1791. About orshortly after this time, 
interest himself, to "get her son Lewis, i information was received, that a di- 
nnd daughlcr-ia-l»w Rachel, to live ivorcc had been granted, upon thraj"- 



GENERA I. JACKSON*9 



plication of Robards, Jhc Jnd^e re- 1 ^irms this, in terms, and he st;ites clear- 
marks: '-THIS APPLICATION HAD BEE.N I V, that after Juckson left tnc housc of 
ANTiciCATKD BV ME." Jacksoi. fcturi 'U-^.Doud\>ou,'-Rohanisremninai sever- 
ed to Natchez ill the summer of 1791 ; | / nvniths vilh hu^ infe, mil ihtn zrenl to 
and in the fall, brought Mrs. Robard '. Kentwky. in ri,mp<tny vcith Mr. Ihonute 
back as his wife. The General neve' I Cmuher." Mr. Crutclier relates; the 
knew that there was no divorce until r jarting of Robards and his wife, when 
after the decree was proiouced, whei. | ihis journev was taken, and he also ra- 



the judge informed him of it, and ad- 
vised a second marriag'-, wiiich was 
solemnized in .laiiuary, 1793. 

Such is the palliator\ narration of a 
partial friend. It is an insult to com- 
mon sense, to sav, that it does - o 



lates their conduct alUr Jackson had 
le.iMrs. Donalson's. Hcsavs: 

"Captain Robards coitinued to live 
*.vith Air. Donalson without interrup- 
tion, as long as he remained ii' the 
counir>. I have seen ]Mr. and Mrs. 



place the seduction and adultery, in as Robards teg- ther at Nashville, and 



prominent and reprehensible a light, as 
it is placed by the legislative a'd judi- 
cial proceedings themselves. Jack on 
avows his attachment to a married 



liavc seen them together at Col. Hav's. 
where they have staid days and iiighis." 

Qithc pirtinghe ;-ays: 

" When I was ready to set out on mr 



woman, and his determination to travel journey, I w erst l)y Mrs. Donalson"s for 
with iieras her protector, in a journey i Captain Robards; o . mv arrival I (buud 
undertaken avowedly, to "/rfyj out of Mrs. Robards aid her mother busily 
the u'ny of her husbinul."' Tlie apology j engaged in packing up his clotl'.es and 
for this journey, is, that her hushai d : provisions. , I suppose it was about an 
threatened to take her to Keituckuj liour before Cap(. Robards was readr 
Jackson united himself as a husband to to start. When we were ready to 
this same married woman, upo- the 'start, Capt. obards, with much ap- 
mere report of a divorc e. a"d lived parent friendship, took his leave of 
with her lictween two ad three year-. ' Mrs. Do.alson. mu/ his zrife, walking to 
inopen adiilterv. For this, the plea oi ,//;<; o^o/f with him, in a very tcnrlcr and 
ignorance is advanced : as if the perpe- 1 "Jjectionatc mnnner took her l»iir of himJ" 
trator of an acknowledged enormity. I Thus the parties lived, and thus the? 
which nothing but the knowKdgc of j separated, after Jackson left .Airs, 
facts could palli ite. miglit be permit ' Donalson, whicli Overton savs wasscT- 
ted to jusiify himself upon the pica of eral months. Robard"s jealousy sub- 
ignorance. I sided, when the o'iject wa5 no longerin 
In the whole course of my life, I have ! association with his wife. Let us cn- 
ncver witnessed a defence, even of the quire what he was subsequently guilty 
lowest criminal by tlie mcai.est petti- i of, that should justily a wife m abjur- 
foger, of such a demoralizing and i ing his authority and society, 
profligate tcndenc}, as the o!:e here] On this journey he said to Afr. 
attempted. It is mainlaif.ed that ajCrulcher, that, "he be damned if he 
convicted and avowed adulteress si. all t would ever be seen in Cumberland 
be permitted to sa\, that, tiie ur'fourd- j again;" Mr. Cruicher replied ''the 
ed and unjust accusations of her hus- 1 /rfVnrfs ofjMrs. Rnbnrfis irouH not like, 
band were the occasions of her crime.', mul pcrhnpsiroultl not coxsrxt for her to 
and constitute her apology. Assuming I go back to ICenluckif to tii-e.'" '■'He siiirl, ht 
an innocence, negatived by every part i ■/»>/ not can- ii-hot they liked or disliked, 
•fthe transaction, as the very grout'd of I he shon'.l do -rluit hr thought proper.'' 
the defence, making strong and almost ' ]\Iest me';.l 'ielieve,act prettvmucli 
irresistible presumptions of <£uill, ar: I nnon this principle. Bui few certainly 
excuse for its undisguised consumma-l -Icemit i.cct-ssary to consult "'■the likes 
tjon.'" >r thrdisb'kes"' of their wives* friends, a*: 
Thcaftertion of Robards forhis wife, to their pl;ice of residence. And surely 
and his anxiety to enjov her eompan>, no man, who values our instiiuiion«_. 
in peace, is evident from all tlie sla;^^- ' i d the social intercourse founded upon 
Oirnts furnifihcd. Judge Overlou at- Ihcm, can coutcad that a jealous tens- 



l>OMESTTC RET,ATIO?r<l. 



pci 111 a iuiM)a..d, ami an un-villingness 
to reside wiiere iic may prcler,can jus- 
tify a wile ill placing hci-^eW " bajoiifl 
his m/r/i," in tlic society of a person to- 
wards whom he lias once expressed a 
feeling ol' jealousy. Yet these are the 
only reasons adduced in vindication of 
the conduct of Airs. Robards. 

Mr. Crutcher tells us, "it was re- 
ported, however, that he ihiaitnicd to 
inmc and liike his tvifc t" Kcnlucky^ anil 
((impel her to live there. She, as well as 
all her friends, was inucli opposed to 
this, and in order to plaee herself beyond 
his re.aeh, as I understood at the time, 
determined to descend the river in 
company witii Col. Stark's fiimily, and 
under his protection to Natchez." 

AVe have the same information from 
Overton. Both concur in stating tiiat 
Mrs. Robards made her journey to 
Natchez, to avoid her husband, and in 
disregard of the duty which required 
her to accompany him to Kentucky 



([uite so much. J uilgo M i\air} speaks 
of " irrrproachabtc eluiraeter^' and Geii. 
Jackson's incnpucityio do certain ihii.gs. 
but still, lie stops short of the lact, (liat 
(he '••distinct piiblic opinion''' was Ibrmcd 
aiid expressed in their favor. 

This could not possibly be the case. 
Robards applied (or the divorce. The 
Legislature of Virginia would not pass 
a law-, upon such a subject, without 
some evidence of its propriety. V'» ere 
the facts such a- to ju>tifv Mrs. Rob- 
ards and Gen. Jack>on, Robards never 
could have thought of a divorce. — 
Judge Overton has inadvertently fur- 
nished pretty good proof of this. He 
says, he had himself nnticipated that 
Robards would apply lor a divorce. 
AVhatever he may say now, it is very 
clear he did not then anticipate such 
an application in behalf of Robards, 
without a supposition that he had ome 
cause for it. The idea would be ab- 
surd. Robards had confessed the in- 



There is no essential difference in the I justice of his first suspicions, and he 
case, whether she left her husband's | had become reconciled to his wife, af- 
own house, or that of her mother, ; ter his second htofjealousy,had parted 
where he left her in kindness, and in j from her in tendeniess,and wished her 
tjontcmplatioii of meeting her again in j to come and reside with him in Ken- 
the same spirit. The facts of the case, i tucky. These were the events of the 
as exhibited by Overton, in connexion I stmimerofl790.as the committee would 
with Crutcher, when divested of the ' have ushelieve. No impi-opriety t'.ad 



strong opinions which the gentlemen 
themselves give, present a case of very 
gross misconduct in both parlies; and 
such' as the record evidence would na- 
turally lead us to exjiect. 

Among the curious anomalies which 



then, it is prelended, taken place on 
the part of Mrs. Robards. She had 
not then, as the witnesses say, descend- 
ed the river with Jackson; yet Judge 
Overton " anticipated" that Robards 
would apply for a divorce! Nay, he 



this vindication presents, it is not the evidetitly intimates his '• AXTicirATiON ' 
least sinsjular. that its authors boldly I that the application would be success- 



assume and asseit, what their own wit- 
nesses and authentic records prove to 
be impossible. They say: 

" At the time when Mr. Robards se- 
parated from his wife, applied for a di- 
vorce, obtained il. and Gen. Jackson 
married her, when all the facts were 
fresh and distinct, public opinion was 
formed, and the contemporaneous judg- 
ment of the society in which those per- 
so'!S resided, came to a clear and de- 
wsive result in their favor." 

Of the twelve persons whose state- 
ments accomoany tiie vindication, two 
onlv, Mrs. Smith and Mrs. Bowcn, ven- 
ture to make this assertion. Even 
Judge Ovcrtoa is ciu-eful not to say 



ful; and (iiis is done for the purpose of 
explaining why the fact of the divorce 
was taken upon trust. Though not 
much in point for this purpose, it is a 
strong inlimalion of what were the real 
fads. The Judge knew that Robards 
had just ground to apply for a divorce; 
hence, he '■ anticipated" both the ap- 
plication and success. 

Gen. Breckenridge is also brought 
out to contradict the record, and to 
prove that the passage of the law was 
predicated upon no proof against Mrs. 
Robards, Fie is absurd erough to <ay : 

'• I was a young man at the time, a: d 
the deep imnression made on my mird 
was the uevcJtv aad ijnportaiice of the 



10 



t-EAEKAL JACKSON'S 



case, combined with the interest which 
1 felt in behall'of the female concerned, 
remain with great distinctness. 

•• Mf. Robards was represented to 



tive and judicial investigation, result- 
ing in a conviction of adultery; it i? 
useless, I say, to assert, in such a case, 
tiiat the contemporaneous judgment of 



be a man of vile, wild habits and harsh society was in their favor, and thai 



temper, and his wife lovely and blame 
less in her disposition and deportment, 
and so cruelly treated by her husband, 
as to make a separation necessary to 
her happiness. It was under impres- 
sions produced by a state of facts like 
the-e, that I voted for a judicial en- 
quiry on the subject, which 1 have un- 
derstood eventuated in a divorce."' 

Before we can credit this statement, 
we must believe that the Legislature 
o(' Virginia received an application 
from a man of vile habits and hai-sh 
temper, accusing a lovely and blame 



there "did not exist an injurious sus- 
picion as to their previous conduct." 
The assertion is a hbel upon all socie- 
ty, where female chastity is valued, or 
connubial fidelity regarded; as well as 
an idle contradiction of the record evi- 
dence in the cause. 

It is alleged as an apology, that "thir- 
ty-seven years of domestic peace and 
useful virtue, have given a sanction, 
which must operate upon every candid 
and generous mind with irresistible 
power."' Tiiis is a persuasive and 
plausible appeal, it addresses itself to 



le*s wfre,whom he had cruelly treated, j our kindest sympathies, and were it n 
of .Thiltery, and pra>ing to be divorced' case for the indulgence of sympathy, 
from her on that account; that with a would be almost incontrovertible, jn 



full knowledge of his vileness and her 
worth and innocence, and with a strong 
conviction that separation was neces- 
sary to her inippiness, they enacted a 



most cases of female aberration, there 
are very many extenuating circum- 
stances, by which sjTnpathy in one sex. 
and both sympathy and gallantry in 



law autliorizing a judicial encjuiry, the other, would he almost persuaded 
whether she iiad or had not committed i to forgive the ofl'ender. It is because 
adultery!! This law, enacted because of this, that a stern, uncompromising 



a separation was necessary to her hap 
piness, did not allow a sejiaration un- 
less siie was judicially found guilt\ of 



judgment of censure is universale past. 
The unfortunate is resolved to have 
fallen never to rise again, imless all 



adultery!!! and of this the framer* of memorvof her fall can be obliterated, 
tlie law believed her iimocenf. When j So great are the temptations, so nu- 
a man of sense uttei-s such absurdities merous and so seducing (he approaches 
as tiiese, we know he does not speak to the commission of the otfence in 
the truth. His assertions arc in direct question, notliing short of utter and ii- 
contradiction to our common sense. ] remediable disgrace is sufficient to 
They prove his readiness to stultif\ ' hold it in proper check. Can fort) 
him-iclf to support Gen. Jackson, and j years of exemplary virtue restore the 
thev prove nothing further. I wretched Kl«ie D.Whipple to the sta- 

ll is useless to insist that .in a caseation she has lost in societv? Would 
where a single man has avowed his af-|not we be startled at the bare sugges- 
fection for another man's wife, (for tiie ' tiori, that forty years hence she might 
admission to Judge Overton "that he j he placed as the wife of our President, 
was the most Jinhufpi/ of men. in luu iiig at the head of the females of our coun- 
been iiinnrcnllij and unintenlionallv the \ trv? There is no record proof of her 
cause of the loss of peace and ha])piness . adulterv, and no evidence to charge 
ol !\Irs. Rol)ards. whom he l)elieved to her with further crime, but the asscr- 
he a fine woman,'" amounts to neither tions of a most abandoned villain. The 
more or less,) and who accompanies cases are not analogous, but the prinri- 
that wife in a long jonrnev to "keep pie is the same: and however painful 
out ol her husband's way," and " place it mav be felt, the more recent one is a 
herseit beyond his reacii ;'' and where decisive illustration of the unsoundnes-* 
the «;i/i'(/;;n/ swain and ihe^'fiurrromnn" of the apologv in question. 
\'\\v in union as man and wife,and their That oblivion had not cast her shade 
co!u!u. t i> made the subject of legisla- unon the oflence of Mrs. Jackson, i- 



DOMESTIC RELATIONS, 



11 



most notorious; nor has it, in the can- 
vass for tlic Presidency, been raked up 
from a comparative forgetfuhiess, to 
be used for the purpose oi prejudicing 
lier husband. From the period of (he 
transactions thcinselves,tlic sul)ject lias 
never ceased to circulate, and supply 
a theme of conversation, wherever 
Gen. Jackson was known. Of this, the 
vindication itself gives one decisive 
item of proof, in the letter from A. Fos- 
ter, to Calkb Atuater, written in re- 
ply to enquiries with respect to it, in 
1824. Had public opinion, at the 
time, been as is now represented, the 
fact itself would have furnished no ali- 
ment for tittle-tattle, and might have 
been forgotten. 

In (he view here presented of the 
case, upon the facts s(a(cd by the vin- 
dicating committee themselves, no in- 
telligent mhid is permitted to doubt, 
that Mrs. Jackson was unfaitliful to her 
marriage vow with Robards. No man 
of the world can believe that she would 
have been guilt}' of tiie great indiscre- 
tion of flying beyond the reach of her 
husband, with a man charged to be 
her paramour, were she innoccntof the 
charge. Her conduct, his cond ict in 
the (light, in the alleged marriage, in 
the illegal union, in the subsequent le- 
gal marriage, furnish presumptions of 
guilt, which admit of no explanation 
consistent with correctness and duty. 
It would be as rational to give credit 
to asseverations of innocence, had they 
been found at midnight, undressed, in 
the same bed. In tliat case there 
"would be proof of a single indiscretion, 
wliilst in the real case there is a suc- 
cession of corroborative facts, which 
could not, in any probability, take 
place, were the parties innocent. 

It has been urged, (hat the effect of 
Ihe record is invalidated by tiie fact, 
tjiat the proceedings were ex park. — 
But with what propriety can General 
Jackson, or any one of his advocates 
advance this argument? The transcript 
docs not show when the judicial pro- 
ceedings were first instituted. But 
Judge Overton places the first union 
of Gen. Jackson and Blrs. Robards, in 
fhc summer of 1791. AV'hen they as- 
sumed the open relation of husband 
and wife, it was an illegal and criminal 



act. it is asserted, (hat (hey supposed 
it to be legal. They were upon their 
own assumptions, gready mistiken. — 
How was it pracdcable to eflcct such 
a state of tilings, as to make it lawful 
for them to continue in the relation of 
husband and wife? The answer ad- 
mits of no dispute. It could be in no 
way effected, bu( by penni((ing Robards 
to obtain a divorce. It is no where pre- 
tended that Mrs. Robards could apply 
for a divorce wi(h any hope of success. 
Robards c^ uld only obtain a divorce 
under the law, by proving the facts of 
desertion and adultery upon his wife. 
Gen. Jackson and Mrs. Robards, therc^ 
fore, voluntarily, and for the gratifi- 
cation of their own appetites, placed 
themselves in a 'situation to render it 
necessary that Mrs. Robards should 
be convicted of desertion and adul- 
tery, in respect to Robards. To this 
conviction they must submit, or sepa- 
rate, or continue to live in open defi- 
ance of law and decency. It is absurd 
to suppose, that, in such a predica- 
mcht, (hey could either of them desire 
that the application of Robards should 
be defeated. It is obvious to tlie mean- 
est understanding, that they could 
scarcely do otherwise than pander to 
their own disgrace, or remain quies- 
cent and hope for it. 

We are told (he first marriage took 
place, in confidence that the Legis- 
lature of Virginia had granted a di- 
vorce upon the application of Robards. 
He could not apply upon an allega- 
tion of his own misconduct. He must 
have charged some derilcctionof duty, 
some crime upon his wife, as the foun- 
dation of granting to him a divorce. 
He must have adduced some proof in 
support of his charge. The parties 
both knew this; and they married in 
1791,if indeed, they did ilirn marry at 
all, of which there is no proof, with a 
full Icnowlcdge (hat the capacity to do 
so, arose from a legislative conviction of 
crime against Mrs, Robards, and none 
other than adultery could be supposed. 
Those, then, who believe that an 
adulteress, who has become, after n 
time, the legal wife of her panimotir, 
is not a suitable person to be placed at 
(he head of the female society of the 
United State?, cannot with proprietr 



m GEKER.iL JACKSOX'S 



vote forGpnernlJackson. Those wHoj in the >umnftr of 1789, we hear of ne 
are of opinion that all enquiry, as to, difticultios between Robard< and lii* 
the charatter of a President's wife, is] wife, until the fall of 1790, when his 
improp'T. and arc therefore indilVcrent 1 det'-rmination to remove bis wife to 
what her character may he; a'ld those ' Kentucky was made known. Thai 
w!io conceive that a fallen female mav ' new troubles arose ; thex ^'IIu whole af- 
be restored by subsequent good con-\ fair gave Gen. Jackson grcalniuasiiicss;'' 
duct, may conscientiously ecive General ' then he informed J udge Overton »• hs 
Jackson their support. But to ground nas the most unhappij of men. in having 
themselve-i upon an affected belief, that ihnoccnily aiul unintentionally heen the cause 
the allegation of unihanitv is not true, of the loss of the peace and liajipines-i of 
is to defy the lights of truth, and ioMrs. Rjbards,iahomhebeHevid to be afim- 
close the understanding against con- i ^"'""°''-" 

viction. " I This disclosure is utterly irreconcile- 

The state of facts, as the exposition' able with the whole case set up by the. 
I haye made shows tliem to have ex N.ishville committee, of which Judge 
isted, vitally affects General Jackson's Overton is the main eifective witness, 
pretensio'is to (he Presidenrv, in manv It is an additional in>lance, to the ihou- 
views. ttiat relate principal'lv to him- sands that liave occurred, ! ow very 
self. Thev atfecl him as a "man. as a difficult it is to give a gloss to matter* 
husband, as a patriot; in each charac- of fact, ditTerent from that which they 
tcr evidencing his unfitness for the sta- naturally iniporU How, in the fall of 
Xion to which he aspires. I ! 790, was General Jackson •• iniwceiitltf 

T-iey alfect him as a man. His ac- and uninientionallt/ the cause f th- loss of 
quaintance with Mrs Robards com- '^« /'^ace anrf A/i^./.uieiif/Vrj. A'oftarrfs.?'' 
menred in March. 1739. He was then ' t'l'ik •' "''1 P»"-^<^ J'"^>^^ Overton, 
a veritable stripling to cast the eves ^"^ tl'P Nashville Committee to boot, 
of affection on anotlier man's wife, <o make a satisfactory explanation up- 
and in less than two years secure her on the facts they have adduced. .^ 
to himself. A gallant, gay Lothario. The jealousy of Robards in HSD, 
according to iMis. Smith, who assures they sa\ wa-^ unfounded. At that time, 
lis, that "his chamcUr and .'/t/n'//>ig" then, Mrs. Robards liad conceived no 
[twenty-two years old, and a fow 'alfeclion for Gen. Jack=on. It could 
months in the countrv:!] ''•added Vt not be the corroding canker of unhal- 
his en^agins: and sprii;hlhj manners, sere (owed attachment that destroyed her 
enou^rh 10 income the mind of poor Rob pp;,^,,, ^nd happiness, of whicli attach- 
arh:' TI.ev certainly did inflame the ,„^„,^ q^,„^ Jack'on was the innocent 
Blind of Mrs. Robards, and a percep- „!,je(t. Robards had become rccon- 
tion of this would very naturally in- ri|,.d to his wife, :mkI there is no pro- 
flame that of her husband. i ,,,„(,(. tbat he bad either deserted her, 
We learn from Judge Overton, the or was in the habit of upbraiding her, 
Pandarus of the play, that after Gen. upon account of Jackson. AVhy,then, 
Jackson and Mrs. Robards became ac- was she unhappy, and Jack>on the 
quainted, "not many months elapsed, cause of that unhappiness? Was it a 
beforeRobardsbecame jealous of Jack- 'continuance of the unl'oundcd jealousy 
S0;i," but '•vllhoi'l ihchasi frroiind." — of Jackson tbat indiirtd Robards to 
T:iis unfounded jealoiisv broke out in wish llie removal of his «ilt-? Tlws 
reproaches against Mrs. R«bards, and does not appear; if it did. upon what 
violent altercation with Jackson, who. common principle of action would it 
in consequence, cha: ged his residence ^ make Jackson *'//w viofi unhappij of 
to keep out of the way of giving of nis;i?" or wherefore should it cause wAe 
fe ce. After this. Robards rcnrMnvd loss nflhr peace and hoppinrss of J\!rs. Rob- 
sevf^nil months with his wife, and part- »irrfs/" She.ronscious of innocence.and 
cd from her in apparent contid<'n<e and devoted to the performance of conjugal 
ki i<l ii'ss. in (lie month of June, 1790. duties, had no cause fora total "los* of 
l"'r ni ihe time o| the altercation with p<'ace." in the fad that her husband 
Jiirk^on, which must hyvr taken plarc' wished to remove her from the occ^ 



DO>rESTIC RELATIOXS. 



13 



sionnl society nf a man against whom I wife, while a icsidcnt in tho bosom of 
he had cntei taiijcd suspicions. On the | lier family, and indulging that attach- 



coi'trarv, such removal was pui-suing 
the plain path of prudence and of dutv, 
and was exactly that, which should 
have given confidence aiid comfort to 
the mild of an ellcctionate wife. Jack- 
soi> having felt no altachment himself. 
coTiscious that the lady felt none, and 
douhly conscious no act of his had 
given cause for the jealousy ofRobards, 
could have no reason to feel unhappy, 
or indulge regret. If there was no in- 
tercourse between Mrs. Robards and 
himself, but that of ffoinmon politeness, 
he could have no k'lOwledtje of her 



meiit so as to secure a reciprocation 
from its object. We tind him accom- 
panying her in a llight, (o get beyond 
her husband's reach, finally giving oc- 
casion for a divorce, upon the broad 
ground of the w ife's adultery, and af- 
terwards making her the partner of 
his life, and probably mother of hia 
! children. Were an occurrence like this 
now to take place, no matter what waa 
the conduct of the husband, how >hoiild 
we estimate the youtliful hero of such 
an adventure? 

Let us exclude Gen. Jackson's case 



" /oM of pence mid hrippinrss^' much less j from our recollection, until we reflect 
weie it possible for him to know, that I upon the proper answer to the inquiry 



he was the occasion of it. After the 
ebullition of jealousy which had escap- 
ed Robards. every principle of pru- 
deoi e, of duty, oi' decent respect for 
themselves, ai^d for the society in which 
they moved, lorbade any intercourse 



lere made. 

To indulge an aiTection for a marri- 
ed woman, even in a man's own secret 
heart, is a great aberration from cor- 
rectness-, i< is permitting unhallowed 
passion to obtain the mastery over rea- 



but that of distant civility, between j son and duty. To approach a married 
Gen. Jackson and Mrs. Robards. Had woman with a declaration of affection, 
sucli been the feelings and tiie conduct is an indecent outrage. If she does 
of the parties, there could have been not so feel and receive it, she is already 
no " /os'f 0/ pence"' on one side; no "otos/ more than half a participator. The 



unhnppii of men'^ on the other, 

Tne avowal made, that Jackson was 
most unhappy, because he was inno- 
cently the cause of the "loss of the 
peace" of Mrs. Robards, inevitably as- 



outrage against society and the hus- 
band is not the less; and he who has 
the hardihood to make such an ap- 
proach, would at once be regarded as 
a youth prepared to sacrifice his own 



serts a stale of facts totally different ! duties, and the riglifs and happiness of 
from that which the vindication at- others, to the gratification of his own 
tempts to make out. is includes the appetites. Wiu'ii the rein is so given 



admission, that Mrs. Robards was at- 
tached to Jackson, that he reciprocated 
this attachment; that this mutual at- 
tachment bad been mutually disclosed, 
.md had deeply allccted the peace and 
liappiness of both. In such .circum- 



to indulgence, that it runs the whole 
race, and ends in divorce and marriage, 
the most favorable estimate" we can 
make of the parties, is, that they are 
the mere creatures of passion, and t!)o 
victims of itsungovenied predominance. 



stances, it is possible that the grossest ' We should draw the conclusion, that he 
indulgence of this criminal attachment , whose career of appetite was not re- 
had not taken place? But when the , strained by a regard for his obli<;ations 



parties so far forget what is due to 
themselves, and to the world, as to be- 
come partners in a journey avowx'dly 



to society, nor by a dread of reproach, 
nor by an apprehension of vindictive, 
or retributive justice, could never be 



to place the wife '•'bfi/nnd the nacir of a safe depository of power over others, 
her husband, it is an insult to our com- 1 Such would he the natural inference 
moM sense, to talk of their virtue, or to j in the case slated, and 111 Gen. Jackj- 
tell us that the man is incapable of se- son's case, his whole life shows, that 
during his neighbors wife. jtiie deduction would be a correct one. 

Here then ^^•e find Gen. Jackson, in! Thus does this transaction vitally affect 
the first stages of his manhood, conceiv- ' Gen. Jackson's pretensions to the Presi- 
.ing an pUnchment for his neighbor's 'dency. It does nol stand an isolated 



M 



GENERAX JACKSON'S 



date. And more especially, were he a 
true patriot, who esteemed the honor» 
the fame, and the interest of hi^ roan- 
try as deserving all consideration, he 
would feel tliat hi^ matrimonial rclaliou 
ought to exclude him from the office oC 
President. 

Since this affair was brought before 
the public, we have had a goodly por- 



act of self-willed gratification, regard- 
less of duty and of right, but it stands 
the first in a series of similar acts, ex- 
tending over his whole lil'e, and assimi- 
lated in principle, though not always 
in degree, with much of his conduct. 

It touches him loo, in the relation of 
husband. 

Notwithstanding the criminality at- 
tending their courtship and marriage. ,. r ■ ,, , ,• i - • ^ 
.1 ., /nil .k . I lion ot ?irk V and mawkish sentiment, 
the evidence is hill and clear that. ;is L. ,,,,,•,, , . ,i /^ i 

Ml 1 „ »i,„i.,i,-- , „„j.,^f !,„„ irom >lr. W al>li, and rom.Nlr. Coleman, 
rs. Jackson, the lady s conduct hasL. ■-, ,r/- i . n i. 

». I 1 "• III Irom Uuli (.ireen, and Amos rlolton, 

been exemplary and irreproachable, i . „ , ', , , • 

m, ■ •» ,• ,1 . • t ahoul trallantrv, and the respect due to 

There is no situation that imposes on i ,. , *= , •': , , ^ 

,. 1 1 i I J lemale cliaractcr, and the cowardice 

a man higher and more responsible du- ,, , ,' ■ j i .• 

.- it ji 1 ,• rk 1 1. ' and baseness of drajiging a ladv be ore 
ties, than the relation of husband to a ., 1 1- • ,. ^^ ,■*' , . ■ 

, ,1 r 11 r the public, in matters o electio;iecrine 

woman once known to have fallen from ' ,,,, ... , ° 

the virtue of chastity. If he were the , ;:«"^'^'""- ^ '"-•*« /hings sound very 
... ■(■ I f 11 1 linely, and would always aijplv when 

original occasion ol her lall, and con- ^ -, n j ,- • ",■ 

°, r ti ^i ■ . •. lemale crime called (or investigation 

izant of all the circumstances, unites ■ n - .u . 

land exposure, ;is well as in the pre^eilt 

But what would constitute fe- 



his character with liers, lie owes her! 



the most scnipiilous delicacy of deport- 
ment, as well as the tendcrcst atTec- 
tiohs. She is a bruised and broken 
flower, wlucli be alone can proper- 
ly appreciate and cherish. To raise 
her to respectability, to obliterate the 
remembrance of her offences, to recon- 
cile her to herself, to restore her peace 
of mind, should be the great effort of his 



male excellence, if no diffeicnce were 
made between her who subjected all 
heractions to the restraints and regula- 
tions of propriety, aiid her who gave, 
a loose, to her feeliig.s, inclinations, and 
passions, regardless of the decorum 
which alone renders the sex estimable. 

I have already noticed the imperi- 



life, to which his whole conduct should ous nccessitvfor impo-ing severe pen- 
be directed. Unoiitrusive retirement allies, upon certain (emale aberration*, 
from the world, and respectful defer- 1 If she who has offended in this particu- 
ence, for those with whom he associated, I lar so rankly. that her offence has he- 
would be the plain course of a man j come matter of Legislative and Judicial 
who felt as he ought to feel, in such a( record, may a«pire to high places, and 
predicament. He should do iiolbing.| may claim to silence all censure, and all 
say nothing, place iiimsclf in no position i eiuiuirv. who does not see the danger- 
which would bring his wife before the i ous consequences thatmay be produced 
public. To act otherwise, is to be in society? Wiiat virtuous woman, 
as regardless of her feelings, as he what upright man can call for such a 
had formerly been of the feelings of relaxation of public morals? AV hat fa- 
others, and to expose her, in the way- t her, who descants earnestly upon tin- 
ward indulijence of his own temper, to, duly of throwing a mantle over the do- 
tbe rimruks and sarcasms of those mestic relations of Gen. Tackson, shall 
whom he encounter-. It is no cvi-'bc at lilierty to reproach a fallen 
dence of a good, or of a great man, to at- daughter! In such case, what daugh- 
tempt by a high hand to force a susjiect- 1 ter may not shelter her frailties under 
cd wife into society, or to imagine thatisurh an illustrious example? No true 
the tongues of men are to be paralized . patriot would seek distinction, when to 
by terror, AVere Gen. .Jackson pos- obtain it, would be to inlVict a stab 
sessed of the enlarged, the subdued,, upon the morals, and u])on the female 
and ttie corrected intelligence, essenti-; morals too, of his country. The maxim 
al to the propi'r discharge of the Presi- of Caesar was a correct one. The wife 
dential fiinclions, allc'Ction for his wife, of a distinguished public man, should 
and tenderness liir her feelings, would! not only be pure but unsuspected. It 
hare decided him never to be a candi- her character be stained with suspicio*,^. 



DOMESTIC RELATIONS. 



1& 



■it affects all around her, the whole 
••ommmiity of which slio is the head. 

Gen. Jackson cannot be insensible 
to the true state of his own case. He 
cannot be deceived by the glossing's of 
his vindicators; though possibly enough 
lie may be mistaken as to public opinion. 
But were ho a lofty patriot, such as he 
is rcpre>ienled to be. his love of country 
would compel him to decline being a 
candidate for the Presidency. He 
would never consent that the wife of his 
"bosom, should be exposed to the ribald 
talints, and dark surmises of the profli- 
gate or to the cold civility, or just re- 
mark of tlie wise and good. He would 
never consent that his name should be 
associated with sneers at his country, 
or with suggestions of evil and danger- 



of the country, like a stab into its own 
vitals, has been invaded and cruelly 
outraged. That some of the members of 
the present administratiun of the general 
goverjiment. are accountable for the slan- 
der and persecution of General Jackson 
and his zinfe, is reluctantly, though solemn- 
lij asserted. A'o moral distinction can be 
draun betzneen the act of hiring a man to 
commit a crime, and that of re-uardirig him 
after he has committed it; and it is noto- 
rious, thai the prostituted 7niscreants, wha 
invent and circulate these slanders, are tho 
continued objects of ministerial favor, par 
tronagc and pay. Hired witli the mo- 
ney of the very people wiiose willing^ 
gratitude and just. admiration, are the 
real causes of this defamation and ran- 
cour, this foul injustice not only ag- 
gravates the demerit of its procurers, 
but should endear to his country the 



ous examples to her daughters. The 

truth of what I have asserted, must be hero w ho sustains it." 

felt by every candid man. It presents 

an obstacle to the election of Gen. Jack- 

•son, which can only be surmounted by 

the head-long devotion of party. 

The denunciations which have been 
uttered against those who consider 
Gen. Jackson's domestic relations a 

propersubjectofinvcstigation.havenot , ..-i -. i . , ,. ,- , 

been confined to the wdters of news- iP"'>l'shed with rejpect to Mrs. Jackson, 



I make no remark upon the principles 
avowed, or the language employed ii» 
this extract; God help us, wlien such 
morals and sucii taste prevail in our 
Legislative assemblies! But it is an 
actof duty to repel the insinuation, that 
Mr. Clay is accountable for any thing 



paper essays, or to the declaimers in 
booths and taverns; nor have these de- 



fer it would be atTectation not to under- 
stand the allusion to some of the mem- 

ations'bern'Tev^ied only- atThos^e \'f'^ of the cabinet, as being aimed at 

iiim. 1 he following extractor a letter 
from Mr. Clay, dated Washington, 
December 23, 1826, and copy of a let- 
ter from myself to Major Eaton, will 
show how this matter stands. 



nuncia 

-who were concerned in perpetrating 
ihe alleged otFence. The Legislature 
of Tennessee have made them the mat- 
ter of a solemn legislative resolve, and 
have included '• some of the membei-s 
of the present administration'' in their 
charges. The following is their lan- 



" But the retreats of private life are 
nolongersacred. This beloved citi/x'ii, 
this genuine republican, venerable for 
liis age, illustrious for iiis services, and 
>till more illustrious for his inflexible 
patriotism, has seen, not only his con- 
duct distorted by slander, and his glory | which I had collected, for the purpose 
tarnished by calumny, but the partner of an attack upon Mrs. Jackson, which 



'• I had a curious call the day before 
yesterday from Major Eaton. He came 
at the instance of Gen. Jiickson to in- 
form me that the General had receiv- 
ed a letter from some person in Ken- 
tucky, (whose name was not given) 
communicating to him, that you had, 
during your visit to Kentucky, last 
summer, obtained f|j|xn mc, papers 



of his bt)som traduced ;ind expo'^ed for 
tbe sport of the idle", and malice of 
the infamous. That couch which has 
so ollen been forsaken, that others 
miglit sleep in safety and peace; that 



you were preparing; and to enquire if 
I had furnished any such pajiers. As 
(here was ii(;t a particle of truth in the 
communication which had been made 
to the General, I of cour>c, contradict- 



brcast that hits so often braved danger, edit, adding what is perfectly true, 
that others might not even feel its j that I had never seen the papers rela- 
alarmsi wliich felt a stain on the honor ting to. the transaction referred to--- 



ia 



ilLSERAV JACKSOX'S 



nor did I know that you had. on your'' What use 1 shall make of these docu 
ab.ive mentioned visit, procured any ments, and the (acts connected wit)i 
sucli papers. I have now, i.o recollec- 'them, must depend upon future events 



tion tlial the case of Mrs. Jatk^on form 
f (I any topic of coiivcr.-aiion between 
us, when you were at Lexington."' 

^'■Cincinnati, Jan. 3'/, 1827. 



I meditate no attack upon Mrs. Jackson; 
I do i.ol view the character of tlie Gen- 
eral ii. a hf^iit so favorable as you. and 
ma'iy others do, and I propose to use 
this afl'air in no otiier manner, than to 
Sir, — " I am advised information has j elucidate my estimate of that character, 
been communicated to Gen. Jackson,! 1 wish to^luin iio'propcr re-ponsibilitv, 
tiiat Mr. Clay had furiii>lied me with land should I make any j)ublicat!Qi , it 
certain documents, in relation to Mr'-. ; will be accompanied with my ijame. 
Jackson, upon wliich I am preparing; '*This letter is addre-sed to you in a 
an attack on her. 1 deem it an act of spirit of frankness, to prevent any mis- 
justice to say to you, that this i,. forma- ,coiiceplion of my intention, and any 
tion is whollv incorrect. I never re- 1 mistake as to the channels through 



ceived fiom Mr. Clay any paper or 
document upon that subject; it was 
never but once a subject ofconvcrsa- 
tioii between us. 

" According to my present recollec- 
tion, from my eilrlie^l knowledge of 



which I derived my information. 
Respcclfullv, vours. &:c. 

C. HAMMOND. 
J. H. Eaton, Esq." 

These papers show conclusively 
Geii. Jackson's character, 1 had heard j that Mi-. Clay i.-in no respect "account- 
exceptions taken to the manner in al)le" for the investigations that have 
which his connubial relation was com- taken place, through my agency, afd 
menced. I bad heard vaiious stories j they warrant the inference, that he 
with respect to it. AtColunilmsinthe has in noway interfered to aid, or 
Bummcr of 1C24. 1 enquired of .Mr. i countenance the course pursued, his 
Clay, what was the true state of facts, ju^l that he should be exonerated from 
He stated, that he knew nothing but by i an imputation so wholly unfounded iiv 
report. The relation he gave was pal- i fact. 

liatory; and he expressed his opinion | Gen. Jackson's application to Mr. 
that the subject ought not to be ! Clay, was cerainly a '• ci/i-/oi(5"'onc. — 
brought before the public. I mention- ^\ liilst Gen. Jackson made his domes- 
ed this conversation to Col. Ahiln-w lie heartli. and ^ocialcircle. the theatre 
Mack of this city, on our return from Ibrutterig various imputations against 
Columbus, who is now and was theij, the character of Mr. Clay, what just 
a warm supporter of Gen. Jackson for j cause of olTcnce could he taken, liad 
ihi' I'residency, and he expressed him- ; Mr. Clay furni>hed papers bearing up- 
self entirely satislied with the conduction the General himself, through his 
of.^Ir. Clav. I wife or other relation? Suppose Mr. 

"It has been for some time nn opin- Clay had collected co))ies of the diller- 
ion, that the matter should be investi- ent papers in existence, touching tiir 
gated. And 1 set on foot an enquiry divorce of Mrs. Rohards, and had put 



to obtain the informal ion, that would 
enable me to (le< ide. for niy~elf at least, 
how far the public were interested in 
it. Fnim .Mr. Wlward Day, a travel- 
ling collector for merchants in LJalii- 
more, I obtained such reference as cn- 
abh'd me to find the application of Roh- 
ards for a divorce, addressed to the 
Leei^lature of Virginia, i^i 1700: the 
Lot;i^lati\e acl that was passed by that 
)ody Decemlier ^Oth, of the sam;- 
•ear«« and thi> judi'ial iiroceedi'i-.'s 
bunded upon it, it) Mercer county, Ky. 



these papers in my hands, what ritrhf 
had Gen. Jackson toqueslion him al)0ui 
it? I can conci'ive of none. General 
Jackson had put an end to all rclalioaf 
ofaniilv wilb.Mr. Cla\,byhis Swar- 
loui letter and oiher slanders. As an 
avowed antagonist, Gen. Jackson could 
have no just preten'-ion (o prescribe to 
Mr. Chiv, the weajions he -hould um-. 
or thr m.iiuier in which he should em- 
plo> tliiin. It is tlierefore matter of 
"liirinut" speiiilaliori what could be 
the object of the call, and upon wln-l 



/ 



DOMESTIC RELATIONS. 



1*^ 



ground the General assumed the right | 
to make it. The most obvious conclu-| 
sion is, that it was made with the in-! 
tention of opera iiig as an engine of in- 1 
timidalioii. As much as to say, the 
standing of my wile shall not be im- ; 
pujpied by any man I hold my equal, ' 
but at the risk of direct responsibility. 
If a more apposite explanation he given, 
I shall be glad to hear it. I 

Tliose who have perused this article, 
are now apprised of the ground on 
wliic!i 1 have deemed this investigation 
a proper and a necessary one. Thcyi 
arc possessqd of what 1 think, a just 
view of the case. It is for all who have 
preteiisiotis to intelligence and candor, 
to say, whether the subject is not one, 
which it is the right and the duty of a 
free and moral people to investigate? 
and whether the facts are such, as to 
justify the charge of slander and calum- 
ny against all. who hav(> dared to speak 
plai-'lv, the clear coiniclions ot' tlieir 
judi;ments upon it! lam prepared to 
abide the sentence of just and reflect- 
ing men; of men, who do not judge of 
fit' ess and propriety, m reference to 
a paricnlar case, but who make the) 
broad principles of general right the 
fou dation of their judgments. The 
censure, or the ai)plausc of those who 
accommodate their oi)inions to tiiecir-j 
cumstances that surround them is of! 
but little consideration. The one in-] 
flicts no pain, the other gives very par- [ 
Hal satisfaction. I 

C. HAMMOND, i 



APPENDIX 
An act coDcernini the inarrinjp of Lewis Rob- 
anls (P:issimI the 2011. of December, I'9— .) 
Sect. 1 . Be it enacted by the General ^Issem- 
6Zy, That it shall, and may be lawful, for 
Lewis Robards to sue out of the office of the 
Supreme Court of the District of Kentucky, 
a wT't ajainst Rachel Rohards, which writ 
shall be Iramed by the Clerl<, and expre^^ the 
nature of ths ca-e, and shall be published for 
eii;ht weeks Bucces'ively, in the Kentucky 
Gazette; whereupon the plaintifT may (ile his 
declaration in the same cause, ami the de- 
fendant Diay appear and plead to issue, in 
which case, or if she iloes not appear within 
two nonths after such publication, it shall be 
set for trial by the clerk on some day in the suc- 
ceedins court, but may for cood cause shewn 
to tbc Court, be continued until the succeeding 
term. 

Sect. 2. Commissions to take depo.°itions 
and siibnoenis to summon witnesses, shall issue 
»s in ntlirr ra^c^: 



lished in the Kcntuck/ Gazette, shail be suffi- 
cient. 

.Skct. 4. A jury shall hi> suminoned, who 
shall oe s»iirn well and truly to inquire into 
the allegations contained in the declaration, 
or to try the issue joined as the case may be, 
and shall finl a verdict accorilinp to the usual 
mode; and if the jury, in case of issue joined, 
shall find IVir the plaintitf, or in case of inquiry 
into the truth ol the allegations contain> d in 
the declaration, shall find in substance, that tlie 
defendant hatk deserted tite jHaiiitiff, and that the 
hath lirtd in adultery leith annllie.r man since 
sitcli desertion, thi- -aid verdict shall be recorded, 
and, Thekevpon, the marriage between the 
said Lewis Robajds, and Rachel, shall be total- 
ly dissoliid. — Sec Henninj;'s Utaturs al laige, 
vol. 12,;xj»e i'2~. 

The following is a true extract from the r(i- 
cord anil proceeding in the Court of Quarter 
Ses-ion*, for the county of Mercer, wlunin 
Lewis Rohards is plaiulili", and Rachel Rohards 
is defendant. 

Kentuckv sct. 

Lewis Rohards complains of Rachel Rob- 

ards in custody, &c. of a plea of adultery, for 

this, ti' wit : That whereas, the said Rachel 

ItobariN, on the day of in thi year 

17 wa' in due form, according to the law, 

joined in the holy bands of inatriiuony, with 
the said Lewis R ibards; nevertheless the said 
Rachel in violation of her most solemn promise, 
did, on the 1st day of July, in the year of our 
Loril one thousand seven hundred aud ninety, 
elope iVnm her said hu-band Lewis, and live in 
adultery with another man, and still continues 
with the same adulterer: Therefore the said 
Lewis, prays that the said marriage between 
the said Rachel and Lewis may be dissolved, 
according to an act of .Assembly, in that case 
made and proviiled. 

J. BROWN, for Plaintiff. 
At a Court of Quarter Session--, held for 
Mercer count\, at the Court House in Harrnds- 
burgh, on the JTth day of September, 1793, 
this day came the plaintiff by his attornej , and 
j thereupon came also, a jury, to wit: James 
j Bradsbery, Thomas Smith, Gabriel Slaughter, 
John Lightfoot, Samuel Work, Harrison Davis, 
John Ray, Obeiliah Wright, John Miles, John 
1 Me-.ins, Joseph Thomas, and Benjamin Sanless, 
! who being elected, tried, and sworn, well and 
trul) to inquire into the allegation in the ilain- 
tilf's declaration, specified upon oath, do say, 
that the defendant, Rachel Robards, hath de- 
serted the plaintiff, Lewis Robirds, and hath, 
and doth, still live in adultery- with another 
man. It is therefore considered by the Court, 
that the marriage between the plaintiff and 
' the defendant be dissolved. 
j Mercer sct 

I do certify, that the above and foregoing, is 
t a true extract from the record in my office. — 
! Given under inv hand, as Clerk of the Court 
aforesaid, this, bth day of A. -u-t, ims. 

TIIO.VLAS ALLEN. 

[Note. This transcript of the re- 
cord was made out for Mr. Edward 
Day, in 1825, at his own request, a:id 
without anv suggestion from me. It 
was in 182G, that J first convt^rsofl wiifh 
him about itv 
(? 



18 



GE.VER.Vt J.VCKSOVS 



HanD< finished my stiidiee in the winter of 
'80 — 9, it wa' (It-teriuinfil to fix my resilience 
m the touDtry ni>K- callirl West Teufmssce. — 
Previously u> my departorc from .Mrs. R<ib- 
ards's, the old lady cari>e«lly entreated nie to 
■1M> my exertions to net her son Lewis, and 
diiightcr-in-law Rachel, to live happily to- 
gether. 



Intimations have been thrown out,' <■'<•<"'■ ''aoghter of the family, at that time, ex 
not only that the pfocccding* were (M ' >re='^ the m«=t favorable sentiment; of her. 
parlr, hut that the directions of the law 
were (-oi ("oMowed, either hy liie mode 
of proceed!. ig, or in respect to the 
court where the proceedin'j;'^ were had. 
Oti this suhject, it is onlv ncccssarv to 
remark, that wc are bound to pre- 
sume, the . o'lrt took care to see that it "^^''^ ^fPp'at"'" for » considerable time, had 
1 1 . . I ,. 1 .L » .1 1 occasioned li.r treat unea'inefs. as she apicar- 

had jari-dictioi), .ind that the law un- ed to be much attached to Ltr d:,u?htcr-in.la«-, 
der wnich it acted, was complied with. '"'J *he to her. Capt Lewi^ Rohards ap:cnr- 
Itnaay be further remarked, that if this ''' to'x'u"J'»^'i'v,a>>'l the old lady told me he 
•j . . f • 1 1 r 'P-retted what had taken place, and wisi e<! to 

record aoe* not furnish evidence of a berecomiledtohiswife. H< fure I would a-ree 
le^al divorce, then the Ge-ieral and''" concern in the matter, I ddrrniim-d toa^- 

M.-*. Robardsliave lived in adulterv all '■'''■,''l'''f:''"'' •^"bards' disposiiion from him«.-ic. 
., . , . r, ji • • ,• I an . took an occasion to converse «ith him oil 

th.ir luer; (or t.ieu is no pretcnre M.e subject, when he assured me of lis re,rct 
th.ii -he wa'' ever, in aay other mode, l''''''"cctin: « hat imd pased; that ti.- was con- 
divorced from Lewis Robards.] I ''^^Z"^, ]''\. *"'"'.=.'";" "ere unfounded, that he 



.May 8lh, 182T. 
Dear Sir. — In llie lull of 178T, I became 
a hoarder in the family of Mrs. Ro'bards, tht- 
inothi r of L>W!S RibarcU, id Mercer con iitj, 
Kj Cai>t. Robard'* and '.is wile, then liv d 
with old .Mrs. Koburds. I had nut l.ved there 



wi=hed to live with hi? .life, and requested that 
1 waitd use my excrtioiuto resiorre haruio:iv. — 
I told him I Would Uiidertak,- it, providril he 
«on!d thrc w .-i e al, n.inscn^ical notions about 
jnatou^y, for whirh I was cu. >i .ced there was 
no irround. and treat his wife kindit, a« other 
men. He assured me itsfiouki be «<>; and it is 
impression now, that I received a messaiio 



many weeks, before I understood, that Capt 1 1^*"" "''' ■^'f'- '^"•'Hnl--, to Mr--. Lewis Robards, 
Robards .ud hts wife hve^l very unhappily, on ' "■'"'^'' ' >'el'vcred to her on my arrival at hf^r 

account of his beini je.ilous of Mr. Short 'mother's, where I found h.-r some time in the 

M) brother, «ho wa? a boarder, infurrued me l"'""'^"! Kebriary or .March, iTilO The situ- 
th;!t ii.'eat uneasiness had eMsted iu the faiuih' •''^"■^" °^ the country induced me to solicit Mrs. 
for so e time before my arrival, but .is he hail ^'""'''-0" to boani me, good accommodation^ 
the onfidence and s;ood will of ail parlies a I"'."' '>"!"■'''"? '"''"S farely to be met with— tj< 



portion of his coiifidence fell to my «hare. par- 
lii-u. -rly the old laly'-^. than whom, perhaps, a 
more amiable woman uevt-r liveil. " The an- 



which she readily a-siiitc<l. 

-Mr. A. Jackson hai! studied the law st Sal.w- 
bury, .\. C, as I uiiderslood, and had arrived 



easl'.e.s between Capt. Robards and lady, con- ;'" this country, in company with .Iiid-,'e .Mr- 
.;_. .. ; .... .L .. -.. .Nairy, Bennet, Searct, -nd perhans D.i'vid .Al- 

lison, all lawyers, seekin- tl eir ibrlur.es, not 



tin-i-.; to i<crease, and wilh it, srcat ilisiress 
of tlie uiother. and considerably \vith the fauii 

ly ,-cnernlly — uuiil earl, in the year IT.l!!, is '""t'e than a month or two before mv anival. 
wf II :i= now recidlecte.l, I nnderstooil fn.m the . W'fther Mr. Jackson was at .Mrs. D'onelson's! 
old lady, and perhaps others of the family, that *''cn I first pot there in .March, 1T8P, 1 cannot 
her ;on Lewis had written to .Mrs Robards' I '"J I if he was, it must have been but a liule 
mother, (he widow Donelson, reipiestinir thai ' '''""• ^h' ''npfc'sion now is, thai he was not 
she wouM tiike her home, as he did nol intend ''*'"" there, and having just arrivci!, I inlro- 
to live with h>r any loncer. tertain it is. ihal .''"ceil hiju into the family as a boarder, alter 
Mrs. Roharils'- hp'ther, samui 1 Doi el-on, came i •>' cou.inir acquainlcil with'l.im. So i; was, we 
uptocarr\ her down to her mother's ami nn Icoinnicnreil boiirdini; there, about Ihe same 
iiniTession i«, in ihe fill or sunnmr of 17K0 I jtime. Jacks.in and myself, our frirn.is, and cli- 
was prc'cnt Hhen Mr. Samuel Donclson, ar- *^'''*> ^c. nccup) in:; one cabin, and the family- 
rived at Mrs llohards's, and when he start, d ' «"olher, a few steps from it. 
uvta\ wilh 1ms sister, and mv clear and distinct i ^°' " *'^'cf "')■ arrival, I ha.! frr.iucnt con- 
rceolleciionis, thatit was said to he a final -ep- virsations wiih .Mrs. Lewis Robards, on the 
arn'inn at the instmce .' Capt. Kobards—for |S'il>iect of iun? hapj ili with hor husband— 
1 well recollect the distress of old .Mr-. Rohanls, I -'"' w't'> niuch sensibility, assurejl me, th it no 
0-. account of her daeght. r in law, Rachel, I '""^"^ '"''"'"> "•'•J"''' 'wwimtiii.e on her part : 
g..in!; away, on account of .be scpiiraii.fi that I"'"' ' cnmmiiriicateil the result to Captain 
w-!s about to take place, toi;ether with Ihe cir-l •^"'"""'''"""' '"' "'olhcr, from b.ilh of whom 
ciimsianoe of ttic oM Unix's embracing her-af ' ' ffceived coiiirralnlations and thai.ks. Capl. 
feciionaiely. In unr(.si-rve<i convf rs.nians wilh 'tobards had previously purchased a pre-emp- 
nif. the old lady always blamed her son Lewis, '■'"' '" '''•' county, on the south side of Cum- 
unrl lot7k the part of her daughter in-law berland river, in 'Uavidsoii coiii.tv, about five 

Ifirin,' mv residence in Mr- Kohirds's fam- ! 11?''',.'/'°'" ""*"'" ^'r' '^■''^'•''"■. """' I'vd- 
iU, I doHorreeollcl to have heanl any of ,V ' ['„ '"• " '••'"f^""-"' f°' '!^ "-"•"on between 

.,.if. f .F.., ,i,»,,M ,„S.Z,. S," ,i.,;'; ■ , i "T.;,'', •"•""'," '•■"•-''•y m-^i «i...i 



DOMESTIC RELATIONS. 



19 



united to his wile «ouic tiincia the jcar KtiC, <ir 
1789. Both Mr. J;ir,k>oii and lUMrCll' boiirct 
odiiitue fiimil> o( .Mr>. Uonclson— lived in the 
ciibin room, ami slupt m the same bed. As 
youiii; men <■( the same pursiiu« iiiid |>rol'es?ioi), 
with but t'tw oUur«i in the coiiiitrv, with whii.n 
to associalf — besiiles -harinu', as wc fiei)iiemly 
did, common danaers, such an intimacy cii- 
sucil, a« mi^lit reasonably be ex|iectod. 

^ot irany months elapsed, bckire Robards 
became jealous of J acliSDii, which I felt conti- 
dent was withou' the least gruuiid. Somi' ol 
his irritating coiiver«ilion on thi-* snbjecl, 
with his wile, I lieard amidst the ti ars of her- 
self and her mother, who were greatly distress- 
ed. I urjjed to llobards th^ unmanlines." of his 
coniluct, after flie pains I liad taken to 
produce Uarnionj, as a mutual I'rici d oi both 
families, and my honest convietion that his 
suspicions were i:rouiiflless. Th'-si- remon>tr.tn- 
ces seemed not to have the desired effect; as 
much commotion and unhappinees prevailed in 
the family, as that of iSIr. Robards in Ken- 
tucky. At length, I communicated to Jackson 
tlie unpletisarit situation of living in a familv, 
where there was so much dis'urbance, and con- 
cluded by telling him, that we would endeav 
our to get some other place; to this he re:idily 
assented, but where to go, we did not know. 
Being conscious of his innocence, he 'aid he 
would talk to Uobards. What passed between 
Capt. Robards and Jackson, I do not know, as 
1 WIS absent some where, not now recollected, 
when the conversation and results took place, 
iiiit returned soon afterwards. The whole af- 
fair was related to me by Mrs. Donelsou, (the 
mother of Mrs. Roba|d«) and as well as 1 re- 
collect, hy Jackson hftsclf. The sub-tance of 
Uieir acccouiitAvas, that Mr. JacUson met Capt. 
Robarils near the orchard fence, and began 
mildly to remonstrate with him, respecting the 
injustice he had done his wife, as well as him- 
self. In a little time Rnbarils became violently 
angry and abusive, and threatened to whip 
Jackson, maile a show of djing so, &c. Jack- 
son told him he had not bodily strength to fight 
him, nor should he ilo so, feeling conscious 
of his innocence, and retired to his cabin, tel- 
ling him at the same time, that if lie in- 
sisted on fighting, he would give hini gentleman- 
ly s itifaction, or words to that effect. Upon 
Jackson's return out of the house, f'apt. Rob- 
ards said that ho did not care for him nor his 
wife — abusing them both — that he was deter- 
mined not to live with Mrs. RTibanls Jack- 
son retired from the family, and went to live at 
Mansker's station. Capt. Robards r< luained 
several months with his wite, and then wf nt to 
Kentucky in company with Mr. Thomas Cru- 
ther, and probably some other persons. 

Soon after this affair, .Mrs. Rob;irds went to 
live at Col. Hays', who marned her sister.—- 
After a short absence, I returned to live at Mrs. 
Donelsoii's, at her earnest entreaty, every fami- 
ly then desiring the association of male friends, 
»s a protection against the Indians. This af- 
fair took place, to the best of my recollection, 
in the sprint: of I'OO. Some time in the fall 
following, there was a rnport afloatj,thatCapt. 
Rohard- intended to come down and take liis 
wife to Kcntueky ; whence it oriijinated, I do 
not now recollect, but it created great uneasi- 
ness, both with Mrs. Douelson and her daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Robards; the latter of whom, was 
nioch distressed, as s\x wa» convuic"'! aftfr two 



'air trials, as she said, that it would be impos- 
sible to live with Capt llobards, and ol this 
opinion was I — with all tlei?< 1 conversed with, 
who were acijuaitited with the cij^cuuistaiices. 
Some time allerwaids, during the winter of 
1791, Mrs. Doiielsnii told me of hi r daughter's 
intention to go ilowii the river to .Natchez, to 
some of their friend^, in order to kiep out of 
the way jf Capt. Robards, as she said, be haxl 
thre (tened to " haunt her.'' Knowing as I aid, 
Capt. Robards's unhappy jcahus disposition, 
and his temper trowing out of it, I thought she 
was right to keep out of the way ; though do 
not believe that I so expressed myself to the 
Old lady, or any other person. 

The whole alfair gave Jackson great un- 
easiness, and this will not appear strange to 
one as well acquainted with his character as 
I was. Cotditiuallv together during our at- 
tendance on wilderness courts, whilst other 
young men were induliring in familiariti.'s with 
females of relaxed morals, no suspicion of this 
kind of the world's ctiisure, ever tell to 
Jackson''s share. In this — in his singularly 
delicate sense of honor, and in what I thought 
his chiv.alrous conceptions of the female sc\, it 
occurred to me, that he was distinguishable 
from every other person with whom I was ac- 
quainted. 

About the time of Mrs. Donelson's commu- 
nication to me, respecting her daughter's inten- 
tion of going to Natchez, 1 perceived in Jack- 
sn, symptoms of more than usual concern. 1 
determined to ascertain the cause, when he 
frankly told me, that he was the most unhappy 
of men, in havinj innocently and unintention- 
ally been the cause of the loss of |)eace and 
happiness of Mrs. Robards, whom he believed to 
he a fine woman ; in this [ concurred with him, 
but remonstrated on the propriety of his not 
giving himself any uneasiness about it. It was 
n it long after this before he communicated to 
me his intention of going to Natchez with Col. 
Star'^, with whom Mrs. Robards was to des- 
cend the river, sayinsr that she had no friend 
or relation that would go with her, orassistin 
preventing Stark and his family, an I Mrs. Rob- 
arils frombeinj massacred by the Indians, Ihen 
in a state of war, and cxceclingly troublesome. 
Accordingly, Jnrkson in company with Mrs. 
Robards and Col Stark, a vener.ihie and 
hijhiy esteemed old man, and friend of Mrs. 
Robards. went down the river from Nashville, 
to Natchez, some time in the winter or spring of 
1791. It was not however, without the urgent 
entreaties of Col. Stark, who wanted protection 
from the Indians, that Jackson consented to ac- 
company them, of which I ha<l heard before 
Jaeksrtn's conversation with me, already al- 
luded to. 

Previously to Jackson's starting, he com- 
mitted all his law business to me, at the same 
lime nssnsiniT me, that as soon as ho should see 
Col. Stark ami fan.ilv, and Mrs. Robarils situ- 
ated with their friends in the neighborhood of 
Natchez, he woulil return and resume his prac- 
tice. He descended the river; returned from 
Natchez to Nashville, and was at the superior 
court in the latter place, in May, 1791, attriid- 
dinj to his busines-s as a lawyer 'ind soHcitoi- 
(reu. for the Govt. About, or shortly aftei- 
this time, we were inforin^d lb t a divorce had 
been granted by the Legislature of Va. through 
Ithe intlomcj, nrinei<«tfy, of Capt Rdhards'' 



ao 



'GENERAL JACKSON AND THE 



«EN. JACKSON AND TIIEAMEHICAS 
SVSTKM. 



The promiiicMt supporters of Gen. 
Jackson in t!ic \vo?t. are awari-. that 
unless the peo|)lf ran be derieveii iiiio 
a belief that tiic H' ro i? fiicndlv lo ilic 



brotlier-iii-law, Maj. John Jouet, who was prob- 
abU ill the l^i-;^i-lature at that time 

This application had been antici'ated by 
inc. Thi- divorce Jvas uutientood by the peo- 
ple of this country, to have been era' tfil h_v 
the Leijislaturc of Va., in the >ri:i»er of I7PI) — 
1791 ; I was ill Keiitunkv in the siininierof 1791, 

rcmaiii'd at oM .Mr>. llobanU' mv former - 

place of residence, art of mv time, iiir.l never 'e^l'l'Dg niea>Ures ol t .e piVSCDt Ad- 
unilcrstood otherwi-e than that Capt. llobanJs" I ministration, and e-|)eciailv to that »VS- 
d.vorce wa, fi. al, uot.l H" ial'*;' Part of the ■ j,,^ ^,- y ^| j ,, ,,.^^ ," adopted 

year 1793. In tlie «u.n .crol 1 ,91, Gen, Jack- ; r . » • , . 

son went to Natchez, and I understood, mar-|Iorthe protection ol the o;reat inten sts 
ried Mrw Robiird*, then believed to be freed i of Agriculture and IMaimf.icturts, all 
from Cap. Kobards by the div.,rce ; in the | ,,q ^f eleclinir him lo the Pre>ideaCy 
fall of 1791, returned to Nusb.dlc, »ctlle'l "> ', , . i'^ . i ,- / 

the neiphhorhood of it; where fiiev hive live-lj must be abandoned; heiice, we h.id» 

ever since, bel.,ved and esteemed by all rli^-cs | thai hi* friends, a,S they are falsely 
About the month o. Occember, 1"9', alter ^ ,..,|ig |f,.,,j^ .^^ Senators, (who ex- 

Gen. J.ickson and iinscll had slur'cd to Joiii-s i , .u ■ i •.• i 

borough, in East fennessee, where we prac- P^ct lO promote their own amblllon by 



E 



tised law, I learnt for the first time, that Capt 
Robards had applied to Mercer court, in Ky., 
for a divorce, which had tiicn, recently been 
granted; and that the Lci;islatiire had not ab- 
solutely granted a divorce, but left it for the 
court to do. I need not express to you my fiit. 
irise, on learning that the act of the Vireinia 
Legislature, nad not divorced Capt. Robards. 
I informed Gen. Jackson of it, who wis equally 
surnrijed; anH ilurins our convetsation. I sug- 
gested the propriety of his proourinc: a license 
on his return home, and havin; the murriagf 
ceremony apain performed, so as to prevent al' 
future cavilling on the subject. 

To this supscslion, be replied, that he hm! 
long since been married, on the belief that a i!i- 
vorceliad bt-en obtained, which was the under- 
standinc of every person in the country; nor 
was It vvilhout difficulty he could be induced to 
believe otherwise. 

On o;ir return home, from Jonesborough, in 
January, 1791, lo Nashville, a licence was ob- 
tained, "and the marriage ceremony performed. 
The slowness and inaccuracy with which in- 
formation was received in West Tennessee, at 
that lime, will not be surprisiin:. n hen we con- 
sider its insulated and d in:;eroiis situation, sur- 
rounded on every side by a wilderness, and b\ 
hostile Indians,' and that there wis no mail 
citabluhcd, till about 1797, as well as I recol- 
lect. 

Since the year 1791, G.n. Jackson and ray- 
self, liavc never been much a aeart, except « hen 
be was in the ariiiy. 1 have been intimate in 
Ills family, and from the mutual and uninter- 
rupted happiness of the Gen. and Mr-. Jack- 
son, which I have at nil times witnessed ivilh 
iileasure, as w.ell as those delicate and polite 
atti-iitioiis which have ever been mntiiiilly re- 
ciprocated botweeo them, I have been loll- 
conlirmed in the opinion— that there never ex- 
isied any otimr than what was believed to be 
the most honorable and virtuous inlcrcoiirse l)e- 
tw€-eii them. Before their going to Xutcliez, I 
had daily opportunities of being conyinenl that 
there was none other; beiorc being married in 
the Natchez onimtry, alter it was iinderstooti 
that a divorce had been granted by the l.egi>- 
Uitiiro of Virginia, it is believed there was 
Done. 

JOHN OV KRTON. 
Thi' Hon. R. C. FosTKii, 

Cli!^nt<inof t/iticIcctCom-pxHice. 



his elevation) down to such tools as 
the editors of tlie Republican and Ad- 
vertiser, who are paid as their work 
proceed>: all labour inrcssaiitlv to niis- 
li-ad tlie people, aiid betray them into 
the hands of their enemies. 

In the free states, the citizens arc 
told that the H'-ro is a friend to roads 
and canals, ai.d to tlie American S\s- 
icm; and this is asserted with ^U(■!l. 
daring effrontery, that hundreds and 
perhaps llsousaiids of will nKaiiing 
people, unacijuaintfd with the black 
arts of unprincipled demagogues, give 
credit to the falseliood. 

Every art is practised, and every 
trick resorted toby profligate and des- 
perate hircli;ii;s;, I'or the pnipo«eof cor.- 
ceaJi! g the truth, and preventing the 
people from examining for tiiemselves. 
Noise, violence, and intolerance, art 
made to sup])ly the place of arguuienl; 
obJeclioMs are replied to. by a loud irv 
of'^IIiizza for J;ickson!" "the hero of 
Orleans ai;d of lyvo wars'.! the .second 
Washinglon!!!" I?ut these tricks will 
not deceive much longer they become 
stale; tlie people begin to inquire lor 
information, they ;tsk for proof — aiui 
lliey siiall have abundani [inHil that 
Gen. Jackson was broui^hi ('orw;ud, 
and is now supported chiellv by thosu 
st:ites, and those persons, who h;ive 
been, and now arc most distingui^iled 
among tlie enemies of internal improve- 
ments, and domestic manufactures. 

Gen. Jackson was fii-st nominated iu 
Tennessee, in which stale he re?ides; 
lie has an exlensive landed ctale t lere, 
and large numbers of s|;ixcs, who-e la- 
bour is priticipally employed in th*^- 



AMERICAV SYSTEM. 



»! 



culiivation of cotton. His long resi- 
dence lias allbiHlfd to llie cidzins of 
that state, an opiiortunity of k.iowing 
his seiiliments upon poliliial ((uestions 
of importance; it niiisl Im- presumed 
tiiey do know tlicm, and that his senti- 
ments and tiieirs are in unison; what 
then arc theiropinions in regard to 1^1- 
tcriial impro\ements and domestic 
manuliictures? The votes of tlicir re- 
presentatives in Congress afford a con- 
clusive answer to this (luesllon. 

On the bill of 1818, to protect do- 
mestic manufactures in the House of 
Representatives, the journals show, 
that six votes from Tennessee were 
against it. 

On a similar bill of 18-21. all seven 
votes of Tennessee were against it. 

On the tariff of last session, all the 
votes of Tenness e, except one absent, 
were against tlse bill. 

[n the Senate the votes upon the 
same bill stood thus: 



For. 


Jlgainst. 


Mnenl. 


7 Northern States, II 





3 


8 ^otittiern Stiites, 


n 


4 


4 Middle Slates 3 


4 


1 


5 Western States, 6 


4 





20 



20 



The bill was lost by the casting vote of 
.lohnC. Caliioun, Vice Presid>'nt, aiid 
thus the most important bill lor the 
Acrirultural interest of the Eastern, 
Western, and Middle Slates, that ever 
came belbre Coinrress, was rejected. 
It is remarkaijle thai not a single vote 
of ill;' T''nni'=3ee delegation, was given 
in lavor ofeiihcr of those three bills. 

It will i;ot be denied tiiat Gen. Jack- 
son Is the favorite candidate of the 
Southern States, and that he has been 
warmlv supported by Virginia, North 
and South Caroliiia, Georgia, Alabama, 
Mississippi, and his own state, the 
whole ol' whose Representatives voted 
against everv tariff bill, from the vear 
1818, to the" present time. Will it be 
believed, that the Southern politicans 
are ignorant of the opinions held bj the 
person whom tliev have selected as a 
candidate for the Presidency/* or that 
they would support him with a knowl- 
edge that he entertained opinions di 



their hostility to which, is so violent, 
that the) tlireaten to se'cede from the 
union, rather than submit to its opera- 
tiois. Can it be p()-sii)l<- tiial any man 
believes tlie Souliierr. [leopleare so ig- 
norant or so stupid? No man believes 
it who possesses common sense, and 
none but designing knaves, will even 
pretend to bcli<ve it. The Sou!!ierii 
politicians weJl nndersiai.d the opni- 
ionsofthe Hero upon (his subject, and 
publicly dc' lare tlieir preference of 
Gen. Jackson, to be only a choice of 
evils. They prefer him because he 
suits their purpose; he h opposed to the 
vinvs of the people of the free states, and 
is opposed to the 'Kiinerican Si/steui:'' 
they prefer him because he will pre- 
fer southern men, and southern mLiis- 
ures: thev prefer him because he is a 
slave holder, and identitied with tluni 
in every ihterest which distinguislies 
the slave from the free states of tnis 
union. 

The Southern supporters of General 
Jackson, so far as tlie tariff question is 
concerned, act consistently, for tiiey 
have always been hostile to that policy.. 
They believe that " our workshops 
should be in Europe." Tlie same opin- 
ion was formed and expic-cd at an 
early period, by her distinguislied citi- 
zen, Thomas Jefferson, but afterwards, 
was, by him, renounced as erroneous, 
and destructive to the best interests of 
our rounti'}. 

The Southern people arc not dc- 
cieved; they know tliat Gen. Jackson 
'is their friend, that unle,-s they can^ 
elevate him to the Presidency, all hopes 
of prostrating the American System 
must terminate. 

One of the Jackson Editors in Cin- 
cinnati, a few days since declared i'' a 
paroxysm of rage, "that the woUens 
[bill ot'last session] was conceived in vil~- 
luitvj^ and brought forth in hypocrisy^'' 
but the old gentleman is a foreigner, 
and in the same paper which contains 
the above extract, says, "that he heart- 
ily accords with tlie sentiment,"' -'that 
we have reason to distrust the patriot- 
ism of tliose, wlio in controversies vvitli 
other nations, t.ike any side but tiiat of 



rectly opposed to their own; and that their country." The old gentleman is 
too on a question which they consider sometimes indiscreet in blabbi: g too 
•SO important to thgm.^as tjigi tariff; 'niueli. but be "talccs side with his coua- 



23 



GE.\En.4.L JACKSOX, AND THE 



try." It is said ih;it liis intemperance ] 
has fret|ut:iiil) been censured .it the i 
Hermitage, under tlie impressioii tliat, 
he does more liarm liian good to the 
cause of tile Hero. | 

No man should be blamed for enter- 1 
taining good feelings towards the coun- 
try whicii gave liini birth; ad in the 
case before us, the old gectk-man ex- 
presses the^anu'0)iinioii oftlie woollens 
bill which is enterlained by hiscoun-j 
trymen both on tliis side of the water, 
and Great Britain. "Tliey take side 
with their coui-lry." \ 

A Riclinio.' d jiaper says: "the Lon- 1 
doh Times and Courier, the !cadi"g. 
lory papers, have espoused the cause 
ofGen. Jackson." They think him! 
most fit lor president, and they wir.li i 
him success. After the Revolution,! 
and until the war of 1 Gl 2, Great Brit- [ 
.lin endeavored to destroy this uriion, ; 
by delacliing the New Kiigl and Su'ites. | 
7"'hat game failed: the policy now is,, 
to sow discontent in the Southern 
States, and through their dislike to the 
taritr, either bring about a repeal of | 
that measure, whicli has given a vital ; 
stab to her inaruif icturing prosiieritv. ! 
or a dissolution ol the union! Hence | 
the ministerial journals advocate (Sen. | 
Jackson, and hence we see certain gen- 
tlemen here, wlio have always been 
herstcadfast advocates, in every dispute 
between iier and their own counlrvv^ec- 
onding her views also^i this occasion. 
English politiiians now liiink, that this 
union may be most eirectually assailed 
from the . ioutn. 

The supporters of Gen. Jackson m 
the South, are as decidi-dly hostile to 
internal im|)rovements, as they are lo| 
domestic manufactures; and to prove | 
thi>, we will again refer to-the journals 
of Congress. 

On a bill authoriz,ii\g a subscription 
of stock in the turnpike from Colum- 
bus to Sandusky, every serialorial vote 
from Virginia, Nortii and South Canv 
lina, Georgia and Tennessee, was ! 
against it, except i\lr. llaton who was ; 
absent. j 

On motion to strikeout an appro-] 
priation (in a bill from the House ol j 
Representatives) for surveys in aid ofj 
internal improvements, the same vo! 
was given as in tlie last case, includiii','' 



Mr. Eaton and Mr. Rowan, in favors 
of the motion. 

Oti engrossing a bill for the repair 
and proteciion oft: eCuriiberla:.d road, 
all the senators from tlie slates a..ove 
named, were agai; st the bill except 
Mr. Eaton: Mr. Rowan absent. 

But a proposition tlie object of v\-hich 
was to reduce the revenue,and thereby 
deprive the goven;meni of ti;e means 
necessary to make intereal impiove- 
ments,very readily meeis the suj>port 
of Southern g«M,iiemen. Thus on a 
proposition to reduce the duty on for- 
eign wii'.cs, cotiee, and tea, every sena-. 
t'T from the eig!>t Southern States, 
voted for ihe measure, except four « ho 
were absent. 

Enough has been shown, to prove 
that the friends of ihe Hero are not the 
friends of interral improveri'enis nor 
liomestic inanulactures; it has !>ecn 
shown tiiat his o" n slate is opposed to 
both. ai>d identilied as iieiswitli south- 
ern i lerests, being a slave hold' r and 
ciiltivatoi ol Southerri products, (he 
conclusion is irresistible that the Hero 
himself, is also an enemy. 

Were he ati open ei-.emv, tiiere 
would be notliingto fear — but l.e i.-an 
enemy in disguise. It is true, that in 
the South lie is known to be an enemy, 
but in the ^Vest his advocates sny he is 
n friend to the tarilf. A^d the Hero 
himselfcountenances his friends ii rall- 
ii'g him what tiiev please; hecare^ not 
a straw, so that t!ie\ make him Presi- 
dent; hence he pursues what he call? 
ajudicious course — taking care so to 
express his opinion as to admit a con- 
struction favorable to both sides. 

The Richmond Enquirer, a leading 
Jackson paper, says: "as to con- 
stitutional nuestions, we k!;ow I'rom a 
letter we saw many months since i(;»- 
dcr Gen. J.ickiion^f oirn fuind, never in- 
tended to be u-ed, tb.at he was astonish- 
ed and startled by the extravagant en- 
croachments supported in l\Ir. .Adams" 
first messatje." Here is a lurther evi- 
denci'ofGen. Jackson's political senti- 
ments, liul Ills Iriln jnis nrctr intended 
li/bcusedl For what purpose was it 
written? tlie Cincinnati Gazette gives 
the true answer. 

'•To let Mr. Ritiliie a;id the Rich- 
mond Junta know what he dare i>ot le; 



DOMESTIC sTsmr. 



23 



the VVostcr . j>ei.i)l ■ k uw, '..ar In- is up 
posrito inlernal Improvemrtil ami riomcslic 
iri'imtfaclnm:: Virgiiu-i i-'^ opposed to 
tlie taritr, but her support is essential 
to tlic eliclion of Gen. Jacksoii. Hi- 
writes private letters, ["'never into .dcd 
to be u-ed!""] to let the lea(l<rs at Rich 
niond kiiow, that he is startled at Mr. 
Adam's encroarlimeiUs upon tlie coo- 
stinitioi). This tieiiip; interpreted, 
tneans llipt he coincides in sentiment 
\vit;i Virginia, and that she may give 
him her voles witii saCeiy to her inter- 
est-. How many private letter^ "■ necfr 
intruded to be used" the General has 
written, we know not. One designed 
lor the puiilic we well remember. In 
that lie expressed no fear of Mr. Ad- 
am's adminisi ration or measures. — 
it was inteiidcd to he used! He 
knew it would be seen in the North 
and West, as well as in the Sou h, and 
was so'-jurlicioiis'''' as to l)e rlaimed by 
both parties. The Richmond folks 
■wanted something more explicit. In 
the above extract he gave it: and it is 
on this ground, we have no doubt. lie is 
sujipor cd by the ar'stocracy of that 
city v,i h so much fervor. But Ritchie 
will be called to an account for blab- 
bing — *■' the lellerwas never intended l!> be 
rscdr 

'•Cir'How long is it since General 
Jackson began to be ^'■ai-lonislied nnil 
alirmcd at encroachmrnis upon the Con- 
ftiltilion .' .'"' 

Again. At a meeting of General 
Jackson's friends,' on the 29th of August 
last, at Clairborne in Alabama, to take 
into loiisidcraiion the policy of protect- 
ing domesiic manufactures, by an in- 
crease of duty on foreign importations: 
a rcsoluti(.n was adopted, ■' that all du- 
ties, except such as may be necessary 
for revenue, or for the purpose of ad- 
vancing the interest of some of the 
United States, at the expense of the 
rest are impotilic and unjust, and that 
the taritTof 182j, particiilailv on the 
articles of hemp, cotton bagging, and 
cotton good>, was unjust, and unequ;il 
in its operations, and oppressive to the 
Southeni Atlantic States, and that the 
duties imposed by that law should be 
reduced."' 

AVhalwill our farming and manufac- 
T'lring friends in Mnrvland, Pcnnsrlva- 



la. iS'evv ,K rse}, New York, aiid Ihfi 
Western slates say to this? Will tlicy 
shut their eyes to evidence, and consent 
to be hoodwinked and iinjiosed upon by 
the partizans of Gen. Jackson, who 
laNely represit him to be a friend of 
Naiional I' dustry, and American man- 
ufichires? After the repeated proofs of 
liosliliiy to the tariff, shewn by the 
•supporters of the General in the South- 
ern States, can any one doubt as to the 
General's own sentiments upon this 
subject? No one can doubt that the 
General must support those who sup- 
port him — the southern cotton grow- 
ers. 

Gen. Jackson and his followers may 
play upon words, and prate as mucli 
as thcv please about "n judicious tarijf',''' 
but they dare not come out openly and 
avow in the Southern States, that the 
Hero is a friend to the protection of 
American Matiufactures. His strength 
lies in the Southern States, and were, 
his I'riends (here to use the same argu- 
ments in his favour by which they seek 
to make him popular here, his interest, 
would be destroyed in a moment — 
hence we find that in our section of the 
union, he is falsely said to be a friend 
to the tariff, while on the other he is 
known to be an enemy — and is publicly 
supported upon that ground. 

General Jackson has been fre(juently 
called upon for his opinions on this ques- 
tion; why does he not come boldly be- 
fore the public, and put the matter at 
rest ? "//e seeks no concealment." Let 
iiim then without equivocation, at 
or.ce answer the question. Is he friend- 
ly to the woollens hill rejected by the 
casting vole of the Vice Preside;.! la-it 
winter? The prosperitv of the agri- 
cultural and rnanufac'uring interest of 
the country hangs suspended npon thi.s 
question; hundreds and thousand of 
the American people are uiixiousl/ 
a^s-aiting its decision. 

The people will not be satisfied with 
such a reply as may be interpreted 
to mean one thing on the South, and 
another on the North of the Potomac. 
The American people ought to 
know what were the "^ extravagant en- 
croachments"' to which the General al- 
luded ill his letter 'under his own hand,' 
which was seen bv the editors ef thct 



:A 



P.VnTIEK— -POLITICAL STATISl'ICg. 



Ri'li.iiond E quirer — LiU u-hich u-oa I tiieii would have been suflicient cause 
never intrn'ted lo be used. Will the Gpiij for makiiig so much din a.d bustle; 
enil permit his am lition to tiiumpli but a.- no o'C is I'ool-hardv cuou-^h to 
over lis political iiitcgrity; and, by | say that society labours under anv of 
filivouding his opiriii,n> in obscurity, . these periluu- evil-, thc-re can be no 
Avoim himself into the hishest otHc<; in other conclusion drawn than that the 
tlic gift of a free, but unsuspecting pco- j party cxeilfinent of the present da> 
pie? It is to be -hoped that he will i springs from that eAon .sptriV, the powei 
rather attempt to imitate the example , of (7//6fro/ seitioiml pnjwlice. Down 
of the champion of the American Sxs-j with the Yankee.-! wasthe placard of 
tem, Hfnrv C'lav, who with that fnink- ' the New Yorkers, aid of course it fol- 
ness a:id tearless independe;.ce, which lows, up with the slave holders. Down 
peculiarly be land's to his character, with republic ani-in, and up with aris- 
gave the whole force of his geniu- and tocracyl Down with civil rule. a\\<\ 
talents, to the support of the tariff of , up wiih military dictation! Down 
1824, altliough he knew that by doii.'g' with the penurious Re|)ublican Gov- 
so, he should i^ive a death l»!ow to all erninei>t, and upon with a stroag and 
hopes of .-upport from the Southern ^ splendid one! — The opposition is con- 
States, to his claim for tiie Preside icy. j ieiuling for no imf«)rtant principle vio- 
Ilis sentiments were always under- lated: neither does the clamor pro- 
stood — he wrote no letters '•/i<-.erj/tyf;i6/-'ceed upon the old partv grounds, be- 
Gcl to be useiP'' — his opinions were inc.- cause the measures of the g<,veri>meat 
preyed every where alike — he. in Irnth are purely republican. It may lear- 
sought no conccidincn!. | lessly be demaiidid. wliat has the pre-- 

sent adminisiration done to forfeit the 

— 's^QP — ;coii|idei:ce of the countr\ ? Has it 

lacked zeal in the public service? Has 

PARTins. its measures been marked with any hos- 

It will no doubt be recorded in the tility to republican principles? Why is 
history of this couilry,' as one of the it not as wortiiy of support and co:!li- 
most extraordinary events of the pres- d<-:iceas any of the preceding admin- 
ent time, the unprecedented partv pro- istrations? Is tiie noisv, senseless cry 
cecdings against the ensuing govern- 1 to be raised, and the watchword given, 
ment of the United Slates. Such down with New England! — Savs John 



has been the dextrous perseverance 
with which '-trilles light as air'' have 
been magnified into matters of impor 



of Roanoke. — When we gel i/ou doten 
again, <rrV/ nnil t/ou to the counter like 
bnsr mnnrt/: and Gen. Jack-on is to be 



tanre, that considerate ]>eople have the instrument to nail tu! or bni/onet u> 
Ijeen amazed at the stir, strile, and c\- doirn. What think you, shall he not 
citement, wliich has been made to meet with some resistance ! — Bofl. Pat. 
spring up without any legitimate, or j BUNKER-HILL. 

even tangible cause. The members of ! 
the government have been i onslantly ! 
kept upon the defensive. The a«:saii-! 
ants availing themselves of every spe- ] 
cies of ambuscade, whether in ditch,! 



defile, bog, brarnl)le, bush, fence, tree. 



rOMTirAL STATISTICS. 

Wf have often heard the manner o\ 
Mr. Adams' election objected to, and 



or wall; now creeping upon all fours, nothing is more common than to, hear 
now upon hands and knees, now dodg-, hi« opponents declare, that he was not 



ing, now cringing, twisting, and turn- 
ing in every possible direction, like the 
wiley serpent, whose everv movement 
is guile atid deceit. Had there l)een 
any real grievance to complain of, 

such as embargoes, non-intercourse, what evidence have we that be was 
war, taxes, oppressinii.persecuiion,con- not the choice of (he people. The 
spiracles against lile and liberty, there,' election IxMngcast into die House df 



the choice of the people. As to the 
manner.it was such as is pointed out 
bv the constitution of the land, and we 
slwuld tlierefore, suppose it to be in 
tliat respect utiobjeclionable. But 



PaiJTTr \l. si ATISTU S.—TO <if.N. A\I)«V'\V JArKSON. 



S5 



R"prcscntalivc's, the members ol' tbnl ihwvired and ninety ihousandpnc hundred 
bofl^- rfpre>ci>ti!i2 their scvenil vtnt" \'ind elg/i/y too more freemen than those 
sovcrcisjMtieshacl (oart for the people, did who voted (or Gen. J.'.eksoii, and 



Nov.- lot >i? «ee how the accoiirit i.tar;d'^. 
and what portion of the frcenner.of th' 
nation Trcre represented hy the states 
which voted for Mr. Adam«.as well a-^ 
the otiier candidate: 



Accordiig to 



hree niiihon, two hundred sixty eight 
thousand, six hundred and filly four 
more tlian did those who supported 
Mr. Crawford; and it will he seen fur- 
ther, that they also represented ou'; 
th> last censu--, tlie frrr 7i-hilr populntion million one hundred k. tliirty three ihoii- 



of the United States (exclusive of tlie 
district of Columhia, which has no 
voice in the matter) amounted to seve' 
millions, nine hundred and eishteen 
thousand, three hundred and forty 
seven: and were thus distrihuted: in 



Vrrmont, 


. 


- 


- 


234.8-(b- 


.M.unc, 


- 


- 


- 


29:.\;-io 


Now lluinijshirc. 


- 


- 


2J3,-2.>J 


Ma«iacliiiselt5, 




- 


- 


510,419 


Rlio.lc l--!anJ, 


- 


. 


- 


79,113 


Connecticut, 


- 


- 


- 


2fiT,lKl 


New York, 


- 


- 


- 


l.;!3 2,744 


Neiv Jersey, 


. 


- 


- 


257,409 


Pennsylvania, 


- 


- 


- 


l,017,i)M 


Delaware, 


- 


- 


- 


35,282 


Jlarylaud, 


. 


- 


. 


260,J22 


\'irginia, 


- 


- 


- 


6jJ,n74 


North Carolina 


, 


- 


- 


4I!',2'"> 


-Diith Carolina 


, 


- 


- 


237,440 


Georgia, 




- 


. 


189^506 


Alabama, 




- 


- 


96,245 


Louisiana, 




- 


- 


73,?,J3 


Mississippi, 




- 


- 


42,175 


Tennessee, 




- 


- 


339,727 


Kentucky, 




- 


- 


434,e-!4 


Misbourij 




- 


- 


65.988 


InJiana, 




. 


- 


145.758 


Illinois, 




- 


- 


53.788 


Obio, 




- 


- 


57t>,572 


Of these, 


the states 


of 




New Hampshire, 




Maine, 




X'trinont, 






Mas;a< 


husefts. 


nhuile Island, 






Connecticut, 


New York, 






Maryland, 


Kentucky, 






Ohio, 




Louisiana, 






Illinois 




Missouri, 











sand two hundred and five more free- 
men than did tliosc who voted for 
Gen. Jackson and J\Ir. Crav/ford, to- 
gether. Surely no freeman can com- 
plain that thisconstitutionaldccisio;! led 
to the result. — Albany Adv. 



TOGEX. ANDREW JACKSON. 

Sir — It must be known to you t!ia! 
the last Presidential election was con- 
ducted upon principles altogether for- 
eign to the old party distinctions of 
Federalist and Republican. Whether 
it was right or v. rong to desert the old 
landmarks of party, it is now too late 
to enquire — it is suScient for us to 
know that such was the fact, and tlial 
the election proceeded entirely upon 
new grounds. I need not adduce 
proofs to substantiate this remark, for 
you well know tliat every candidate in 
t!ie field could number in the train of 
his supporters, prominent and influen- 
tial men in botii iiolitical sects. Some 
eflbrts were made to keep alive ancient 
feuds; but new interests -had arisen, 
and they were soon laid aside. 

Tiie new subject of party contest is 
equally well ui.dcistood. In brief 



embracing a free vhile. population of i '=i'-gi'='^<^ 't '^•'.v he called the -Do.mev 
-1,5-25,776, voted for Mr. Ad.*ms. 
The states of 



TIC System," and it is about this, so far 
as principle is concerned, that the Amer- 
Vennsylvania, »can people are now divided. The 

'iVnnessee, system embraces Internal improve- 

Missisiipi, ments, at the expense cf the National 

emS.racing a free uhite Dop*/o/w,i of ?°'"'=''''':"'="f'''''^ ^''« ^"'^^"'•"^'^™'^''t of 
-'.135,564, voted forGen. Jackson. DomesUc Manulactures,by proleclinij 



New Jersey, 
ijoutli Carolina, 
Iniliana, 
Alabama, 



The states of 

D' la ware, 
Vii'?inia, 



Xorlli Carolina, 
Georgia, 



duties. I allude to the protection of 
such articles only as we have the 
means of manufacturing at home, and 
to such duties, as will exclude foreign 
embracing a free vhiie pr/pxdnlion of competition. The present adminislra- 
1,257,122, voted for Mr. Crawford. jtioiiof ihc Government have indicated 
Tims it will be seen tliat on a final a decided preRrence for this course of 
ijuestion, tliose voting for 3lr. Adams in . policy, and so lar as w ithin their pow- 
f'ongress represented .'no m/YZ/OT, /Arecler have pnvsned it. A large portiss 



■26 XOGE.N. AM)RE« JA{K.SO.\. 



oftlie Union cmhracing :«11 the free ■ leave you and tlic <|uestion would then 
state?, Kentucky, and a part of Vir- stand upon it? incrit.*. Is k honorablt- 
jjiniii, U equally f:ivorable. The South for a man thus fituated to remain si- 
!- opposed, 'i'h'j people of that Sec- lent? Would you trust him — nay. 
lion liavc conceived a deailly hostility would }ou not spjirn him from youi 
to the system, and are niakinj; violent : presence? 

struggles to arre>t its progress and to | But it will be said by your friend> 
destroy the inlluence of those who sup- and perhaps repeated by yourself, that 
port it. 1 have thus plainlyl and con- Aour sentiments on the subject before 
cisely named the parties and slated the us are well known. I moan to be plain 
grounds of their variance. It remains ' with yon. and therefore 1 dtielarc' dis- 
wlih me now,-<^ir, as you arc a prom- tmetly and positivelv. that tiiey are no: 
inent man. to rel'er to i/mir printipl(!s known. Everv thinp you have said or 
and to tlie part which you liavc taken done, thoui^h a few of each party might 
ill the great subject in dispute. i know what you meant, has been so 

Vou will agree wilii me. that etpiivocal in relation to this matter, 
every man who aspires to a responsi- tiiat the great mass of the peo|>le unow 
l)!e office in tiie Goventnieiit is houird nothing of your real sentiments. Vou 
i:i honor to declare if de>ired, his senti- have played a double game, holding 
•uieiits on great political and national out one set of colors to the Boulhern 
<]uestioiis. The man who is silent or ' people, and another to the Xorth-east 
i-quivocal in party times, and will mean- ' and the AVcst. H.avc you not done so? 
Iv court contending parties to gain If not, why did you write the celebra- 
ihcir su(>port, is unfit to be trusted. — ; ted, but equivocal, letter to Dr. Cole- 
He should be discarded by both, and man of North Carolina? Tiic ques- 
tri'aled with scorn and contempt by all. ' tion was then di>tinctly put to you. 
An eneniv in the guise of friendship is Asa plain man, having notliing to coii- 
;lie most detestable wretch on earth. | real, why did you not answer distinctly, 
This is eiinallv true in politics, as in whether you were frie ml ly or inimical 
the adiiirs of social intercourse. AV'hat ' to the Domestic System? It is true 
then, sir, arc your seiifiments in re- 1 you said much about revenue — some- 
u'ard to the American System? Vou i thing of yoflr own modc'ty and patriol- 
area candidate for the Presidencv — it ism — spoke of a "JiKlicions tarijl-'' and 
is im[torlanl vour opinions should be ' there left the subject, just as much in 
known. You are sujtporied in the South, the dark as to a development of yoiii 
:.ind by a large body of jieople in the real sciitinient, as when you eon>- 
x)iher stated, upon principles diametri- ' menced il. Vou wrote a longchaptei 
< aliv opposed. In one section your are ' of (juibbles and evasions, zrhcn five hun- 
el-iimed as a 7'f((j//"and iii the other as 'rs/ lines, expressed >vith the ("nniknes^ 
an .'7n//-fariil' man. To which party 'and boldness of a grt'ai and good man. 
do you l>elong, and which do you in- would have set the mailer at rest, and 
tend to deceive? Hoth claim.you, and satisfied t!ie inuids ofyour counlruncn. 
while tlie contest iis raging, cnrrting 1 1 repeat, as a prominent man of the 
witl- it discord and conlji-ion.you look i United Slates — as a patriot haxing the 
cold on, by regardless of the peace of welfare of the nalion at hear!, you 
the country and cart-ful oidy of your oinxhl to have answered the queries of 
own ^aggrandizement. Sir, if you- Dr. Coleman in the most explicit and 
were Icnown to be lifflilc as some of une(|ui\0(al terms — in such a manner 
vour prominent Snulhern supporters that there could have been no misin- 
are. to the Domestic Sytem. you could terpretation of sentitnents or motives. 
iiol o')t:iin live thousand votes north- Out wni adroitiv poised your opinions 
west of ibe tl'iio. Kven Pennsylvania to ileceive both partie-. and leave each 
woiilil desert )on. and your prospects to claim vou. 

would be limited to the liounds of the Until vou wrote that letter, sir. 
Southern States. On the other hand, llioush not in fa .or of your election. I 
if you were known lo be decidedly i thought vou one of the most unwaver- 
//■:>»»'//7to the syslom. the South, would ing. intrepid republicans of the age. 



TO CEX. AXDUEW JACKSOV. 



ST 



A man who woiil'.i sacriliec any thing 
to the cause ol" twitli and the lio:iest| 
.md fearless expression of his senli- ; 
nients. It is said you do not seclc of- ■ 
flee nor decline it — that you are ahove ■ 
ail concealment of your opinions — you' 
are called a second Washiiiijlon, a Cin-; 
ciimatus, and the like. Does it com- i 
port with this liiijii character to evade | 
a direct question on a subject of| 
vital interest to liie country? If you, 
cared for nothini; i)ut tlie j^ood of the 
people, would vou have writi en more , 
than a column in a newspaper, in an- ■ 
■:wer to a plain (jui^siion which re- 
quired but a simple declaration of > our; 
sentiments? Such a declaration would J 
have saved your countrymen much | 
^peculation and angry debate; and J 
would have justified ihc fovourable 
(^pinion of vour intrepid candour and | 
frankness. 

To show that I have not misjudged 
you, I will now refer to the letter in 
question, and to some other matters 
connected with the subject. At t!ie 
time yotr wrote it. it was well under- 
stood, iioth bv yourself and the mem- 
bers of Conijress, what was the extent ; 
and meaning of the tariff. There i 
could be na misapprehension ; — 3'ojii | 
were a member of the Senate and well 
knew what was the construction I 
put upon the views of the tariff and anti- j 
tarilf men. The one party was friend- 
ly to protecting duties, and the other ; 
to such only as would increase the 
revenue — the one to the TarilVthen re- 
commended, and the other to what was 
called a '■'■jarliciovi tcirijf'.''' This last 
phrase was used by the opponanls of 
the S3stcm as a cloak to their (l<;signs. 
They covered themselves with it as 
with a mantle. You look the same 
disguise, and have thrown it off, and i)ut 
it on, as it best suited your purposes, 
from that day to this. 

You commence the letter by saying, 
•■ that my name has brcn hrovzl'l brfore 
ihf. notion b;i the PEOPLK. without anv 
AGEXcvop mink; for I wisli it not to be 
forgotten that / haxc never aoliriteil of- 
fice-, nor when called upon by the con- 
stituted authorities, have ever de- 
clined, when 1 conceived my services 
<-ould be beneficial to my country." 
Have vou the least idea. Sir, when the 



piirenzy of the present time has pa- 
away, that, tliis declaration will Im 
credited? Your name brought be- 
fore the nation by the people, \\\\\\- 
out any agency of yours!! Wiia; 
people? Was not the first serious 
mention of your name for the Presi- 
dency, made in Tcnnaxe^ in your own 
neighborhood, and by yqur own inti- 
mate and bosom friends? Were these 
the I'EOPi.E and the constituted authori- 
ties to which you refer? And was it 
without any agency of yours? Siircl) 
Sir, it cannot lie proved that you had anv 
agency in it; but when it is considered 
your friends and neighbors declared 
your fitness for the station, it will take 
strong proof to convince the world, ;hat 
it was not with your apppobation 
and consent. But you '• nv'sA it not /i 
he. furf^olti n tJiati/oti ^evv.b. soliciteo or- 
fice"!! Pray, Sir, what had this to 
do with the simple (juestion put to 3011 
by Dr. Coleman? Yon not solicit' of 
flee! The very language I have just 
quoted, is one of the strongest but most 
insinuating solicitalions for oHlce to be 
found u])oii record! What did C'lT-sar 
do when the crown was oflercd him. 
Would he have it? Nay, he put it by 
thrice, and the deluded mob fell a 
shouting and threw up their dirty 
caps. But why was it, 30U wished it 
not to be forgotten, that you did not 
solicit plficc? Sirange when a pl:uii 
question was asked you relative to 
other matters, that this subject should 
have struck your attention ! Did it not 
discover some anxiety, some hankering 
after oflice? but I pass to the sub- 
stance of the letter. 

You say '• I am in favor of a 'jurlici- 
oiLs' examinalion and revision of the 
Tarifl^ and so far as the present Bill 
embraces the design of fostering, pro- 
tecling and preserving within our- 
sel\"C5, the means of national defence 
and independence. parlicularl3' in a 
slate of v.ar. I won hi advocate and sup- 
port' it." What did" \ou iiu-an by a 
"/)W/f!OM.<''eX(iminauoii and revision of 
the Tariff? Here you will discover 
lhat30u used tb-c language I imputed 
to you. Did 3-0U not intend bv it !<> 
conciliate the South? The politicians 
from that quarter repeated ;ind reiter- 
ated tlie same expression; but after 



is 



To GUS. ANDREW JACIOOX. 



all rotccl n;;;iinst llie Bill. Cautious 
not to commit vour>clf, and wishing 
also lo coiciliatfc the other party, you 
concluded the sentence Uy a:-!*ertiiig'*so 
lar as the hill provided for national 
(I'fcitvc aivl iivlfywlciicr. pmiiaclarly in 
n sifitr of Tiar, ipit viul-l iitpiioil it." 
S':i-ii\in^lil thi* is a declaration in fa- 
vour of the system. It was w-ll ralcu- 
lafed to deceive the puMic. But what 
application had it? If analized ai.d 
(■oin[)arcd wttii the provisions of the 
Bill, it will l>c di.-icovered to have none 
at all. Even tho most inveterate ene- 
mies of the Tarift" in the Soutii, are in 
lavour of providing for our tuittonnl dr- 
frii'T. mid indrpciifk.ice. Rut the ques- 
tion returns; what arc tiic means of 
our " inlioiuil defence mid indepcndcivc ■*" 
A judicious Tariff sav you. U'liat is 
a judicious tariir? A^ainyou answer, 
such a Tariff as wril provide for the 
"national defence and indepcndenec, 
pai'iicn/arlif in a ft'dr of ?f«r/.'"' Tlius 
you reason In a ring, evading the point, 
thougli youse«n to meet it withdccis- 
ioti and fairnes?. 

I [)ass over your remarks in relation 
to the last war, and ron>^ to t!ie foJIow- 
ini; paragrajjh, wiiicii I tjuole entire, 
that you may not accuse me of dealing 
unjustly. 

" Hi-aven has filled our mountains 
nnd plains with niinemis, with Lead, 
Iron and Copper, and given us climate 
and so;! for the growing of hemp and 
wool. T.'iesc being the great materi- 
als of our ntliiml dnfi-iice, they ought 
toliave extended to them adequate and 
fair protection, that our manuf.ic- 
tories and labourers mav l)e placed on 
R f:iii- comprlitiim with lho?e of Curope, 
and that w-^ miv have within our coun- 
try a suppiv of those f-aJing and im- 
portant (irticl.'i so ESSENTIAL IV WAR. 

Beyond thi-, 1 look at the Tarilf, with 
a" eye to the proper di'>lril)Utioii of la- 
bour and rmeuitf, and with a view to 
the discharge of our lutliontil debt !'^ 

T'lis quottillon carries with it the tame 
doiMe aspect as tiie otIuT. You semi 
to Ur- fricndiv to tlie Tariil"; hut to 
what sort of a tariff no man can tell. 
Oni- moment you speak of '■'■w.'fjjualc 
and fiir prti'ertion, a proi^pv distribtilio • 
of /fih>nr\"' and the next of a Tariff, 
fnr raising n reccnur, and for the dis- 



charge of tiie .ynli'Mwl debt /'' Did you 
I not know. Sir. that. in these two posi- 
I tions.lie all the subjects iudisputc? The 
j Southern people contend for n-enuf, 
I the other slates for protection — the 
I former for light duties, aid the latter 
I for sucli as will divide labour, and ex- 
clude foreign compeiiiion. You blow 
' hot android at the same breatli; — vou 
■■ talk a little on one side and then on the 
i other; and linallv wind up, by advo- 
j eating such a Tariff, as will discharge 
! the national debt? If any man in Lis 
j senses can tell what you mean, other 
; tlian to mistify vour own senUmenls, he 
: must he gifted with an uncommoa 
[ »hare of discernment. To .-ay that a 
; TarilT shall be laid lo increase the 
j revenue and pay off the National debt, 
[ ;ind at t!ie same lime, to divide labour 
and protect American minufactures. 
is tantamount to saying nothing on the 
' subject. The qucsiion, as ai)ove re- 
! marked, again returns, what sort of 
•a Tariff would this be? 
I After saying that you are not GDC of 
l.tliose. who " believe that a National 
j debt is a Natioi-.al bles.-ing,'' whit h. bv 
' the way, is not believed by any sensilde 
i man, \ou agtiin remark: "Tiiis Ta- 
riff- l.MEAN A JUDICIOUS ONE! 
possesses more fancilul, than real dan- 
ger." Vou ti>en proceed to give some 
excel. cnt reasons, « by American indus- 
try should be protected from foreign 
competition, and conclude thus: — >• It 
j is tl>ereibre mv opinion, that a careful 
InwAjntlicimis Tarilfis much wanted, to 
{pay our .Xationnl debt, and afford us tlie 
j means of defence, &;c. And last, though 
■ not least, to give a proper distribution 
to our lal)our!" Here we have tlie 
same <tory over again. A judicioi'.s 
] Tiirijj'lo increase the rrvrwic, to pay the 
' jValional debt, and to protect .'Imcriran 
Inhjur.'.' One or two redeclions. and 
I have done with your letter. Have 
you never read it, and i<lushed at your 
I own duplicity? Y'ou talk of a jiidi- 
Iciou^ Tariff. Do you not know that we 
are all in favour of such a Tarjff, and 
' that the only diflicullv is, to ascertain 
I what it shall be? Do you not know- 
that a larifffor (he increa.se of revenue 
»:id the pavmeiit of the National debt. 
is the peculiar policy of the south, and 
that those whoiidvocafc it arc opposed 



TO fJKV. AXDUEW JACRSOX. 



ais> 



to protcctins; duties? Are ton so weak 
H man, as not to perreive tliat the ade- 
rjiiato protcrtion of maiiurarturcs of 
lro;i. Wool. Hemp aud Cotton, eaaiiot 
rortiilmie l>\ way of rcrmta' to the pav- 
nieiitorthei*Iatio!:al debt? If tlicse arti- 
cles are '■^ adequnlcly protected^'' one in 
siicii a iifaiK'.eras to eriiplo\ pcrnianciil- 
Iv the capital av.d labour ol'oiir cmiiitrv, 
(ar"3 ;.o other ;.roteelioii is worth seek- 
ing.) we sliall manufacture thorn at 
hoiii': — their importation will cease, and 
the revciiuc arising iVom them, as a con- 
sequence, must also cease! Yet you 
talk about protection, the paunent of the 
Natioiul D<l)t, ai;d a i increased reve- 
nue upon tiicse same articles, at or.e &, 
the sam- time! Tiie man who knows 
no better. I j)ily;on the contrary, if he 
is w. 11 i;. formed, but tampers with the 
truth, I despise him. ~ 

That you may not sir, think mv con- 
struction Oi'yiHir letter a peculiar one, 
1 will now refer to that \>hicii was put 
opon it i)y d:trerei't parties at the time. 
1 am only sorry, that I have not in pos- 
session, all the i)romi!ient journals that 
noticed it. Two or three I have, and 
their remarks shall be repeated. I will 
assert, however, tliat the conflicting 
constructioi'S given to the letter, were 
general, and tliat you have not seen lit, 
so far as I have been informed, openly 
to correct them. 

The North Carolina Star, printed 
at Raleigh, a leading paper in the 
South, and the one in wliich the letter 
was published early in June, Ifl-Jl, as- 
serts positively, tlial it furnishes ii:du-! 
bit'able proof of your o^yjW//o« to the 
taritr. It declares that your opinions 
and Mr. Crawford's correspond — and 
gives an extract from the latter gen- 
tleman's reports to Congress, in which 
the Tarilfis recommended with a view j 
solely to the increase of revenue, and | 
not for protection. The Siar says: •'//' 
u-ill be seen by a reference to Gen. Jack- 
sons leiler ptibliaked in another column, 
lehal reliance is to be placed in the slaie- 
inents of certain partiznns of Mr. Craw ! 
for'Kivh) haze been INJURING THE 

POI'ULARITY OF GEN. J ACKSON 
BY REPRESENTING HIM AS \[ 
THOROUGH GOING TARIFF j 
JIAN!!'' In this is fully recognized 
the constnicfion to which I ha\c al- 



luded: from the Star the impetus was 
given, and the decl, nation was spread 
fhrougliout all the Southern Stales that 
according lo > our oiivi confessions, you 
were opposed to the taritf. Norwasit 
strange that such a conclusion should 
be drawn; for your letter as fairly im- 
ports hoslilily as friendship to that sys- 
tem of policy. 

But a construction quite the reverse 
was put upon the same letter by your 
supporters in sectfons of the country 
friemlly to the Taritf. They knew it 
would be death to your prospects, if it 
should be known that you were inimi- 
cal to the system. Your own remaiks 
about '•'prntcrting duties — inrlepcndencc — 
naiional defence and equal division of 
labor," gave the cue, and you were at 
once declared a decided friend to the 
domestic policy. Hence, the National 
Republican of this city, once your 
violent enemy, but afterwards prosti- 
tuted to your service, and thencefor- 
ward a leadirg oppojition paper ol the 
west, remarking upon the letter, observ- 
ed, "■ It has often been said, that Gen. 
Jackson was no Statesman — that ho 
did not possess that general knowledge 
of our national concerns, which is ne- 
cessary to conduct the atiairs of govern- 
ment, and alcove all, that he nas opposed 
to the Tarijf! But being called on for 
his sentiments on the great question of 
the tariff, and his great dignity not being 
in the way of a Adl and fia. k disclosure, 
he has replied in the following letter, 
wliich we invite the friends ol' domestic 
manuliicliiies, and of a liberal and en- 

LIGHTF.NED INTERNAL POLICY tO lead witll 

attention. It contains more pure re- 
publican sentiments, and more political 
wisdom, than all the speeches made in 
Congress last session!" Such was the 
construction here of the very smne letter 
v^iiich was quoted and referred to in the 
South, to prove the opposite doctrine! 
You see, therefore, that I have drawn 
from your declarations no forced nor 
uncommon conclusion. The two pa- 
pers I Lave mentioned, piomulgaied 
far and wide, their 0))posite construc- 
tions; jouinals of less note, gave circu- 
lation to the respective statements, till 
it is as lirmly believed by your sup- 
porters ill the West, that you are a 
Tariff man. a* it is in the South that 



80 



TO HEX. ANUJIEW JACK:»OJS. 



you arc opposed to it. If such a po<;i- Riclimonfi Juiifa and (lie soiitlii rii poli- 
tion he lioiioraljlc, and f(rale(ul to llio ry; hut he did uol. in a liiij^le instance, 
/eelings of a good man, I pray God that trench upon the spirit, or «vcn Icttcrof 
jour seiisihilities may he «iuickeiied tlie Constitution. Is it not evident. ?ir, 
to receive from it, all the consolation it; that you wrote dial letter ('-IsEVKR 
is calculated to impart. Intrifiue and j INTENDED TO BE USED!") for the 
Corruption, Bargain and Sale, in the ; express purpose of divulging > our real 
worst forms char;;ed, cannot, in the esti- ; sentiments to tin- Iticiiniond people, and 
Illation of po-terity. sink a man deeper , to court their approbation and support, 
in degradation ami contempt, than the How tame Uitcliie, voar leading sup- 
just imputation of a dogged and supple porter in Virginia, to see a letter -of 
servelliance to opposite and contending I yours, (NEVER INTENDED tore 
parlies. ; used!) and to puhli>h that jmrticn of its 

In conclu-io!i. I have to refer you to contents which accorded with thcopin- 
one other circuni-itance not connected ionsof the Virginia poliliciaiir ? Giles, 
with your letter to Dr. Coleman, hut Randolph, Ritchie and other~,dcclaini- 
hearing upon the suhjcct. In a late cd in the most vociferous manner against 
nuinhcr (j|' the Richmond Enquirer, is the message. They were startled and 
an extract tVom a letter of yours, which ' astonished at its encroachments upon 
not only show s that you seek office and 1 the Constitution. Vou have nothing 
meddle in the affairs of your election, ! to conceal — not seeking office — the 
hut alfords a complete demonstration. I accents of congratulation to the I'resi- 
if it he true, of your duj)licilv. The [ dent still warm upon your lips, write a 
para^craph is as follows: "As to con- letter (Hcrtr /»i/f;i^c'i /o ic itscc/) declar- 



stitutional questions, icc hnov froina let- 
ter we saw many months since, c.v- 
DER Ge\. Jackson's ow.v hand, xever 

1.VTE.VDEB TO BE t.SED. that hc WIIS 



ing also your alarm and astonishment 
at the message ! ! What, I ask, was tlie 
ohjccl of this letter? How came 
Ritchie to see it? What induced him 



astonished and startled hy the extrava- , about that period, having opposed your 
gafit encroachments supported in Mr, ' pretensions with the most intemperate 
Adam.'-'s first message!" The vera- violence, to become of a sudden vour 
city of Mr. Ritchie it is neither j servile and supple supporter? Did, not 
my intention to question, nor business i the letter have some effect upon liini! 
to support. He was once an honora- Mark the phraseology: Mr. Ritchie 
hie and creditable man. So far as 1 1 says. "/Aflrc .«c(»i o /i:«cr UNDER GEN. 
know, hc is still entitled to the same j JACKSONS OWN HAND never in- 
character — at all events I am bo md to tended to be n-ed. in which he express- 
believe hc has spoken the truth. Wliv ' es his astonishment at the encroach- 
did you write sucii a letter to youriments of Mr. Adams's hrst message, 
friends in Richmond, and why was it upon constitutional questions!" Notl\- 
not intended to be used? 1 thought ! ing more than this was wanted. Mr. 
vou had nothing to conceal! It is said , Ritchie and hisassociates were opposed 
you are open, decided :>nd fearless in to the Administration — they were de- 
llu- declaration of your sentimcits! lf|termined to support no man for the 
Mr. Adams h;is encroached upon the I Presidency who was not also opposed, 
con.-titution, and you ha\e nothing to \ Your letter (neverintended to be use<l) 
conce:il, and do not seek office, why did j furnished the evidence, and thence- 
yon not proclaim those ciicroachments forward you were proclaimed « ith ad- 



with a loud voice? But what are the 
pncr<iac!mient.-> at which you were so 
startled and astonished? 1 have read 
Mr. Adaaw" first message with great care 



ditional fer\our. the ••allinwlivt , the 
only safe candidate for Virginia I" 

From your own acts and word.- 
have I judged you. If I have mistaken 



and attention, and tind nothing adverse - you, it is your own fault: no man in this 
to the provisions of the constitution. ; country need be misunderstood! If 
True,he recommended (;i/rr««/ /;;i;>ro;(- I h;ive been plain, or even harsli in my 
mrnts, and some oilier measures at va- , expressions, loiily regret that you have 
I'iance with (he |>olitical wisdo:n of the deserved it. 



AUHIMSTRATIOX CONVENTION • 



M 



ADMINISTRATION CONVENTION. ; member?. Maiiy had to stand, and ii 

The nicctiiit; of the Administration nas dilUcuU to pass from one jiarl of 
Convention at Columbus, on the 28th j the room to another. There were, 
of Decenilier, gave decisive earnest of however, no (hiiicultics or interrup- 
the intcrrest taicen. in supporting the ! lions, and but hlth' disrussion. It 
|)resent system of National pohcv, and was in truth, an imposing assemblage, 
tile pulihc men wlio maintain it. Every ' and condurled as became a thougiilful 
eircumslance was adverse to tiie Con- and considerate people. Upoil the 
venlion. For weeks the weather had ; next day, many of the members dej)art- 
lieen dull and disheartening. Great j ed for their homes, with increased good 
tpiantities of i-aiii had lallen, the roads ; feelings for each other, more dce|)ly 
were in ari almost impassi])lu condi- devoted to the cause, and stimulated 
tion, and the waters swollen to a dan- . to more active exertions in support ol' 
gerous height; and in addition to all it. No douiit tlie asst:mbling of this 
liiest;, a dce|) snow fell on Friday night ] convention has produced very advan- 
[>receditfg, which was carried of with I lageous results, in extending accjuain- 
rains that fell nearly the whole of Wed- ' tancc, and dilVusiiig coirect intbrma- 
nesdav and Tliursday. 13ul the mem- ! tion, and in securing facilities lor fu- 
bers of tiie Convention were neither j ture concert in action, 
disheai'leiied or deterred. And when The resolutions and address ;ire 

they assembled, H was found that up- j temperate and dignified, and at the 
wardsof two hundred were present. — j same time (inn and explicit. Whilst 
ilany of them aged and inlirm, most of | they assert an undiminished confidence 
them advanced in life, a*ul all highly; in the slatesm<'n who conduct the af- 
i'esi)ectable. fairs of the nation, and a strong ajjpro- 

The proceedings of the Convention bation to their measures and coi;duct, 
were characteri/.ed by good oriier,and no attack is made upon the character 
strict attention to business. Tlie com- j pr principles of the opposiiig candidate, 
mittces appointed, promptly attended j In delineating the incorrect course of 
to the duties assigned them, and (he I the opj)osition, the most respectful 
utmo=t liarmony and unanimity pre- 1 language is used: neilhcr (lie motives 
vailed. Tiie dclef^atcs trom each Con- [ or integrity of any one is assailed, and 
gressional district, hcK» separate meet- , no inuendoes arc employed or insinua- 
ings and agreed upon the candidate fori lions tiirown out. The whole will be 
elector in tlieir District, which w as re- 1 found in a tor.c adapted (o the occasion, 
por(ed to the committee appointed j such as fellow citizens, dilTering from 
upon that subject, and thus the list was j each other, ought upoii all occasions to 
made out. [adopt when acting or deliberating in 

An address had heed previously pre- '■ priniaiy or secondary assemblies, 
pared. The committee to whom that, It is understood that (lie Jackson Con- 
raatter was referred, examined it v ith venlion on the 8th, are to convene un- 
carc, and agreed upon it, with amend- ' der the beat of drum and roar of can- 
ments, which were incorporated into it, i non. How unaccountable is this delu- 
and the report prepared, and submit- j si on!! The very object of employing 
ted to the Convention. The utmost ■ these agents, is to act upon the senses, 
attention was evinced while it was , by producing an excitement of the ani- 
read, and it, with the resolutions and mal spirits, calculated to renderthe sub- 
ticket of electors, were uiianimously ject of its intluence reckless of thought 
adopted. I and reflection, and empowt;r the senses 

The Convention met at (en o'clock ' to shake oH'the controul and silence the 
in the morning, aiid about half after | admonitions of reason. Tiiis different 
twelve adjourned (o (bur. It me( course of ac(ion, by the (wo parties, 
again at lour, and closed its inisiness ' ought (o make a deep impression upon 
and adjourned about six the same (}vcn- ' peacel'ul. sedate and quiet men. The 
ing. The meeting was in the United i friends of the Administration exhibit 
Slates Court House, which had not Ian example of noiseless, uncxcited, 
sufTirient room to contain seats for the ■ thoughtful movement. The supporlei-^ 



sa 



AU.Ul.MSTRATIO.N CO.VVtWTlOIf. 



Of Gei.. Jackson appeal chielly to ,l,c , Dart-} Ar„ , r ,r,., J x-l VVo„„ 

senses ai,d to ll,e passions. Tmy art- '~""''-t^-— *.'=.„, Aur^rt.u.ie, 
called to rallv round their hickorv Tho^fT/Vr '"* '^'/"u""' ''"'"''^ ^«^«ar., 
standard, to hoist the swine as th.-ir' ^^•IZ:;'^:^::'^:;^;^,,,, , 
i^ymbol, to march to the ciaMiror of the '«";"'•'-<*;: <'i^Of'.-, vvifilau, Trtrjie j,'i?o 
'.-pint stirring drum,- and lo discanj all Juiln Cr'c.l'''°'^'" '^'^"^' *^'''"'"" CuuI..on, 
ni?niment, by subtsi:uting lor it the , /-e,;-j„n,e.Gallo«a3, J„n. Kober. Dob 
bra«i.ng exclaniniion: Hurrah for owl'""/' «"''"' ^-^i^, ^^ :li^...- Kn^.k, "''" 
hukory! Hurrah for the hero o/" .A«r-! w^h'^r?''~'''*'"»"'; ^^^•'''"'■.'^"•'crllJ. Moor, 
Or/can.!.' In such a mood the Lun.l ' B.il '"''"•''''''""'''■ '■^--''•'^'»'-^'' 

good sense ef the wisest man is render- 1 f''""?--?""'"'-' ^Vheeler, Cbarlcs C P-.,ne 

fcl nn iiicn.'ii.-.'. „„J . J.. 1- 1 'ol.iiioii Kii:!;-bury. '»-■ «.uiii.. 



ed an insecure and unsteady director. 



How can safety or prudence he expe<n'^>nV:r^n;;:i'G:uK: "1™^"; "'"T' 'V 
od Irom the consuhations of those'wim ^;•■"^^.a^b.,fl^;:;;.,;:t^'„^'i;r:' ^':± 
iv-ort to such methods of preparinir'Nn'.'."'." ,• '>'""'■'"''■ thurle, G. swain, 
tlHMnselves for dehherating upc^ el K:;:br 'd v ,,' K'^'r^:)'"- Ir'""- f"- 
o^t .raveand important matters? U\fr{''r^'^'''"^^^^^^^^^'^^^ 

ould seem ni.lv i.Pr,.c..,.. #„ ., <i.„ Kbarlc* (■ox. "-" "*•"' 



tlie 

inoN[ ^rave and Import,.... ^^.^. 

would seemonlv necessarv'to'siale the ! ^'//'T/ "i^ , 

i.-ictsand make" the in.p.irv, to elicit a ' B./mt'r '^P'' Swearingen, George W. 

readv answer. " /.-/..- 



rnoctKDi.vGS of the coxve.vtion 
Frifldi/, Dec. 28, 1 827. 
Agreeably to previous arrangement, 



re/; tlf.-^aff!:^' '^="*^-"' C'--> "-P'- 

,.h!lrt;;S;:;! ^''°°'^' •"'-'' »--. eh. 

i^tt-rcficf— tlijah Krsmptoii 

^;r^; ""'^r■^^''!■.^•M•cuIlou,.;• 



Delegates lavoraMe (o the re-election I H-um Paaer«.„,JacJbRHHfi •''^""'^"■^"• 
ot Joijv Qincv Ad»ms. to the office of'^;'^7<^°'''''?~;V*-'''''''''^f ^^'-ui'-sJuhustum,, 
IVsideiit of the United Sliles n,of ..f ^'' ';'""•* "'(^^ tiporte B. Holt. '■ 

the Court House in ^.^^rrK^t.f ;!:::i--'':^".^''l--- A..CoI..„a„,,sa„e 



the Court House in Columbus: for ih^ ] ii9::^LS:.fn^:-,;^i^:!;;!r::i^r 

(•urposc o( i(iri?iititj an electoral Ticket ' ""'■'"'"'»— ^^iiihu.. ri..,r. u ., „ • 

<o l)c supported by the friends of thJ 



- ...o*es C. Samlrrs, UaviJ Cai.ipl,,!!. 
■i..r °"''''' ^^««'9"hiiver, Amos G 



jn-esent Administration, in the sl^te of Icr^M*''^-'"^'-"" ^^-'-"uver, A^o. b 
Ohio, at the approarhini; Presidential i ■'''.i''"^"'"— Jolin Amlitjws. 
election. Upon calling the list of' ■'f'"*-""'"--^- ''^'•i""lk'u.r. 

-unties, Delegates appeared from tlllf Pa{\:^^w'i;t»Sr ^:::;^/^2:;^^ 
following counties, viz: ! Jiicb Houck. i "u»uier curu= 



UELEG.\TF.S PIIF.SE.XT. 
Fromlfic county of ^dams-Samcs llo-crs 

nw"!''^"'''""/': P""''«- Jobn Bro«-n, 2,1, 
Daniel Stcviarl, Calvi-ry .Morri-. 

.'Is/ilabiih—q. F. Alliiiis. 

/?««fr_Jocl Collin=, James Healon, Wnj. 



fhlniont 



iluuDird, James Ui.ir •» .• . 



"illiaiii M. Ilubb.rd, James "VVcir 
y/roicn— .\atliaiiicl CiMslev. 
Clermont — Tlumias Gaicb 

ri.amv ba.uM.l MUonI, John Doagherty, 
J^iincs Dallas, A. n. CalilHfll. "^ 

(V,„/«„_.Nathan Liiiton, Eli Ga«kiII, Rich- 

Co.,Aor<,n_\V,n. Carhartt, Sam-icl Lcp, 
Jiiinon Rohin'ioii. ' 

tV,/«mW,„_El.lcrkiti Potter, De Lonna 
r.n.oks, Albert G. RicbariUon. 

C./va/,offa— Kruhen Woo.l, Alfre.1 Krllv 
C/ar<:_Jol,nl)ouch.Ttv, Charles I'. Anihoi.T, 
Jame. Foley,. Nuautl Latlerty, Robert TurnJr 
btr>|)heii Kitchen. "■•■•^i, 

rrarr/,rrf-Joseph CnlTee, Wm. Walker 
UrU„rare-\\,„ ^ Drake. Charles Carptn- 
ttf, Leonur.lll. Coivles. 



I .•"^'jf""','— I^l'ilip Lewi?, Jo=pph .^^Elfi.-h 
Joh.. U. (....my, Joseph Chnshalan, Ste^^hen 
Moore A,Tj,lla Poland, John \V. ^i.ni.C' 
Jaiaes bunihaai, Kei:beii P. Mann 

JI/i«<m;«,„_Jose,,b Sprii),:er Geor-c \V 
Cas. Watlhew C,ll.spie,Ela,is Wheato^, Wo." 
U. Moore. ' " 

^Vonrop— Tlioinas \Vcston. 



VcrfiMo— J. imes .^lonrc. 
•"''1?»— Andrew Donally. 
J'ler.fr— Joel VVo,.d. 
.yorjoa-Kner Baker, Charles L. Boll. 
/Vf4/c— David K. II.at..i.,J. M L? .M-\ott 
John G. Jameson, Eli.l.a Egbert, Jamei Denni-' 

m^-E-kri.lce Hall, William Rlackslone. 

/,c*a-rav-..,|,nBarr,San.uel l.ybrand. Gut 
|\\. I)..H ., E,l,v.,rd Williams. 1V,„ p. ^^^r 
Isaac l.,,,lcl,IIe. John Cochrau, Samuel S, y^^r 
ny.WilhamB Thrall, B. Z B. Do.ldriJge 

lorla;c—l.. V. Pierce. ^ 

O.ni'.r-^""'"''" '^°'"'"' ^^'""""'■I'- Ji""!, Pete, 



AU3IIN1STRATION CONVENTIOST. 



33 



Tuscaiwas— 3 nmes Pitrirk, Beaz M 
Sail, oaiii'icl Mimlap. 

fn*i«*uK-Simun Perkins, Rufus P. Spaukl 

ing 



C/n.on— Ronhrii P. Mann, Amos A. Williams, 
raniMiin^irf-Vtwr, Joel W.mil. 
ffanf/1-Jcrr.-miah Mnrrnw, George Snuth, 
AViUiaiu A Camron, Joliii HupkiU-s T hoiuas 

Corwin. , . », .,, 

Jf'ashm^ton—D.ivid Putnam, Anui Ney, Win. 

R. Putnam. „.,, ,i 

»^«,/,uf, Cynis Spink, Thomas M ■M'l'en 
llu„da,id JHancock—rhomui \V. Powel, T. 

n. M'Ni.-ht. 

Tiir/i/anrf— Jaine? Henry, James Ueilgus. 

6Wo^— •Wiu. Kendall. 

6-<ari— James W. l.atl.ro|>, John Angustine 

SA.74./— ^Vni. FieUlin-. 

ienrra—Asircen In^raham, Jo?iah Hcilgcss. 

iii«(/iKA-i/— Sauuiil M. Lockwood- 

The Convention, on motion, proceed- 
ed to the appointment of a Chairmnn, 
when Jeremi\h Morrow, Esq. ol' War- 
re!! county, was unanimou.sly cliosen; 
whereupoi), Mr. Morrow took the chair; 
a':don motio'!. IVdi. Do'UThrrti/oi'FrMik- 
iin county, and ThonvK Cinfin. oi War- 
ren couiity, were appointed Secrota- 

iie?. 

On motion of General McArlhur. ot 
Ro<s county, the following rosolutio'. 
wa> adopted: 

Resolved, Tliat a commiUee of six 
teen mcmhers be appointed by the 
Chairman, to prepare and report an 
A Idress and Resolutions, touching the 
object of this Conyention. 

Agreeably to which resolution, the 
Chairman "am-oui.ced the followin.c; 
ge tlcmen as composing said Commit- 
tee, viz: 

Duncan McArthur, Charles Ham- 
mond, Thomas Ewiiig, Samuel Wiicel- 
er, Elderkin Potter, J. Patrick, Gus- 
tavus Swan, AVm. R. Putnam, W. B. 
Hubbard, George J. Smith, Quintus 
F. Atkins, Nathan Linton, James Gal- 
lov,-ay,jr. Stephen Kales, Alfred Kelly, 
Cliarlc'sG. Swain. 

Col. James Robinson, of Coshocton 
coujity, olferod a resolution, wliiclt on 
motion of Mr. Powel. of W'ood county, 
a' d Mr. Curtis, of K\iox county, was 
amended and then adopted. as follows: 
RcsokcH. That a committee consist- 
ing of fourteen delegates, one from 
each Congressional District, be ap- 



Athcr- ( made by the Delegates, that said com- 
mit'.ee nonnnale such candidate or 
cand dales to this meetiiig-,and further, 
that they shall nominate liie two aiidi*' 
tional Electors to which tliis state is 
entitled. 

On motion of Mr. Kelly, the Chair- 
man wasauthoiized to appoint the last 
mentioned Committee: Whereupon, 
the following gentlemen were selected 



to compose the same, to wit: 

From the 8l!i Congressional Di>triot, 
Col. James Robinson; 1st do. Thomas 
Gatch; 2d do. James Heaton; 3d do; 
John Johnson; 4th C. Antony; 5th 
Nathaniel Beasley; 6lh John Barr; 
7th do. Henry Birtlctt; 9th do. Wm. 
H. Moore; 10;h do. William Skinner; 
11th do. William Tingley: 12tii do. 
Thomas M'Millan; 13th do. Sunon 
Perkins: 14th do. Reuben Wood. 

Whereupon on motion, the Corven- 
tion, adjourned until 4 o'clock, ihit 
evening. 

Four o'clock, P. M. 
The Convention again assembled-, 
when Gen. D. M" Arthur, from the com- 
mittee appointed for that purpose, re- 
ported a preamble, resolutions, and ad- 
dres.=. wliich were severally read, and 
consid'ved, and the preamble, ResoliT- 
•ions a kl Address, were unanimously 
adopted, as follows: 
Wmere.^s, this Convention has been 
called into existence and organized 
for the purpose of nominating a 
Ticket of Electors, favorable to the 
re-election of Joha Qninn/ Adams^ as 
President of the United States, (o be 
sujiportcd at the Electoral Election, 
of Novomlicr, 1828, in the State of 
Ohio; and whereas it is considered 
proper that this Convention sh(Hild 
cxprc'ss an opinion upon the matterK 
of public policy, connected witli the 
present administration of the Na- 
tional Government: Therefore, 
Resolved, As the sense of this Con- 
vention, That the present administra- 
tion have pr^tdently and wisely pursued 
the policy of their predecessors, both 
with respect to our domestic and foi- 



pointed to receive from the Delegation ! eign relations: and that the general, 
of each Congressional District, the ; prosperity of the nation is evidence ol 
nomination of a suitable ca .didate for the correctness and vrisdom of th^rf 
pilf^rtor- r>tid •^ho'ild nfl nomination be mcasnrc*-.. 

E 



^ 



ADMIMSTRATXON CON VENTION.— JEFIliKSO.V A JAtJiSO.V. 



Risolved, That it is equally unwise I JEFFERSON & JACKSOX. 

and u'iiist, to change the public fur.c- 1 In the summer of 1 820, a toast giveu 
tionan>~ of Govoromont, upon the ' many vearsajio, at LviKJilungli, hv Mr. 
ground of personal preference alone; Jeirerson. was so modelled as to make 
unwise, because it endan^ei-s the pub- it convey a direct compliment to Gen. 



lie good, without any equivalent corre 
poi'de!)t advantage; unjust, because it 
rcHects censure upon the conduct of 



Jackson. From the dale of that coun- 
terfeit to the present time, the idol- 
izcrs of the General have been labour- 



punlic men, without foundation, and ; ing to gain support for him, from the 
thus destrovs tiie strongest incentive to ' opinioris of the sage of IMontirello. — 
patriotic action. | Gov, Giles, the late Gov. Randolph, 

Resolved, That this Convention en- Mr. Kditor Ritchie, and others, have 
tertain a liigli sense of the inte£;rity. been labouring (o hunt up something 
falenls, and patrotism of Juhti ^^wiHcylsaid or written by Mr. Jefferson, from 
.lr/nni.«, President of the United States, j which a co- fidence in Gen. Jackson' 
and are firmly persuaded that his re- 1 might be inferred. Their elVorts have, 
election as President, will tend (o pro- however, recoiled upon themselves, 
mote the general interests of the whole ' Truth, as the General said, is mighty, 
t^nion. I and has prevailed. 

Rcsoi'ved, That this Convention re- ] The late Gov. Coles of Illinois, has 
gard the charge \irged a;;ainst tiie been comjielled to speak what he liim- 
Presidentand Secretary of Slate, of a !self heard, and what was communica- 
corrupt coalition, Ijy which one was j ted to him by othei-s. His statement 
elected President, and the other placed is in the following words: 
in the Cabinet, as a scandalous iinpu- '-On the 1 1th of Aui;ust. 1 8-25. ■while 
lalion upononrcou'itry and i'lstitulions, on a \isil to i\Ir. Jelll-r-on. at i\Ioiiti 
alike unsupported by e\idence, uu- cello, 1 had a very long and highly in- 
*ortiiy ot belief, and discreditable to, tcrestii:g conversation with him, in rc- 
tll who give it countenance. jlationtothe last preside: tial election; 

lie^ulval. Tiiat this Convention enter- 1 in which he spoke very freely and ful- 
tiin the highest respect for the just ly of men and of things, and dwell at 
views of our National policy explained considenible length on the character, 
and recommended in the late Re|)ort of princi[iles, and conduct, of the gentle- 
the Secrelnrv of tiie Treasury of the men who had been candidates. He 
United Sti'tfs, upon the subject of a j expatiated dispassionately, and with- 
National Tariff; and hereby express an out resen' ■; drew comparisons, made 
earnest hope, that our )neml)ers of Con- ; discriminations, and described, in his 
gress will emit no exertions to obtain usual forcible language, the good and 
legislative protection for the objects bad traits in the character of each. 



fecommcnded in said report. 

The following is the list of Electors 
recomme'.dt-d hv the Convention: 

JF.RF.MIAH MORKOW, Wurrcn. 

Pr.TEK 111 If llCdCK. Gcouga; 

WII.I.IAM HL;FFI.\,Hamilloii. 

.iA\ir.iM'HKinF,,r.uti.T. 

.I0-;F.PI1 IIAWKIN-. IVI.lo. 
Dr.NJ.\MlN nillTKM.AN, Green. 
.lOIlN S^!1TII, Hu'l,lir.<I. 
DUNCAN M'AKTIIUR, Robs. 
RALPH 0>BORNE. Frnnklin. 
WILLIAM K F.NnALL, Scioto. 
rSAAC \ A.\IK)i;.\K, Mi,<kin!;uni. 
.lOIIN I'ATTKRSO.N, Ri-liiiont. 
.IOIIN.M'LAI»;lILlX,Jcirerion. 
WILLI \M KOOLK, :st.irkc. 
AARON WIIEKLKR, A^l.lahiilu. 
iTB-iC^EZtR LANK, Ilurnn. 



He gave the deciJi'd preference to 
Mr. Crawford, and said it was greatly 
I to be regretted flial he should have lo^t 
jhis health, and with it his election. 
I Having failed to elect him* he exprcss- 
j cd gralilicalion that the choice had 
[fallen on Mr. .\(lanis: to whom, he said, 
I he dad objections, several of which he 
[explained; but conceived him lobe 
more safe and fit, and, by his acquirc- 
j ments and habtis of life, by far better 
1 qualified than (ien. Jackson, to dis- 
charge the duties of the Presidenc_^. 
In a word, he spoke of l/r ^Idatm as an 
enli^lilcncd and (.rpcricnced stalcsuian: of 
Gen. Jackson as a valiaiil and successj'iil 
soldi/r — xiitli no other prthnfions to (//t 
1 Chirf ALigistra'-ii. thai: ll;ui rlcrivcd from 



JJSFFERSON & JACKSOX JACKSON & NEW-ORLEAfffS. 



9S 



Ms military services IVhilc conversing < 
nhout Oen.' Jackson, I took occasion to say. 
that lite great zenl xi-kich had been tlis- 
ptayeil to elect the General, and the extra- 
ordinary vote he ha I received, ha i made 
me douijt of thp durahility of our free insti- 
tuti,.ns. Mr. Jefferson braced himself j'»i 
.'i)".s sea*, looked steadfastly at me, and in 
the most emphatic manner, said. " Sir, it 
Aflj caused me to doubt more than any 
thing raltich has occurred dnce the revo- 
ultion.'' This part of the conversa- 
tion I repeated to Mr. Williams, 
whicli I regret has found its way into 
the ncwppapci-s, and suivjected me to 
the necessity of making this communi- 
cation." 

The truth of the above statement 
rannot be questioned by any one. But 
if it could be doubted, it is corrobora- 
ted by a letter recently written to Gov. 
Coles by Thomas W. Gilmer, of Albe- 
marle county, Virginia, a near neigh- 
bour of Mr. .(eirer>on. and one wlio 



soldier, and undei'standing the;e, he 
cannot fail to see how Mr. Jetrei'son 
appreciated the quaiiticalions of Gert. 
Jackson for the Preidency. Instead 
of respecting Gen. Jackson's preten- 
sions, it appears that Mr. JcllL-rson held 
them •' in almost contrinphiutis c/cr/.'.wn,'" 
and looked upon his possible success, 
in being elected President, as furnish- 
ing cause to " doubt the durahilitij nfovr 
free iii.4it<itions.^'' AVhen such were the 
sentin)ents, and the feats of the vener- 
able patriot and Republican, Tlu/mas 
Jetlrrson, ought nut othtr repub- 
licans to hisitate before tliey aid 
in consummating that.wbi?hlie derided ; 
or dreaded? and when it is seen, that 
the old opponent'-, and contemners of 
Mr. Jetrer^on, the Pickerings, and Colc- 
mnns, the Ro.-scs and Ro'an-. ;ire 
amongst the most active, in p omo'.uig 
a measure.wiiicli Jetfersonmustcei lain- 
ly have opposed, is it not singular t'lat 



. ,, ., I Republicans should not feel some ap- 

speaks very untavorably of Mr^Adams. p^^hension? Ten ye;.rsago, who ^^oM 

have thouglit that the o])inioiiS of the 



The language employed by Mr. Gil- 
mer, is clear and explicit. He says: 
"I believe his opinion on this subject 



departed Jciferson would iiave been 
slighted by Republicans in th s cou. trv; 



was notorious among those who poss-ja^'d those' of Pickering, Colema:., Jloss, 
fissed any share of his confidence. Ijand Rowai- preferred? Ti-ese tl ia^s 
remember to have heard Mr. Jefferson, j ghovv the mutability of human opiiiions, 
on one occasion, use an expression, j and (iern(,„j;t,.;ite the danger of tonfid 



which struck me, not so much by the 
sentiment it contaii-.ed (which indeed 
was then a very common one in Vir- 
giiiia) as the style in which it was made. 



ing too mucli in our own judgment, 
when excited by party. Let republi- 
cans, and all patriots reflect upon it. 
It has been said that '■'■parli/ is the mad- 



Speakinc of theseyeral^ candidates for |„„, gj- if,,, many, for the good of the few.'' 

In the present contest the /ijcn^ who 
support Gen. Jackson, are made mad, 
that the General and a frzc wouldbp 
great men, may get liigii ofliccs. Tiie 
General may gain the Presidency, and 
others may gain Secretaryships, and 
("orcign Embassies, but what will the 
many, the people who do the labor, and 
bear the heat of the day, what will, 
what can they gain? 



the Presidency, l)efore the last election 
he remarked tiiat ^'ane might as -well 
make'a sailor of a cock, or a soldier of a 
goose,as a President of Andri-.c Jackson.'" 
These words made an indellible im- 
pression on mv memory. Tliey were 
uttered with a tone of sportive, almost 
of contemptuous derision. Mr. Jeffer- 
son was descanting at the time when 
this remark waseliciled, on the prone- 
ness of the multitude to gi^e :i man 
who possessed one virtue, credit for 
others which he did not possess or ofl 
the want of discrimination in the pub- 
'lic-mind, where any thing like enthu- 
siasm and favoritism was mingled with 
a subject." 

Every reader can understand what 



.TACKSOX & NEW-ORLEANS. 

This 8th day of January, 1 828, Gen. 
Jackson is invited to a civic feast, at 
New-Orleans, to celebrate the event, 
uiK)n which his principle claim to pre- 



■:ort of a sailor could be made of a cock, 'eminence is rested. AA'hilst it is ad- 
rv.A how a sjnosc- would figure as ai'mitf''d that N'cw-Orleair-; i-; the llicatre 



Ip 



JACKSOV & \r\T-nt?rF4\S. 



wn'.M-i' Ge I. .1 ic.-.so.i periorm. (i act- 
cr ditablc to himself, and advaiit.iKeou? 
to his country: it must aUo be co.i- 
ccdid. it is t!ie placi; wiierc at tlie 
3;irno 'ime, lie did murh to taniisii the 
fa;ne lie liad acquired. Here it was 
h'- set at naug It the Co.isiitution and 
jjaws of his country, and trampled un- 
der his feet the ria;lits of hi;; ft'llow-citi- 1 
Zeis-, with ala'»l(sj disregard of every 
thing: but his own will. 

Tiicre is no mitter in our country' 
more misiriderstood by tiio well dis- 
p i-^ed, a, id more systematically misrep- 
resented by the supporters ol'Ge:iei'al 
Jirkson, than the ilbual proceedMgs 
of the G<neralat New Oilca.is. Jt is 
▼crv gencrailv asserts-d and believed, 
that the high lia:ided measures ol tiie 
General Wfrc resorted lo, at the mo- 
ment when the city was bcsi<!ged b\ the 
et:emv, and when treason was employ- 
ed ivitiiin it, which it was ncccjsar;. to 
delect and arrest. Noliiing can be 
farther from the truih. The great bat- 
tle was fouglit on the 8iii of January, 
1815. On the i9th of tliai mo.ith tiie 
British forces evacuated the country 
and embarked on hoard their siiips, 
and on liic 20tli and 2lst, Gen. Jack- 
aou with his pri:ici))al forces retuiiied 
to the city in triumph. And from tiiat 
time there was a geiiera! cnursi.- of ex- 
uliation and rejoiring tiiroug'iout tiie 
place, until the arrest and imprison- 
ments took place more than a mo..th .il- 
terwards. 

Gen. .Jackson enforced some veiy 
harsh measures agiii .si (lie French in- 
haliitanls. tifier it was uiiofficially 
known that peace was established. — 
Tlieselcd Mr. Lonailiierlo make apul>- 
lication conlaining strictures upon 
tl • proccedijigs. This publicalion was 
made the 3d of March, 1815. For ma- 
king this puiilicalion he was arrested, 
a. il with his arrest the outrage com- 
menced. He was tried by a Court 
Martial upon the following charges: 
1. Mutiny. 
2 Kxciting to rauliny. 

3. General misconduct. 

4. Being a spy. 

T;. Illi'gal and improper conduct. 
0. Disobedience of oi'lers. 
7. Writing a willful and conipt libel 
against (be General. 



E. U -oldieily cj..duci. 

9. Violation of a general order. 

Tile publieati>n in question wa< ad- 
duced as a specification to support 
t'very one of these ciiarges. This ar- 
ticle, wliicii was made to include the 
Commission of so many atrocities, is 
here inserted, and thereader is respect- 
liillv re(|uested to read it carcfullly, a,id 
ask him-ell, what tliere is in it that can 
be mi*chiivous or criminal. 

** Mr. Editor : To remain silent on the 
la>t genenil orders, directing all the 
Frenchmen who now reside in New- 
Orlcaig, to leave it within three days, 
and to keep at a distance of 1 20 mib-s of 
it, would be an act of cowardice which 
ought not to be expected from a eiiizeu 
of a free country; and when everj 
O'lC laments sucli an abuse of authoritv, 
, the press ought to denounce it lo the 

people. 

In order to encourage a communica- 
tioi. helweeii both c>iun(iies, the 7tk 
and 8<h article.- of tlie treaty of cession, 
secure lo the Frencii who shall cnmo te 
Louisiajia, cerlain commercial advan- 
tages which they arc to enjoy during a 
term of twelve years, which are hot 
yei expired — at the expiration of tiial 
terni. lliey shall be treated in the siimc 
manner as tlic most favored nation. A 
peace, which nothing is likely lo dis- 
tur!), uniliiig both ealions. The French 
have until this moment, been treated 
in (!ie United Spates with that regard 
which a great People deserve and re- 
quires, even in its reverses, and with 
tiiat gtiod will which so eminently dis- 
tinguislies the American Goveriment 
in its relations with foreign nations. In 
such circumstances, what can be the 
motives which have induced (he com- 
mander in chief of the 7th Military 
District to issue general orders of so 
Vexatious a nature? AVhen ihe for- 
eigners of every nation, when the 
Spaniards, and even the English, arc- 
sulU'red to remain unmolested among 
us, shall the French alone be condemii- 
|ed lo ostracism, because they rendered 
I so great services? Had they remained 
1 i;eiitle spectators of the late events, 
I could their sentiments towards us be 
|iloubied, then we might merely be sur- 
l prised at the course no'r followed with 
■regjirdto them. But how are we to 



JACKSON .1- NEW-OlltEANS. 



"sr 



l-efrain our indignation, when we re- 
mcniber that those vcr}' Frcnchmrn 
who arc now to be exiled, iiaveso pow- 
erfully fontrilmtcd to the pres^ervation 
of Louisiana, without speaking of the 
corps who so eminently distinguished 
themselves, in wiiich we see a number 
o/ Frenchmen rank cither as officers or 
privates: how can we forget that they 
■wen- FreiKJi artillerists, who directed 
and served a part of those pieces of 
cannon which so greatly ainioyed the 
British forces? Can any one flatter 
himself that so important services could 
have so soon been ibrgotten? No, they 
are engraved in everlasting characters 
in tlie hearts of all the inhabitants of 
Louisiana, and tliey shall jjcrform a 
brilliant part in the liistory of our coun- 
try; and when those brave meri ask no 
other reward but being permitted 
peaceably to enjoy among us, the rights 
secured to them bv trealies, and the 



should have left it in the power of the 
severnl commanders of military Dis- 
tricts to dissolve ail at once the ties of 
friendship which unite America to llie 
nations of Europe? Would it be pos- 
sible that peace or war could depend 
upon their caprice and the frie; dsliip 
01- enmity they might entertain for any 
nation? We do not hesitate in declar- 
ing that nothing of the kind exists.— 
Tlie President alone, has by law, the 
right to adopt, against alien cneriiicSf. 
such measures as the state of war may- 
render necessary; and for that purj)Ose 
he must issue a protlamation; but thig 
is a power which he cannot delegate. 
It is by virtue of that law, and of a 
proclamation, that the sulijects of Great 
Britain were removed from our ports 
and sea shores. But we do not k ow 
any law authorizii g Gen. Jackson to 
apply to nlien fricnds^a. measure which 
ttie President of the U. S. himself has 



laws of America — far from sharing in | only the right to adopt against alien 
the sentiments which iiave dictated the \encmic^. 



general order, we avail ourselves of this 
opportunity to give them a public tes- 
timony of our gratitude. 

Far from us the idea that there be a 
3i :»glc Frenchman, so pusillanimous as 
to forsake his country merely to please 
the military commander ot tliis Dis- 
irict,and in order to avoid the proscrip- 
tion to which he has chosen to con- 
demn them; we may therefore expect 
to see them repair to the Consul of 
their iiation, there to renew the act 
whicii binds them to their<ountry; but, 
in supposing that, yielding to a senti- 
mei>t of Tear, they consent to cease to 
be Fri-nch citizens, would tliey by such 
an abjuration, become American citi- 
zens? No, ccrtai.ly they would not; 
the man who would be powerful enough 
to denationalize them, would not be 
powerful enough to give them a coun- 
iry. It is better therefore, for a man 
to remain a tliithful Frenchman, than 
to snircr himself to lie scared even by 
the martial law; alaw useless when the 
presence of the foe and honor call us to 
arms, but wiiicii becomes degrading, 
when their shameful fliglit suller us to 
enjoy a glorious rest, which fear and 
(error ought not to disturb. 

But could it be possible that the con- 



Our law*s protect stangers who come 
to settle or reside among us. To tlie 
Sovereign alone belongs the riglU of de- 
priving them of that protection; and 
all those wlio ktiow how to appreciate 
the title of an American citize:i, and 
who arc ac(|uain(ed with th.eir pre- 
rogatives will easily understand that, 
by the Sovereign I do, by no mea is, 
intend to designate a ftlnjor Gei cral, 
or any other military commander to 
whom I williiigly grant the power ot 
issuing general orders like the o!;e in 
que?tion, but to whom I deny that of 
having them executed. 

Ifthe last genera] order has no other 
object but to inspire in us a salutary 
fear, it is only destined to he read ; if it 
is not to be tbllowed by any act of vio- 
lence, if it is only to be executed by 
tho-c who may chuse to leave the city 
ill order to enjoy the pure air of tho 
country, wc shall forget that extraor- 
dinary order: but should any thing 
elsehiippen, nc arcofopinion that the 
tribunals s!iall sooner ot later, do jug. 
tice to tlie victims of that illegal order. 

Every alien friend who shall contin- 
ue to respect the laws which rule our 
country, shall continue to he entitled 
to their protection. Could thatgeeer- 



Ftitution "and the laws of our ce-niifrv :nl. or'ior be applied to us* V''o- fhoulU 



<■» 



.IA«»KseN A- NEW -ORLEANS. 



calmly wait until we were forced hy\ tioii of Fort Bo\rjer. The taking of 
violence to execute it, well convinced: this fort, on the l:2tli of February, wds 
of the firmness of the magistrates who; the last act of hostiiity done by tli^ 
are the organs of the laws in this part Enfilisti forces, admiral Cocivijuru liay- 
of the Union, and guardians of public ing been inibrmed, oii trie ensuing day, 
order. llie 13th, hi an oUicial bulleiiri rec<^ivcd 

Let us conclude by saying, that it is I'rom Jamaica, that a treaty ot j. ace 



liigh time tiic laws should resume their 
empire, that the citizens of this state 
Hhbuid return to tiie full enjoyment of 
their rights; that in acknowledging 
that we are indebted to Gen. Jackson 
for the preservation of our city, and the 
defeat of the British, wc do not feci 
much inclined, tlirongh gratitude, to 



had been signed at Ghei t, on ihe ■24tl» 
of December. \Ve see page 226, oi the 
Historical Memoirs already cited, tiiat 
immediately after the c.ipiiul.ttion of 
that fort. General Lamt>ert, and admi- 
ral Cockburn, expcciing at every mo- 
ment the ratilicaiion ol" t!;e tieaty by 
the President and the Senate of tlie 



sacrifice any of our privileges, r.nd less ^ United States, made the necessary pre- 
than any other, that of expressing our, parations for the cmiiarkatiou and Je- 
opinion about the acts of his adminis- 1 parture of their troops, 
tion; tlial it is time the citizens ac- My pul'lication appeared in the Cou- 
■cusedofany crinae should be rendered ' rier, 21 days after Col. Fdward Livings- 
to t'leir natural judges, and cease to be ' ion (now our represe^ta!i\e in Con- 
broug'ht before special or military tri-|gress,) had returned from ihe English 
buiials, a kind of institutions held in ab-, lleet, a::nouncing to Ccn. Jackson tiie 
horrence, even in absolute Govern- arrival of the sloop of war lJrazen,whicli 
jnents; and that after having done had brouglit the news of the sigiiingof 
enough for glory, the moment ofmod-i the preliminaries of peace, 
eration has arrived; and finally, tliat| Finally. the publicaiion represented 
(he acts of authority which the inva-'as (ending to disorganize tiie army, 
sion of our country and our safety may made its appearance 33 days af^e^Gen. 
have rendered necessary, are, since the .Jackson had written to the Secretary 
evacuation of it by the enemy, no Ion- of ^Var, that he considered Louisiana 
ger compatible with our dignity and as deli\ercd from the enemy, durnig 



our oath of making the Constitution 
respected.'' 



which 53 days, with the exception of 
the taking of Ibrt Bowycr, no ei:gage- 



That every honest enquirer after mcnt took place between tlie English 
truth may know the circumstances in and American forces." 
which the above pul)lication was made, I The injustiic of Gen. Jackson's at- 
Ihe following statement is extracted tack upon the c!<aracter of Mr. Louall- 



from a publication recently made by 
Mr. Louaillier. 

"What were the circumstances in 
which Gen. Jackson had recourse to 



lier, is fully established by the follow- 
ing, being part of an orderor bulletin, 
issued by Gen. Jackson himself, on the 
1 jth of Januarv. 1815,after the victory, 



those extreme and harsh measures? and bitorc anv ditliculty arose. 

In what situation wore we placed oir "The wounded prisoners who fill 

Ihe 3d of March, with respect to the our hospitals,are treated with the ut- 



Knglish army? To understand this 
well, and to judge what possible evil 
my pulilicalion of the 3d of March 



most care and attention; mattrasses 
and blankets were, the very night of 
their arrival in town, provided by con- 



rould produce, it is necessary to know Uribution from the iiiliabitanls. Mr. 
that it was made. ' Louailliii., ainrmbrrnftfie Hdiisc of Rip- 

1st. Forty one days after Geuer;i\\ nsi nialivcs. fruin thr C^lousas, has on 
Jackson and his army had li'ft the camp this ocrafioii, >-hozrn a :cnl and philnnthro- 
near the battle ground, to return io\ pi/ ihnt ilocsliimtht hii^hrst honor.'" 



New Orleans: 

2d^ Forty-three days after the evao- 
ijation of Louisiana by the F.nglish; 

And I wen! v da\s aOer the capi'i-Ia- 



Gen. Jackson, in a letter to Mr. Post- 
master IM'Leap, written in lo2-l,to pre 
vent Mr. Fuller Skipwith, who ^yas 
Sprnker of the J^ei.ate, when New- 



JACKSON & NJirW-OnLEANS.— JACKSON'S THREATSl 



■4SS 



Orleans was invaded, from getting a 
post office appointment, represents the 
Conduct of himseir and some other 
members as very suspicious.' From a 
work entitlid-HistoricalMemoirsof the 
War of 1 8 14- 1 1^ ! &,'' by Major Latour, 
wi-itlen principally to build up and sus- 
tain Ihe fame ofGen. Jack-on, the sub- 
joined extract is given, to prove how 
very unjustly the General casts out this 
imputation. 



and Soullie, who co-operated with him 
in his honorable exertions, a sufiicieni 
reward, yet I must be allowed to pay 
those gentlemen, the tribute of applause 
so justly due to them." 

In further proof of the same fact. 
Gen. Carrol, in a letter written at camp 
Henderson, and dated March 2d, 1815, 
holds the following language: 

" I hope you will convey to the legis- 
lature the grateful sentiments with 



"The deplorable condition of a great : which 1 am impressed for the honoi- 
number of militia men of this and the j done me and the troops whom I com- 
adjacent states, who were in want of mand 



clothing, in an inclement season, and 
obliged by the nature of the service, 
to Ijc constantly exjjosed in the open 
air, excited the sensibdity of the citi- 
zei^s. Mr. Louaillier, the elder, a 
member of the House of Representa- 
tives, obtained from the Legislature the 
sum of six thousand dollars, which was 
pat at the disposition of a committee 



" i cannot withhold the expressionV 
of gratitude due to the people of New 
Orleans, for their benevolence in fur- 
nishing our autlering soldiers with 
warm clothing, during the inclemency 
of the weather, while they were be- 
fore our works. 

"They have administered to our 
sick and wounded every friendly at- 
formed for their relief. Subscriptions ' teiition, and extended to them all the 
were also open at New-Orleans for the | rights of humanity." 
same purpose, and another sum of six i Yet do the idolizers of Gen. Jack- 
thousand dollars was soon subscribed, , son say, that his arrest of Mr. Louail- 
and it is to be observed, that the Or-lier, and all his subsequent violations of 
leans volunteers and militia, not satisfi- law, disregarding the writ of habeas 
od v.itli discharging their dutv to their corpus, and imprisoning judges are 
country, by their presence in the camp, justified, because of the existence of 
sent for a subscription list, and tilled it treason, in the vicinity of the enemy, 
with their signatures. Tiie country i The facts herr stated show that there 
of the German Coast subscribed about , is no foundation for this apology; and 
tliree thousand sis hundred, and that of ' leaves the General justly obnoxious to 
-Attekapas remitted to the committee , the charge of acting only upon the im- 
five hundred doll irs. The whole sum,' pulses of his own passions. Still he is 
thns obtained, incKidi- g what was j honored with a civic feast at New Or- 
voted by the Legislature, amoun'ed to i leans. The supporters of the General 
sixteen thousand one hiniilred dollars, [are not unlike the ox decorated foi- 
and w;is laid out in purcliasing blankets ! slaughter: 

tmd woollens, which were distributed ! " PUasui to the last, he empped thcjlowtnifong^ 
amon" the ladies of New Orleans, to be ' -^'"' ticked ike hand jtul raised to alied his blood.'.' 

made into clothes. Within one week — "^^jf^ — 

twelve hundred blanket-cloaks, two' nE\. JACKson's threats. 

hundred and seventy-five waistcoats, A statement hasbeen made and ob" 
clcven handredand twentv-seven paira ; tained circulation, that Gen. Jacksoa 



of pimtiloons, eight hundred shirts, 
four hui.dred and ten pair of shoes, 
and a great number of niattrasses were 



had avowed a detennination, to assail 
Mr. Senator Eppes with violence, in the 
Senate Chamber, and was only re-- 



made up, or purchased ready made, strained by the determined inter- 
and distriliuted amonc; our i)rct!iren| ference cf Com. Decatur. The truth 
inarms, who stood in the greatest needt of this statement Gen. Jackson has de- 
ofthem. Though the gratitude of nied, in a letter written to Mr. Grundy; 
their fellow citizens, and the conscious- but the denial is altogether technical, 



ness of the patriotic services, be, to 
3fr. T.ouaillie'', p"d to Messr?. Dubij's 



and confined to the language used, and 
circumstaiices coiinected with ih.c stale- 



id 



91SS. JACKSON'S TIIKEATS. 



ment in relation to Com. Decatur. 
We believe Gen Jackson as far as his 
statement goes. But he has not ven- 
tured to deny the principal and materi- 
al fact", in which the statement most 
evidently had it: foundation. 

Gen. Jackson visited Washington, in 
the commencement of the year 1819, 
when his condurt, in the Seminole war 
•was under irivesligation in Congress. 
He at the same time visited Baltimore. 
Philadelphia, and New York.a^ ittlicn 
seemed, for no purposi_', hut to receive 
such public attentions, as might make 
an impression, on the proceedings of 
Congress. The papers of the . day 
stated that he was at Baltimore, par- 
taking of a public dinner. w''.en the 
Feport of the senate wa< received; and 
that he uttered much violent and me- 
nacing language. He proceeded im- 
mediately to Washington, where, it was 
alleged, he continued tlic same tone of 
conversation. It was Just at tlic period 
of the adjourruncnl of Congress, and an 
article was published in li»e N'^ational 
Intclligencer,containing strong animad- 
versions, upon the senatorial report. 
This was attributed to some one or 
moreof those who w ere in theOenerars 
suite. Gen. Abner Laroek, who was a 
member of the senatorial committee, re- 
mained in the city, and immediately 
made a publication in reply. He com- 
mented with dignity and moderation, 
but with severity, upon the publication, 
and al~o upon tlie conduct of llie Gen- 
eral, and t!iO;0 who attended liim. Af- 
ter speaking of the language used by 
the latter, he adds: 

" Their |iprsoiiiil invcctivc-i correspond en- 
tirely with Gen. Jackson's nbsi rvMlii.ns in the 
public taverns und hiill rooms of Washinjton; 
for it i' a fact notcrions, anil ciuinot l>cilenic(l, 
tliat on those occasions Iie wjh i-'iri/erotix in his 
imprrrutions, and rinlml Inliis threats n/ personal 
vcni^eanrc, even to mK (LTTING off tuf, 
KARS nf some nf Vie ntemt/ers nf the Selfct Com- 
mittee, anil Ihie, while tlic suhject was hcfo-c 
the Senate: iin>l sorni- nicnibnrs of the Mouse of 
fle|iresentnlivcs, who dared to aniinnilvert mion 
his conduct, or even to donhi his iufullihility. 
u-erc menaced nearli/ in the snme ?nan/w/"'\','/ 

This, it must he observed, was no 
anonymous publication. Gen. Lacock 
subscribes it with his name; l!ien it 
was not contrndiclod, it is not nov.- con- 
tradicteil b\ Gen. Jackson. 

Tlieditrcrence between tlio two state- 
ments consists m'^re in matmcr and 



place than in matter. The General 
did not wail in the anti-chamber of the 
Senate to assault Mr. Eppes. He was 
not restrained from donjg so, by Com. 
Decatur. He did not declare bis in- 
tention to the Conunodore, and recvive 
a reply that he should not execute the 
threat i)ut over the dead body of the 
Commodore. But, neverthele^?, the 
General, "in the public Imerns uiid ball 
room^, oflViishinglim"' was '■^vociferous i/i 
his imprccatiojis, and tiulcnl in his threats 
of personal vcngcnncc acn to the cut- 
ting OFF THE EARS of some of tlic mem- 
bers of the select committee." 

This violence and these Uireats against mem- 
bers of the Senate, for a fearless performance of 
their duty, arc the substantial grounds of ob- 
jection against the General. It is of no great 
importiincc where they were made, or by whom 
their execution was prevented. Perhaps it may 
be deemed the most reprehensible course to hold 
such language in taverns and ball rooms, and 
finally to let the whole end in empty gascon- 
ade. It is certainly more inconsistent with the 
conduct of a brave man than that which the 
General has (hmied. To form a rash determi- 
nation and make arrangements to execute it: 
then to be deterred by the timely and rosolutii 
remonstrance of a respected friend, seems more 
in character with greatness nf mind, than 
blustering lu taverns, or brawling in ball rooms, 
without an effort to do wh.it was threatened. 

Gen. Jackson and his friends have thoiighf 
that it was incumbent upon them to put in a 
denial, with respect to the alleged scene, in the 
;inti-chaiuber of the Senate. They thus con- 
cede that the conduct imputed to die General, 
in that ease, U well calculated to show his un- 
litiiess for ihe Presidency. The actual facts, 
as stated by Gen. Lacock, are not, and nevei 
have been disputed. They are us eonclusivi .. 
as those denied, to show the General's disquali- 
fication for that high ollicc. They are in ac- 
uordance too, with much of the General's past 
life. Taverns have neen the thiatre where he 
has most frequently displayed himself: violence 
and threats very common weapons in his hands: 
empty bhisterin.; olten the re=ult. 

Patrick H. Dirby, Esq. of Frankfort, for some 
time a rcident of Na.duille, and in intimacy 
with the Geniral, has made a publication, 
st;iting that about the time of these transac- 
tions, he I'requenlly heard Gen. Jackson hold 
l.inguige of tlie same tenor witli that referred 
to, by Gen. l..acock. A recent number of the 
I'iltsburch Gazette, makes the sulijoincd re- 
mark, upon the letter of Mr. Grundy : 

" The letter of Gen. Jackson to Feli\ Grun- 
dy, gins the lie completely to the Untement 
frei)iitnllij made upon the same siihiect by Hen- 
ry Baldwin. Where did Mr. Ualdwin get hi^ 
account of this in:itter? llu was at Washing- 
ton in inin. Mr. lialdwia slinukl publish hu 
account in his own Jusliucation." 

Here we rest this Mibject. \o doubt, «e think, 
can exist, but that the Gen'l.utleieil tlie threats 
imiuited to him Should such a ii'anlie olaeed 
in llie highest oflicc of a free, a nrarcablc !»lt>'- 
christian people? 



■II III II ■ ■ m iiwi ■ J 'Aj a juntm ' MMsuiB Kv tx. mam M 



TMUTM'S ADVOCATE 



AND 



MO\THIiY ANTl-J\CRSO\ EXPOSITOR. 



CliVCINNATl, OHIO, FEBRUARY, 1828. 



LIFE OF <;E>E1!AL JACKSON. 

Few men, iiitlie woild, have enjoy- 
ed the opportunity to obtain high rcpu- 
tU!on,so ciieaply as Gi'n. Jackson. Un- 
til he had passed the 46th year of liis 
ago, he was little known, except in his 
own state. Stations of distinction had 
f)eeii CO fcrred upon liiin. But lie re- 
tained them only lor a short time: and 
abandoned them, without being dis- 
tinguished, either as a Statesman or a 
Jurist. However he may liave been 
estimated amongst his immediate 
friends, he was in a great degree un- 
known to the nation, who were conse- 
<iuently unacquainted with his delects 
or excellencies of character. 

In September, 1813, Gen. Jackson 
was invested with command to conduct 
tlie Creek War. On the 20th of Janu- 
.'.ry, 1815, he had achieved the expul- 
>ion of the British forces, from the at- 
tack upon New Orleans, and acquired 
a high military reputation. His ope- 
jatioas had been conducted principal- 
ly in a wilderness country; he had sub- 
dued the Creek Indians, and made a 
treaty with them of his own dictation. 
He evidenced high militarv talent in 
most of his movements, and tlie victory 
of New Orleans had idcuitified him with 
the interest, the glory ,and the pride of 
the nation. All this had cost him but 
u labour of sixteen moiitlis; and had lie 
possessed only a common share of mode- 
ration and discretion, he iNould have 
-tood amongst the first of her citizens, 
in the atfections, and in the esteem of 
Lis country. I think it may safelv 
be asserted, that no man ever acquired 
an equal standing at so ciicap a rate, i 

His attack upon the freedom of the ! 
citizen and the liljertv of the press. f»nd ; 
tlie open contempt and dciiancc of law, j 
tiiat closed his career at N . Orlcans,were 
deeply regretted througli the counlrv, I 
•not only upon account of their pernicious I 
example, but becan>e (lioy ca.-.t a deepi 
.-.hade Uj)onthc good and ihegreatnanie,! 
which all were willing.shonld be ronce'd- 
(Arl!ob-:n. Soardentwas'l't-ntiKHc f"cl-l 



ing in his fa^or, that with something like 
universal consciit, the outrar'cs were 
permitted to pass in silence, or noticed 
ivith very disqualified approliation. 

In 1818, he was charged with con- 
ducting the Seminole War. Here 
again, successful in hi- main object, he 
pushed hissucci ss to alarming extremi- 
ties calculated-lo involve the peace of the 
nation, ajid endanger its traiiquility. 
Altiiough the to;ie of disapprobation 
was now raised to a strong expression 
with many, still the country was indis- 
posed to scrutinize closely, or censure 
severely, one who was so much a fa- 
vorite. Appointed, in 1G21, to the of- 
fice of civil Governor of Florida, he 
again indulged, in excesses of authority, 
which though none could juslily, most 
were still ready to exiuse. There 
has been no instance of the same de- 
gree of forbearance, in cases of eveu 
much less injurious character, towards 
any citizen ofour Repul>lic. 

In 1822, he was nominated a candi- 
date for the Presidency, and though 
the canvass was, on the part of his sup- 
porters, exceedingly acrimonious, still, 
with a lew partial exception?, he wai 
treated with respect. Defeated in his 
prospect of success, at the moment hope 
was the highest, his friends and himself, 
assuming that a mighty wroi;g was 
done to him, commenced their assaults 
upon the characters of others, and have 
continued them, until i'lc attention of 
the country has naturally been drawn 
to that of the General himself. Investi- 
gations have taken place, facts have 
been disclosed, and traits of character 
developed that have greatly ch.anged 
the general opinion of his meiits. He 
is no longer the favorite of the nation. 
He is now but the chiet of a party, 
who become more vociferous ar.d un- 
qualified in their commendations, as 
they become more doubtful of their 
justice. 

Amongst the means resorted to for 
the purpose of extending his etiebritv, 
on'- was tiie publication of bis biogri'.- 



li 



LIFE OF GE.\LKAL JACKSON. 



pliy. This work made its appearance, 
in lar£;c octavo,in the year 18i!4, in the 
verv heat ot" the Presidential canvas^. 
It wa? written by the General's partial 
iVieiid, and under his own observa- 
tion: and it is throughout a labour- 
ed eulog)-, rather than an imparti 
al history. There are some facts dc 
tailed in, and connected with this work, 
that serve stron;.'ly to ilkistnite. at once 
the true character of the General him 
self, and the means employed to give 
him repulation, whether he de^ei-ve it 
or not. It is my present intention to 
give a full and fair explanation of two 
transactions noticed in tRis biographv, 
in a manner which the facts do not war- 
rant. I have selected these two, be- 
cause I iiavc possessed myselfof authen- 
tic documents, whicli show that they 
are not correctly stated. 

In the 18th page of "The life of 
Andrew Jackson," '% Jnhn H. En- 
ton, Senator of the United States.''' — 
we have the following account of his 
services as a member of ihc Senate: 

"The following year his reputution 



continuing to increase, and every bosonj 
feehns: a wish to raise him to still higher 
hunori). he was chosen a senjilcr of l!ie 
United States Congress, and took his seat 
on the 'J'jn (lay of November, 1797. A- 



noxious lo the reputilicans of this country, 
at the srs-i r.n of 1798. were Anderson. 
HlooiUvorth. liionn. Foster. Green. Jack- 
son, LHiigilyn, Livermore, iMaitin, Mason. 
Tiizpnelj. AgMin-t the tepeul, I hip- 
man, t'laylon, Gooiiliue Hillhouse, How- 
ard, Laliuier. La-^rence, Lloyd, .Vo./A, 
P.iiiie, Head. Jiutlttrjord, Sedgwick, S<o*i^ 
Ion, 'J'racy." 

According to the Statement here made. 

'\ Gen. Jackson was absent from his posl 
as Senator, during the three la-i months 
of the sf"s>ion, attending to his own "iu- 
fiitr.^s of an importnnt aivi private nature,'^ 
This argues very little for his attention 
to public dutVs 'ri«re ci^pc. i^dly r.s it 
was at a lime when party feeling ran 
high, and when tiic strong measures of 
tlie elder 3Ir. Adams's administration 
were in agitation. During this period 
the obnoxious Satilion Lnxv was passed, 
and Gen. Jackson, was not there to op- 
pose it. But, '•on the alirn lav hoic- 
ncr, ami the effort to npeal the stainy 
ficl he v:iispreKnt, resting (voting) in 
the minority and on the one side of the 
Republican principles of the country."' 

I Tiie language here employed, leaves 
it doubtful whether the author menni 
to assert that the General voted on the 
passage of the alien law. or on an^ 
other proposition in respect to it. Bui 



bout the middle of April, business of an I '" the note, it is stated as a vote, 'for a 
itnporiaiil and privati- natuic. imposed I r.^uca/ o///u o/fV/i and stamp acts v^ and 
on him the necessity of asking leave of | the yeas and nays are given. The 

reader of course, concludes that Gen. 
Jackson vo!cd to repeal the famon* 
alien lav.-, regarded as a twin brother 
of the sedition law, and always asso- 
ciated v. iih it. Such, however, is not 



absence, and returning liome. Leave was 
granteil. and before the next sessi'^n he 
resigned hisrcat. lie »\ as but little more 
than thirty J ears of age. and lipnce scarce- 
ly eligible, by the constiiuiion, at the 
time be "as elected. The sedition law 



liiiir ■■<: ...1= cin,itn. 1 IIU M^UIIIUII iaW,,iK, r,„. ri-i 111. . 

about which so much concern and leelino- 1 '^ ^ , ^.^ "'""''^ subject is most 



has been manilestcd through tliecoimtrv, 
was introdiirerl ir.lo the sen:tte, by JlV. 
Lloyd of .Mary bnul, in .tunc, and passed 
that body on the 4!h of July followmg; 
hence the name of Jackson, on ing to the 
IcriTC of abiciicc wiiichhiid been granted 
him in April, does not appear on the 
journals. On the alien lau\ ho-^-ever, anri 
lite cJfoTt to repeal ihc stamp a^t he was 
present, resting in the iniaoniy, and on 
the .«ide of Ihc Itcpublican principles of 
the country." 

To this a note is appended in the 
following lerni^: 

"Those senaors who voted for a repeal 
of the alien and si 



trangely misrepresented," as may be 
put beyond all doubt by a refereii^ce to 
the journals of the Senate, for that 
session. 

The proposition which linallv result- 
ed in the passage of "the alien lazr," 
originated i:i the Senate, on the 25th of 
April, 1798, [Journal 249.] on the 
motion of IMr. Hillhouse to appoint a 
committee. Tlie bill was reported by 
Mr. LivCrmore, from the committee, on 
tlie Ith of May, read the lir-ttime a;,d 
ordered to its second reading. [Jo rrnni 
269.] It W.1S continued under lonsid- 
enition until the 8lh of June, when it 



imp acts, so Ob- pa«sed the Senate [Journal 338] and 



AJLIE-V A>U STA.UI' ACiji FORl^ JACKSON l>ONATiO\. 



43 



was sent to tlie House. II passed bofli' real grent men require the aid of tricks 
Houses on the ~22d of June,and was ap- like ilii;;, to secure them reputation? 
proved by the President on the 2jtli. 
Tlie Journal shows that on the l'2tli of 
April. '-Mr. Jackson obtained leave of 



absenee after Monday next for the re- 
mainder of the session." Of course he 
•ouid not have voted '-/or a repeal of ihc 



riic other transaction, which I pro- 
pose to notice, has been occasionally 
glanced at, but.those who have toudi- 
ed it, have omitted to probe it to the 
bottom. Tiie docmneiils and puhlic 
proceedings have been carefully l.id 



alien act,^^ which was not in agitntion| away without publication; and the 
antil n-ficrhe left bis seat!! ; glossings of the biography have been 



A vote to repeal the stamj) act i 
strangely associated with the alleged 
vote to repeal tlie '■'■aVun act.'^ ^fothing 
in Legislation, would be more impro 



permitted to pass for truth. This pro- 
cedure I shall now correct, by present- 
ing the facts as they really took place. 
After subjugating the Creek nation of 



bablo than uniting tiiese two subjects '"dia'is, General Jackson was appoint- 



together, and taking upon them a joint 



ed to make a treaty with them, aided 



vote. That no such vote was taken is 'w Col. Hawkins, who Uad long been 
that the alien law an Indian agent of the Government in 



clear from the fact 

was not in existence to be repealed. 

At (be prceeding session the law usu- 
ally called '■Hlie stamp acl.^' had been pas- 
sed. In Uie Senate of the United 
States on the 8th of January, I79S, 
Mr. Greene of Rhode Island asked tor 
leave to bring in a bill to repeal thi 
•'■stamp act "k\nA leave was refused, ayes 
ll,no<:sl5. The ayes are precisely 
the same stated, in the note before quo- 
ted; but the noes are as follow: 7i;'/(i; 



that coiiitry. The treaty was held at 
Fort Jackson; and after some time 
spent in negociation a treaty was con- 
cluded on the 10th of August, 1811. — 
We are tokl in tlie work of Major Ea- 
ton, page 197, that "General Jackson 
was directed to treat with the Creeks 
as with a conquered people, and to/;rf- 
seribe^ not negociate the terms and con- 
ditions of peace." A singular Iransar. 
tion took place during the time, whilst 



hxim, Chipman, Goodfme, Gunn, HiJlj ^CJicral Jackson was>y)-e«r/i//,g<rnji<r 
house. Howard Hunter, Latimer,! '^"- f'ot n'-g-oc/o/iVijj with this subjuga- 



Lloyd, jMirshall, Paine, Read, Ros 
Sy'dgewick and Tracy. Journal 72. 

There is something very singular in 
the misquoting of the votes in the neg- 
ative on this occasion. Six Senators 
were absent. Five are inserted as vo- 
ting, that the Journal shows did not 



ted and conquered people, which is thus 
represented by Major Eaton,pagcs 207, 
208,209: 

"In the progress of this business nnotlier 
difficulty arose: the council insii-ted that 
there should be insertc'l in (bo treaty a 
resorv.ilion ofcerlain trr.cts of land; one 
for colonel H;nvkins, in consi:ier.i(i(m of 



vote^ to wit; Ch'/ton, Ww, Mrtk hi. n.lcluy to them as an a^-nt; and an 
Rutherforrl and Stockton. V ive who did oiber (o Jackson, because of the cratitude 



vote are omitted, to wit: Bin^fiam, 
Gttnn, Hunter, Marshall awl Ross. — 



telt tiiwards him for his exertions in tiieir 
favor against the hostile Creeks. To this 



This seems to have been deliberately tlic General ohjerteJ. It was personal as it 
done,for the purpose of misleading. A! regarded himself, and he ivas unwilling to 
person searching after the vole as*la-t acP^ar in any point of view, uhere sus- 
ted,findi:!a that tlie names did not cor-j Pinion could attach, that he had availed 
respond, would probably be induced lol himself, of his official situation to obtain 
conclude some other occasio.i was re-| ''^ ■"'""''' ^-p"':''''; '""'Lv aware, that how- 
ferred to, and so permit the misstate-i f."" "'" l^f "•''^'" '"^Z '^"^''' •^?"''^«'-«- 
ment to ,>ass without detection. Here! '°'^' 7"''' ^'f ""1"""' ■■'' ^" '"•■'""■^5"t 
., . ' , . I -1 .1 Jto waat was (lone Uc rcfusctl. therefore 

tlien IS conclasive record evidence thai;, „ ,,^.,^ -, ,.„^^^,^^;. ^,„,, ^^ ,.^^ ^J,^^^ 

Gen. Jackson did not vote upon any, ^ea^on, that the instructions under >vhicb 
proposition to repeal tne alien law, and; he was acting, required it to he a cae- 
tlVat the journal of the Senate havej it„i:.iion, not a treaty. 7flc wtxT work. 
been mis'pioted lor the poor purpose of:,. N-c. Itnj.-ever, ii7ic.i they met in covndt to 
maintaining thai !if did so vote. — Do ^/^'n 'bo )«srr"?n»>T.',tIic chiefs delivered to 



u 



LIFE or t.E\. JACKSON. 



the general :i paper, expressing a wish.- 
and disclo'-iiig iheir reasons, ihai a reser ' 
valion to hiinself. — colonel ilawkiof, and I 
iMaytield, who being made a prisoner io ' 
his yo'ilh, had always resided in the na 
•ion. might be a-^^enfed to; and requested ■ 
it to he forwardeii on anrl made Imoirn ', 
to the government. Jackson consented to 
do su, and In recommend its adoptvm; but | 
tiiat the reservation that ihey had thmiuhl \ 
prupcr Io rei]iip^t, it assented to. he laoutii I 
accept fifon no other terms 1,'ian their father I 
the preaident sHOVLl) dispose uj it,aniiap-\ 
ply the proceeds to tho-e of the nation on \ 
xvhom distress and prrvcrlfi had heen brojtght j 
by the ti-ar. !^Ir. Ma ■isoii siibsequenllj ■ 
liroiight this matter to the consideration 
of I he Senate of the United State's, and in | 
rccomoiending its adoption, higlily com- 
plimented the delicacy "ith which the j 
propo^iiion had been met \>y general j 
Jacksoa; it was however, never acted on | 
and asscnied to by the Senate." I 

According to this stalcincnt, the In-' 
diaiis proposed toinscrtthe donations in ' 
tlie treaty: bxit^'to this the Gcn.objcclcfl," : 
— " He refused to have it jn.?r/-W." A'cjct j 
morning, however, zvhcn they met in couiuril i 
tosigii lhcin^lr>imrul,the chiefs presented 
a f aper disclosing the reasons of the ' 
reservation, and a wish that it might he i 
assented to, and made known to the ; 
Government. To this tiie General as- ! 
sented. But in relation to- himself, if, 
the Government assented, '"/ir zcoiild ac- j 
cql on no other tcnmthan ihnl their ftilh- \ 
er, ihr President, simvi.d dispose of it"'j 
for tlve benefit of tiie poor among the ' 
Creeks themselves. This is Major! 
Eaton's account, in which Gen. Jack- j 
son is first made to play the part of a' 
stern, rigid, and disinterested patriot; 
and second, that of a kind and bcnefi-! 
cent hcnefaclor to tlie poor amongst . 
the Creeks. Let us now look at the ' 
true state of tiie c.ise, and sec how far 
it sustains these compliments to the ' 
General. It is siiown. by the followin-; ] 
copy cf the proceedings made under the | 
direction of the commissioners at the' 
time, and transmitted to congress, bv ! 
the Prcsidont, in l]fc mess.nrre referred ; 
t(<, m the above extract O'om Major 
Eaton's work: 

'^Kxtracltfrnm the minutes of oreurrenees at Fort 
Jackson, during the nreoeialion nf Jarkjon's 
Treat,!/-'' "lith August, ISIJ. 

•The Chiefs of the Creek Nation ns- 



seoibled at their Square, and sent for Gen- 
eral JackMiTi and Col. Hawkins, tu visit 
them. On ariiving iheie, the Speaker 
I'ostunnuggee Thliicco. said, he Rishcd 
to confer with the Geiieral.on some points 
relative to the boundary "p Coosa river, 
particularly to accommodate .\u he-coo- 
' he at the 9oli>'italion of li-ao-l;i>.-he, Ly 
t;i\iiigback 80i;ie Iniids west of Coosa. 
The tjeiieral oi jt'Cled Io the accommoda- 
tion, as the pcopie ill that quaiter bad 
heen already suliirionlly pro\ men for. and 
ihe ground asked foi h.id l>ecu the thor- 
ough fare of the murrierers. 

•' The Speaker then addressed the 
General: — 'I'he points aow about bounda- 
ry are pretty well settled, and we shall 
sign it; tuit before we do it anil yield it 
up. we haie something to say to you 
We are a poor disire??ed people, involv- 
ed in ruin, which we have brought on 
ursejves. It is not caused by a foreign 
people among us, but of our own colour, 
of our own l.uid. and uho speak our 
tongue. They arose against us Io destroy 
us, and we could not h>lp ouiselves. — 
We calieil on thiee brothers, Clierokees. 
Chickasaws. and Choctaws, to help, but 
they did not come; we then called ou 
Col. Hawkins for our while fiieiids and 
brothers to help and you came Vou 
have saw our red and white brothers nii:t 
iheir blood in battle. Vou have risked 
your life fiT us. and come fiere, and here 
we meet — Vou have saved my lite, and 
I am thankful for it. We have put our 
heads together, and consulted on it. and 
have roine to one opinion about it, and 
what we should do. U'e, the Creek Ac- 
tion, give ynti three miles square uf lanil, to 
be chosen zrhcrc yon like. fro.m wiht wk 

AKK COINC TO GIVF. VV. We wisll yOU tO 

take it where you like, and as near us as 
you can, as. if »ve have need of you, you 
will be near Io aid and advise us. 

•• We give yon lli s in lememhrance of 
the important services you have done us, 
and as a token of gratitude of the oaticn. 
There is a man near you. Col. Hawkins, 
Ihe same we give him. three miles square, 
lie has been long among us, helping ot us, 
and doing good (or our nation, and is Iheir 
friend. He and I met at Colerain and 
were young men, iMid are now old. His 
children iire born in our land. He is Io 
select the land we give where he choo.'es 
in Ihe land we nre about to give up. 
and to fpt <lown • n it. and if he dies, his 
children will have a jdace to live oo. 
We do this ;:s a token of the sratilu''e c.f 
the Nation 



KORT .TA« ICON P»\ATION. 



4S 



'I'liern IS sl.in.l-.iii; uv VuuGeoiije May- 



Mrs, tiawniiis luu-t be pul In vMili her 
rielcl.a white maa .aise.l ...our Und, a 1 children, as she ha.l much ti-uhle lo 

We ! tiach the Indians to ?|).n and weave. 

' The instrutitciit of cunveyance uai 



srood aid true min, an inteipreier. ••-, 
-ive him one mile square of land, near 
you. that you may have an inlerp.ele.- at 
band if we have iieed of you to talk with 
you. 

"Hfre is an old interpreter, thirty 
years in ou. service. Alexander Cornells, 
■,ve gue him one mile squ.;ie of land to 
set dinvn en. where he selects, near Col. 
Hartkius, that he may conlicue his useful- 
nc-'.' to us. 

Gen. Jackson replied:— /fe should o.c 



dranm acconlinglij. under the intcrpretaiwn 
of Mr. Co nells and Major Mcintosh, 
Commandeut of l^o.ielan 

BENJ.A.MIN H.WVKINS, 

Jigent for Indian Affairs. 

'•9th AUGUST. 

"We the undersigned Chiefs of the Creek 
Nation, now assembled at the Treaty held 
between the Iriendly anil ho.'-tile Indians 
on the one part, ann iNlujor General 



;i( „/ this na i nai mark of regard for] \„,{ie\v jMcksoiif'T the U. States, on the 



him. IV Aprr.ovt.i of r.v thu I'liKsiPtNT. 
and he, the President, might, if hf- 
wo'jLD. appropriate its value to aid in 
.•lolhing their naked -u.-otncn and children. 
He zL-as ziell pleased they had noticed their 
old friend Cot IJarckins and his children 
horn anion^ them, and their coniuct on this 
hca I to\ards him and them, nas much to 
du credit of the .Nation 

Col. Hawkins replied: — 1 have been 
long iimon? yju. and pjrnwn grey in you. 
service; I «ha I not miicii longer he you. 
Agent. You all ki;nw me, that when ap 
plied to by Red, White, or Bla.k. I look 
ed not to color, but to the justice of the 
claim. 1 shall continue to he t'liendly an i 
useful to you while I live, antl my ch.lflren 
born among you will be biought up as to 
do the same. I accf.pt your pres iit, and 
I esteem it the more his;tily. by the man 
ner of bestow. ng it, as it i exulted from the 
impulse of your oivn minds, and not from 
any intimation from the General or me " 

" S o'clock, p. M. 
" This evening 'he Chiefs expressed to 
Col. Hawkin.-: — They did not give to Gen- 
eral Jackson, the land to day to giv-- it back 
to them in clothins^ and other things; they 
xfar.t him to live on it, and when be is gone 
(ilead) his family may have it; and it may 
always be known what the nation gave it 
to him for. They say in the instrument 
to convey their intentions expressed tl;is 
da}', it must be plainly expressed, whai 
are the towns, roasters of the land; that 
they have been uniformly friemlly to the 
United States, and faithl'ul lo their en- 
gagements in peace anil in war; that thev 
consider the extending the line through 
their lands in the Lower Creeks, as taking 
from them more than the equivalent of- 
fered, and they have claims which should 
be attended to; but as the (Jcneral ha* 



other part, make known to all whom it 
may Ci)ncern. that Caputan and C"owe'an 
are the head towns of the Creeks, and 
with Toekan Caichee and Osoackc, the 
owners of the Creek laii(U. and with our- 
selves, as we are masters of the land. 
We have adhered faithfully in peace and 
war, to ourTreaty stipulations, with the 
United States. fr'inding that General 
Jackson, in drawing the lines around our 
country, to retain as much of that con- 
quered from the hostile Indians as he 
deemed just. f>iind it i;ecessary for politi- 
cal motives and purposes, to run a line 
from Ofucekee through our lands, which 
commences on the dividing ridge, between 
tne waters of the upper and lowei' Creeks, 
to Chattiboacbee, and thence Easiward- 
ly to the bouiiiiary of Georgia, within 
which there is a g.eat quantity of lands 
actually our properly, for which he, as 
an equivalent, leaves to the conquered 
Indians, lands between Consa and T^dla- 
i>oosa. We do not dfem the exchange 
as an equivalant; it shall not, however, 
interfere with the run.)iiig of the line, as 
we rely on the justice of the United -States, 
to c:iuse justice to be done us, ann on 
these condition? we request that General 
Pincknev's letter of the 23d .April, to Col. 
Hawkins and the answer thereto, of (he 
2oth. be sent on with tiie Treaty, which 
we V ill sign after deln ering this instru- 
ment. 

1st. Wishing to give a national mark 
of gratitude to JIajor General .Andiew 
Jackson, for his distinguished services 
rendered us, at the head of the a. my from 
''ennessee, we give and grant him, anfl 
his heirs forever, three miles square of 
l;ind. at such place as he may select out 
of the national lands. 

2d. Our nation feel under obligalion.s 



no powers about them, they will sign the | to Col. Renjamin Hawkins, our .Agent, and 
line with him.it bch.g demanded by him jtoM.s. Lavinia Hawkins, his wite for the 
and advised by theirfriend Col. Hawkins, nnwearieri pains they hi'.ve for a long 



40 



UFE OFGKNlJtAL JACKKO.N- 



time taken to introduce the plan of civili i apply the proceed? to those of the na- 




en.inree miles sqimrp! ■ i ii i , ■ i . ... 

of land, to him and h,^ heir, fcrever: T'^'"'''"''?"'/ '''"^ *^'"'^. "r'°"""- 
to be located in such part of the nalional ^'"^^"" ""'^*^'' "■°""-'" '^"^ chlldrcn."- 



iHnds as Col. Hawkins may select, in 
one tract or survey of one mile square 
each. 

3d. We give to George Maylield, an 
interpreter with General Jackson, a white 
man raided in our lam!, one mile square 
of land, where he may select, as a mark 
of our respect for his honesty and !ise- 
fulness to us as an interorelcr. 



But if the President did not so appro- 
priate it, win theu the General got it — 
and all was well. 

Here too is the "paper"' W/ic Chiefs 
delivered to the General,'' which it ap- 
pears was drawn up according to the 
previous arrangement and uiideistaiid- 
inc; hctwecn all the parlies and execu- 
ted, i,ot on the morning they met toex- 



4th. and lastly. We pive and grrani to ccute the treaty, but on the 9fh, the day 
Alexander Cornells a half breed, and old ! hcfore the signing the treaty, and the 
and la.thtnl interpret»r. who, has been day after the General had"agreed'to 



Ion? in the public service, one mile 
square of land, at bis o|>tion, to be lo- 
cated by him. 

We finally request that the Gov- 
ernment of the United Stales, will ratify 
(he forecioinff acts of nalional gratitude, 
and by suitable deed^ of conveyance, to 
enable the parties to receive and hold the 
said lands, agreeably to our lyteolions us 
herein expressed. 

Given under our hands at the Treat' 
ground at Korl .Iack~r>:).Otli Aucust. 1814 
TIJSTLNNUGGEE TIILUCCO. 
Speaker oj ihe .\'at ion of upper Creeks 
[Signed by Mothers,] 
In prescnrn of J. C. WxUNEU, assist- 
ant Asfent nf Indian Afl'airs. 
R J.MKIGS, .%"* C. jValion 



iccept. Notwithstanding Major Eaton 
says the "General at lir«t refused and 
subsequently, on the day the paper was 
presented, gave only a conditional con- 
sent." 

Before 1 further examine this mat- 
ter I will proceed to investigate the 
correctness of the final statement in the 
paragraph (juoted, 

" Mr. I^Iadison fjbsequenlly brought 
this matter to the consideration of the 
Senate, and in recommending its adoption, 
highly complimented the delicnry with 
which the proposition hid been met by 
Gen. Jackson: it was however, never act- 
ed on. and assented to by the Senate." 

Tills is true as far as it goes: it is 



RORKii'V KVTLKB., .SdJHUint General, ■'levertheless far short of the whole 

truth, and by no means conveys a just 
view of the proceedings in Congress up- 
on the subject. The following is a 



Ai.kxandki; Mavfield, 

AlRXANUER CoRiVELLS, 
GcORGE LOVEI.L, 



Public Interpreters 

Having compared the ivritten transcript 

with the original, [ certify it to be a 

true copy thereof 

CHAIILES C.\SSADy, acting Secl'y. 

Fort Jackson, Olti August, I8M. 



copy of the message referred to* 



To the Senate and House of lirpre- 

senlatives of the United States. 
The accompanying extract, from the 
I orcurreiKCS at Fort Jackson, in ."August 
Here we have the plain unvarnisiied j I8N. durinff the negociation of a treaty 
truth of this matter; tiie conference, ' "'''h the Indians, shows that the friendly 
the assent, and the conveyance. And ' Creeks wishing to give to (Jcneral Jack- 
here are no ohirclions, no nfusoh, ;, J *"!". Benjamin Hawkins and others a iin 
.stated in the biography. The offer is ' """='' "^^■""^ "' "'«""■ Rratililde and regard, 
made and the rca..>ns assigned at the ! '^"•;'7<^''.\" "'P'" respectively a donation 

same time, not upon a >ay,o-," hut in | "I'^;"' •."■''''=* ^^'Yr' '','*'•'''' ^''•'"'' '"'f"^' 
1 ,. ' rp,, ,^' ' , ,. lie (lulv coiihrmril, by the jrovcrnment ol 

oralconk-rance. The General replies n.e i],i„ed Slates. ' 



at once "Ac should arcrpl."" Not a word 
about "o» no other Irrms than that 
the President «iioui,t> dispcv; of it and 



Taking into consideration the peculiar 
circumstances of the case — the expedien 
cy of in:'ul!jinij the Indians in wishes 



FORT JACKSOX DONATION. 



4: 



which they associated with the treaty, mitigate hen.. Find..- tl.e Gene a 

si'' eel by them . an.l that the ca.e .nvoh es inexorable they conclude i.ey .nu.t 

an mvitin- oi.nortunity lor he.towh.g on accede to the term? i.roi,o<!rd, and, liav- 



an officer, wlio has rendered such illus 
trious services to hii country, a token oi 
its sensibdity to them, the inducement to 
which cannot he diminished hy the delica- 
cy and ili.intere'tedne»-ofliis proposal to 
tian^fer tiie benefit from himself; 1 re 
commend to Congies* that provisions he 
maile for carrying into ciTect the wishes 
of the Indians expressed hv them. 

JA. ES MADISON. 
January 20, 1816. 

In the Senate this message was ban- 
died from one committee to another, 
and no direct report everniade upon it. 
In the Hou>c it was referred to the 
committee on public land.[./o«n!o/ 109.] 
On the 27th of March the committee 
reported. [Journnl 537-8.] Their re- 
port is not inserted on the journal, tho' 
it is a remarkably brief one, iK'iiig in 
I'lese words: 

"The committee recommend the fol- 
lowing resilution: AVso/icti lliat it is in- 
'expedient to ratify the donations of land 
as recoram-nded." 

This report was committed to a 
committee of the whole House; hut on 
the 27th of April, the committee were 
discharged and the report indefinitely 
postponed; [Jounial 744.] a quiet and 
civil method of getting rid of an un- 
pleasant recommendation. 

Thus, it appears, that the subject 
was not referred to the Senate alone, 
as a part of the treaty making power: 
but to Congress as an affair that requir- 
ed legislative enactment to give it ef- 
fect. Though never acted on, in the 
Senate, it was acted on in the House, 
and there condemned and rejected. 
The silence and delicacy manifested by 
Congress prove their strong reproba- 
tion of the thing itself, and their tender- 
ness for Gen. Jackson with regard to it. 
Let us now fairly examine this trans- 
action as it really appears in proof be- 
fore us. The Creek Indians were a 
conquered people, and in treating with 
them, Gen. Jackson was directed to 
^•prescribe terms' to them as such. — 
These terms had been prescribed ; the 
Indians had manifested great aversion 
to them, and had laboured several days, 
*iid hv varioms means t* s»ften and 



.n" come to this com hision, they assem- 
blc a'ld send for the General and Col. 
Hawkins to visit llitm. This visit is 
made, and the conference opened Ir. 
the Indians. They first ask some 
accommodation as to the boundary, 
which is peremptorily refused. Then 
a speech is made enumerating the dis- 
tresses of the Indians, and the obliga- 
tions they are under to Jackson [for 
subjugating tlicm and prescribing terms of 
peace] followed by the ])roposition to 
•'ive him three miles ^^qu;ueof land,to 
be chosen where he pleased " Fuoai 

WH.\T THEV WERE GOING TO GiVE UP.'. 

The reader has no doubt often heard 
of an '■•Iiuliangift.'' Here is one in 
strong colours. Having been compel- 
led to give vp the land to the United 
States, they propose to make first, a 
donation of part to those who compelled 
them to give up the vhole ! ! By this the 
Indians could lose nothing; all they 
[gave away must be taken from the 
United States, to whom they had al- 
ready con'^cutcd to give it up. There 
is an artifice in this, for which (he Ldi- 
ans could have no motive. It bears 
the impress of an interested trick, on 
the part of those who were to receive 
the land; and every one acquainted 
with the manner of managing Indian 
negotiations cannot fail to see it, in its 
true character. No sensible man can 
believe that the suggestion came from 
the Indians. Let no one suppose I 
mean to insinuate that it came from 
Gen. Jackson. Far otherwise. The 
other parties interested were evidently 
those who made the su^geslior. 
True, Mr. Hawkins takes occasion to 
say to the Indians that it '■h csulted from- 
the impulse of their oivn minds; not from 
any intimation from the Gen'l, or himself.' 
This, as the logicians would say, is a 
negative presnant. Its very introduc- 
tion is a ground of suspicion; for it 
betrays a consciousness that the proposi- 
tion did not look natural and right; and 
although Mr. Hawkins did not make 
the intimation himself, I think there is 
little question he knew who did make it. 
But no matter whence it originated. 
The General promptly acceded to ir. 



J?> 



Lire oi. GEX. J ACKsox. 



and minifc-.4cd an entire willingness to ' port it. In the second, language is pu( 
receive the land. The remark that into Ger.end Jackson's mouiii, and coc- 
the President " might if he would," duct attributed to him, which he neith- 
makc other disposal of ii, is very plain- , er ufered nor pursued,as is fullj showii 
ly ttiroi:\n inforcirectohly;theGener-: by the official document,- connected 
al never losing an opportunity to afreet ; with the transaction. And in the same 
the character of lofty and benevolent i manner an incorrect account is given 
feeling. Ti.e General well knew the of the proceeding-; of tiie President ai:d 
President " wollo" wA, if he " miout," ; Congress, wliicli brings into view the 
make the disposition suggested, and 1 ' compliments bestowed on him, bv the 
therefore hold it clear, that he wished President, and keeps out of sight tbf 
to obtain the land. The donation to ' disapprobation of Congress. 
Hawkins met the General'sdecidcd ap- 1 Jn his prelace Major Flaton says: 



probation. " /ic vias well pleased :" — • 



"To pre-^ent things truly as they occar- 



■ thor conduron lh,s head n-as mneh to , ^^,1 has been the wish of .he Hu.hor. and 
thcoT'lU of the naaon. | ,,e believes he has s..ccee<lwl He be- 

fhis treaty was made m August, i.eves so, because he hud no inducemfni 
ISH. It was submitted to the Senate j to do otherwise, and because, havinir al! 
and approved during the ensuing ses- the orisrinrtl papeis in his possession, und 
sion of Congress, As the Senate pass i the opporiunity of cunstani ami repeated 
upon treaties, in conclave, we do not ! '"•'c'"''JU'"ie zi-i/.V tlu sxil.jeci of his hist m: 
know how this donation was regarded,! |here h.is noaveniie to error, unless fio 
or whether it was laid before ihem at '"'en'i<'n. «ii'l Ihis he discluims."' 
1C15, General 



all. In November 
Jackson visited AVashington, where he 
remained until towards the clo?e of 
Dect mher. After his dej)arture, on 
the 20ili January. 181 6, tiie President^ 
brought the subject before Congress,, 
bv recommending an unequivocal con- i 



Conceding to ."Major liitou the good 
intentions which he asserts governed 
him in preparing the work, the misrep- 
resentations I have expressed, must l:c 
traced to Ih.- su!)jcct of the history him- 
self. Mr. Eaton avers that he had con 
staiit a-.d repeated intercourse with 



tirmation of tlie Indian grant. The in- [General Jackson, with respect to the 
fcTonce is strong that the message was matters of fact related in the work, 
acceptable to General Jackson. Tlic ThisnuHt have been the ''(irfwHc to t/- 
lighl in which it was considered by ror,"' through which fiction has got into 
Congress has been already stated, jthe place of truth, in order to give af:i- 

This is the lirsl, a!id oidy instance, | v-jrah|c turn to tlie conduct of the Ke- 
in which those who negociateo, or rath-! ro of the book, ^Vhether General 
er dictated a treaty, altoiccd, if they did j Jackson is, or is not the author of these 
not obtain stipulations to be made for misrep?csentalions,il is certain (hat they 
their own personal advancement; and I exist, and that he has permitted them 
this was the first treaty made by Gen. to stand uncontradicted in a work wrii- 
Jacksonl! The principle is of the { ten utider his own eye, and whilst In- 
most odious and ilanir'TOus character. | was in ^'•comlinU tuid rrpcalcd iid!:rcoum'' 
It is calculated to plant the seed of with the author. If a man who act* 
corruption in a iVnitliil soil for mischief, [ thus, may he justly considered a higlt 
whatever !\Ir. Madison may have said j minded and honorable person, it must 
to the contrary. I he obvious, that honor and high mind 

The misrepresentations which are' edness can associate witit very low and 
shown to have been nrii\c of tln^ two discreditable traits of ciiaractcr. 
transactions her;-noti'ed. have a direct I There is one other ciicumslance, ia 
tendency to pi ice General Jackson's relation to I\Iajor Eaton's work, which 
conduct, in a much more fivorable view deserves iiere to lie noticed. The pre- 
ihan the truth would place it. In the j face informs us that Major lutton un- 
lirst.an assertion is made wholly desti- [ dcrtook to complete the work for the 
Inte of truth. and then an incorrec, or j benefit of the fiaiily of Major Reed, by 
rather girbl.d statement from the jour- whom it was coniineiiceil, but who 
nnls of (he Senate, i-^ adduce ! to suM-diod. n:<i\ Icfl if unfjin-^'ieil. A wisJi is 



iHAN WOKSHIt. 



40 



expressed that tlie work should be "so 
far (;h.iriial)ly received and patroniz.d 
so :is (o aflord ;ulviintac;es to the chil- 
dren of a Ineiui— their father is no 
more! hut as his reproenlalivi^s, they 
have cliiini- of no cornuion ivii'd (ui llie 
Uberality of the pui)hc." The copy 
rig'U is accordingly sccur- d. Ye( an 
edition of this work in a cheap form, 
wifh an appendix full of electioneering 
fals'^hoods, has been recently- puhlisb.cd 
in Cinciiinati. not for the benclit of >ra- 
jor Reed's children, but to aid Gi'neral 
Jackson's aspirations for the Presidc.;- 
cv.'' There is great injustice to Ma- 
jor Reeds children, in permitting their 
properly, in the work, to be pirated for 
G'.iierai Jackson's benefit. A consid 
crable portion of the first edition is yet 
or hand, as we may i.'ifer, iVom the fact 
that it is found as a drug in almost eve- 
ry book store. The edition published 
here was got into circulation, by the in- 
dusirv of a subscription hunter, and the 
aid of politicid enthusiasm. The profits 
were pocketed by tliose concerned.— 
General Jackson's share, being the ad- 
vantage of circulating an eulogium on 
himself, the prejudice to the children 
of Major Reed, that of keeping on hand 
the fdition published for their benefit. 
This too, may be higli-nfLnded and hon- 
orable, in the Jackson system of etiiics, 
t» my opinion it is dishonest. 

C. H. 



M VN WORSHIP. 

The adulation offered to Gen. Jack- 
son, on the 8th of January, is without 
example in our country, or in that from 
which we d<!rive oui- origin. It indi- 
oates more than any thing which has 
yet transpired, the rapid change of 
character amongst us. Half a century 
ago, the American Statesman were 
stern, self-denying, self devoted Re- 
publicans, abhorring all attachments to 
men, and concentrating tljeirjudgments 
and their aifections upon tlie publir 
weal alone. But thirty years by-gone, 
any thing beyond distant respect for 
the person and character of Washing- 
ton himself, was regarded as censura- 
ble seirabascmc'iL, ai;d a reprehensible 
<lereMcti©R from correct republican prin- 



ciples. Now the ballof servile adula" 
tioii to a single man, "is rolling from 
Passama<iU()d.ly bay to the mouth of 
the >li>si>sippi, and levelling as it goes, 
not all, but almost all that stand before 
it."' 

An account of the celebration at 
Washingion is before me, and I regiet 
to say, it exhibits a scene little calcula- 
ted to raise us, in our own estimation, 
or in that of otlier people. The com- 
pany consisted ol all the principal poli- 
ticians of the country, tiien at U'ash- 
ington, opposed to the present Admin- 
istration, and favorable to the election 
of Gen. Jackson. They were a collec- 
tion of eminent and able men. It would 
be equally foolish and unjust to su|)pose 
that they are not sincerely devoted to, 
what they consider, the tru(> interests 
of the nation. Yet all that was said and 
done is strongly marked by incorrect 
feeling and iiy bad taste. In all thmgs 
Gen. Jackson is first, and the country, 
when noticed at all, only second. One 
can scarcely read the account witliout 
a mel.'Micholy recurrence to the history 
of Rome, from the time of the Caesars. 
Mr. Livingston made a speech contain- 
ing a studied eulogium on Gen. Jack- 
son. The auditory were the conscript 
fathers: the senators and rcpreserita- 
tives of a Republican people, and 
claiming to feel, in the highest degree, 
an affinity with the people in republi- 
can sentiment. Nevertheless, as the 
orator proceeded in his strain of hy- 
perbolic eulogy, he was acconipanied 
with enthusiastic reponses, and thun- 
ders of applause. The prostrate Sen- 
ate pressing Tiberius to accept of pow- 
er; his rejdy, that "to choosb or to 
DECLINE would ill bccomr. the man tcho 
tcished to be dis^pcnsed with (ihogHhn-^'' 
the soothing panegyric of Asi;iiu G;d- 
lus, pronounced upon the same occa- 
sion, forcil)ly obtrudes n|)0M the mind 
as presenting a somewhat similar sce-ie. 
Mr. Livingston's eulogium and t' e 
regular toasts having been gone thro', 
Mr. Verplank introduced what he 
termed a "a noble poetical cjfimion," writ- 
ten for the occasion at New York, to 
be sung t!iere,nccompanied with music, 
which was ibrwarded to him, to be read 
10 the compaii\ at AV.ishin<ilon. T'lis 
'^eff-'uHon,'^ Ihraugh ren^ly a Hat and vapid 



a» 



MAV WORSHIP. 



thing full of iliron^rpous metaphoijand I "Alcibindes had a do? of uucommon i'ae 

grammiUical iiiaccuracies.coiitainssome 1 ■""}!^\<'^y «^''.'^^= '*« ^<^ seventy meiuu, and 

g . u _ 1 II -.1 yet his tail, which »a- his principal ornament, 

hnct0iiches,and concludes With a com- hecau^e.ltobecutor^. Some of bis acquain- 
pliment to Jackson no doubt higldy ar- 1 '^ncc I'ounil jireat mult with his acinig so 
■■ ■ jj^Q_ , slraii!;el\, and told him that :ill th.iis rang 

, -1,1 with the *torvuf his fotdish tre^.tment ur his doe. 

If migllt have' At which he lay-hml and sai.l: -^Tlihis 



ceptable to the coinpanv, at 
mcnt it was presented 

passed Wi'll enough had it not been in- ! the rtry thing I -j.anUd: for I icould have Vie 

troduced with so inuch comraendation •■f'/""''"" talk afihh, Utl thty thould/ind nnu 



Ui Ing worse to say of me. " 

By asseiting that Mr. Clay's hook- 



as coming from '•« true poej,''' and as 
having been transmitted from the 

Queen of Cities, as worthy tlie appro- ' was written, with a -jieu- to the same ub- 
hation of the wisdom of the land — view-|Jf'''i" for wiiich Aliibiades cut off the 
cd in this ligiit as it must be, it liiniish-j t<'il of his dog, the Major assumes that 
es rather an unfavorable specimen of t^ie American people are no wiser, 
our poetical talent, and literary taste. {*'''"' were the nibble of Athens, in the 
Then come toast.- sent from Hams- days of Alcibiades. He, in substance 
burgh, from Rockville, from Ve.rmont; asserts, that they are so light and igno- 
to be given and received as evidences | rant, as to be amused and misled, by 
of ardent allection and of plighted faith an incident like that of cutting otftlie 
to the good cause. This method of *"'' <^f a dog. I am very »u re he did 
being present, though distant, Is some- "otsee that his attempt at wit included 
what new in politics.aiid seems to have *'''^ consequence. For had he perceiv- 
been imitated I'rom the contrivance of cd it, he would not have made the allu- 
the separated lovers, who agreed to \ sion. 
commune with each other, by both gaz-' Again. . The avowed object of Alci- 



ing upon the moon at a certain iionr 
utiderstood between them. It is truly 
Platonic and sentimental, especially 
when we remember the sensuality with 
which it is associated. 



hiades was to start a subject trivial in 
itself, least •vonie/A/'/in' nvrsc" should b( 
found, in his conduct to be made the 
theme of conversation. Here again 
the allusion is an unfortunate one. Foi 



Amongst those who gave toasts were i t'le subject of the book, is the vorsl and 
the Vice President, the Speaker of the the oii/y thing Mr. Cla>'s enemies can 
Hou<e of Riprescntatives, Gov. Duval find to urge against him. So that his 
of FloridH, Mr. Clieves, Mr. Van I3u- * 'l'" could not have been the same witii 
ren, and other great men. One was tliatofthe Athenian, as Major Eatoi. 
given by Mr. Desha of Tennessee, cer-' asserts it to have been. But even thi? 
tainly a gross personal insult upon Mr. i '* "ot the most uidiappy consequence 
Brent of Louisiana, and one by Major lo^i'itroducing Alcibiades &. his dog he- 
Eaton, which is entitled to some notice: j fore the good company of which ih«- 

j Major was one. 

"To divert public attention at Athens, Alcj- there is no character in history more 

blades cut oil till' tail 111 a doc; — the modern Al- •. i i- -i i i ^i V .■ • 

ciba.le^ with a view to the same object has writ- 0|'P<>*ltoly discnbed than that of Alci- 
Icn a book." , biadrs. It is "stigmatized with ever\ 

reproach," and "honored with ever\ 

This was no doubt intended to retal-'eulogium.'' And an eminent writer 
liate upon Mr. Clay, here described ai has observed, that "we cannot charg< 
tlic "mo(/rni .//r/WrtrfcV for the ligure j the former with injustice, or the latter 
which Major Eaton cuts in the ''book." with partiality."' But, in whatever 
It is not an appropriate or happy refer- [lipht „,• con-ider the rharacter o( 
ence. On the contrary it is calculated [ Alcibiades. it embraces as manv |)oinl. 
todireil public attention to times and { resemblinii that of Gen. J.ackson, as 
characters, with which com|.arisons ! H.at of Mi\ Clav. In beauty of pen-on. 
maybe drawn, not very favorable to ■ neither of them resemble him, and in 
the company assembled with Major j what other points the resemblance ex 
Kalop, when the toast was given. i isfs may he very stroiiijlv di>puled bv 

The anecdote of the dog is thus re- i the fri'ends of i-ach. AJcibiade- was 
iated by Plutarch: , „„ orator, so is Clay, and Jackson is 



MAN WORSHIP. 



SI 



not. He was a distinguished General, 
so is Jackson, and Cla}' is not. It was 
not so much as an Oialor, as a "Mihla- 
tary Ciiieftain" tliat he inflicted injury 
upon his country. Ho is accused of 
licentiousness, so arc Clay and Jack- 
son botii. Tlie (irs(, that kind of licen- 
tiousness, in which most men indulge. 
The latter, that which is considered 
much the most reprehensible. He was 
accused of ambition, so are Ijotli Clay 
and Jackson. He indulged in luxury. 
So, too, to make himself popular, in 
Sparta, he shaved close, bathed in told 
water, eat coarse bread, and black 
broth, and like Gen. Jackson, " had the 
very extraordinary art of engaging the 
affections of those with whom he con- 
versed." In one other transaction his 
situation was not unlike that of Mr. 
Clay. The demagogue Androdes got 
up a false accusation against him, which 
he attempted to sustain by slaves and 
sojourners. This Androcles, was his 
bitter enemy, and with others '■'■persund- 
"d certain oralors, who ii-cre not reputed to 
he his enemies, but zcho hated him as hearti- 
ly as the most professed ones,'- to insist on 
sending him into foreign service, whilst 
the proceedings went on against him. 

In another affair there is a strong 
analogy between his case and General 
Jackson's. He trampled on the laws 
of his count'-y, and the rights of his 
fellow citizens. But in progress of 
time these things were overlooked, and 
forgiven, and his return to those whom 
he had injured, is thus described by 
Plutarch. 

"When he was laiulcd, tlie niultitndp lli.lt 
came out to raeft hiin, dil nut vouclisatV so 
much as to look upon the other Generals, lint 
crowded up to him, hailed him with shouts of 
?oy, condu'-ted him on the way, and such as 
could not a;ipr>ach him cp>wn('d him with 
garlands. While tho'e that could not come up 
50 close viewed him at a distance, and the old 
men pointed him out to the young." 

Tiiis scene which occurred some- 
thing more than twenty-two hundred 
years ago, is not unlike one, which look 
place within tlie last tw'.'nfy days, in 
which Gen. Jack^on was the Alcibiades 
or principal pageant. 

In another respect there is a striking 
resemblance between Alcibaides and 
General Jackson. The first " so gained 
upon the Athenians that they connived nt 



his errors and spohr of them with all 
imaginahle tenderness." Just so a cer- 
tain part of the American people act 
in r(!spect to Gen. Jackson. 

There is a whimsical similarity be- 
tween Alcibaides and anoihcr great 
man of the present day, so closely allied 
with the gentleman of the celebration, 
that his health was '■'drank standing, 
with reiterated and thundering applause.'''' 

"He had great advantajjes for introduciog 
himself into the management of public affairs; 
from his birth, his estate his riersoual valeur, 
and the number of his Iriends anu relations, but 
uliat he chose above all the rest tiy recummcnd 
himself by, to the people, wastherbarms oi his 
eloquence. He was famed far hisbreed of horses, 
and thenuraber of his Chariots." 

Alcibiades flourislied at a time when 
the bad passions of bad men had a mis- 
chievous sway, upon the councils and 
people of Athens. Those Avho may 
take the trouble to acquaint themselves 
with the history of public affairs at 
Athens, in the days of Alcibides, can- 
not fail to be seriously struck with many 
analogies to what is now in transaction 
before us. One circumstance is thus 
narrated by Plutarch: 

"There was at Athens, one HypERBOLUS of 
the ward of Perithois, whom Thucidydes makes 
mention of, as a very bad man, & who was a con- 
stant object of ridicule for the comic writers. 
But he was unconcerned at the worst things they 
could say of him, and bcini; regardless of honor, 
he was also insensible of shame. This, though 
really impudence and folly, is by some people 
called fortitude -ind a noble daring. But 
thous;h nn one likrdhini, the people nevertheless 
madi rise of him uhen they wanted to strike at 
persons in authority. At his instigation the 
Athenians were ready to proceed to the ban of 
o-trarism, by which they pvtl doirn and expel 
such of the citizen" as are distinguished by their 
dignity and power therein consulting their envy 
rather than their fear." 

Here we have a description to the 
life of a certain Hypcrbolus now '•'•made 
use of at Washington; a person whom 
^•no one likes,''' but at whose instigation, 
many, " consulting their envy rather 
than their fear,'' are ready to "/«<// 
do7vn'"n>cn in power. Where tlie end was 
the same, the means seem to have been 
prettv much the same, in Rome as they 
are in Washington. 

Mr. Hamilton gave a toast. 

"Mavour country have passed to its credit 
the dilTerence between that man who has van- 
tiuished a living hero, and him who is only able 
to spit his venom on the grave of a dead one." 

This pcrcontra of the balance sheet. 
smark« much more of the counting 



au 



MAN WOR!«inP. 



hou5<? than the tented 6eld, or page 
ofcla-sic lore. It i? equally obscure, 
equally venomous, to say the least, and 
far less sientific, than the sentiment it 
is intended to reprobate. Tiie eVoriy 
and topaz toast was never to mv taste. 
I saw no venom in it, but I regard<"ditas 
a fiil:ire. Here, venom is a principal 
and maniA'st ingrcdierit.and no explan- 
ation can be given cither to amu<e or 
to instruct. U'hen we hunt up a mean- 
ing, by supposing, that General Jack- 
son is t!ie "mfjrt" who vanquished a liv- 
ing hero, in the person of Gen. Lam- 
bert, and that Mr. Adams is ^him" who 
Spit his venom on tiie grave ofa '■dead 
one." in the toast with respect to Gen- 
eral Ross, we have still to find who is 
to be creditor in the account, and how 
it i'i that Mr. Adam'' is " on/i/ nblf'"" to 
perform the act attributed to him. — 
A'ld. whe'i we iiave reconciled the ab- 
surdities of the toast a greater difficnltv 
mu«t remain, to vindicate the proprietv 
of the imputation. 

Mr Hail complimented Mr. G'^orge 
Krem?r, and Mr. Krcmcr gave the fol- 
lowing: 

" General ..Indreie Jarkinn — Tlie Natlianiel 
oflh'' prr^ntaje — anlTarlitein wl<om Hieri-is 
no suilp. — When thn Pre«i(li'iiry was out iip 
fo the hi-.'hr<t biHdrr, br Ihp Juda? of the pre— 
ent ai;e, hcfcorned to bid." 

Tins tissue of Maspliemous panegvr- 
ic and disgnicelul calumnv, mig!it have 
been overlooked. comivg from George 
Knmerala late stage of the feast.^ 
But surclv the committee of arrai ge- 
mc ts are incxcusalde for publishing it. 
T^iosc who believe that the t'liaracier 
of General Jackson is, in any respect, 
similar to Natha- oal. are per^o is no? 
to be reasoned with. Neither are thc\ 
who believe tliat it were possiiile for a 
si'igic man to set up the Presidency to 
sale. Tiic promulgation of either sen- 
timent can but discredit and dishonor 
those concerned ii' it. 

Mr. Haync of South Carolina, a gen- 
tleman whom no one should attempt ti 
dis^)arage, gave a toast accom|)atiied 
with some prelimi-iary remarks. — 
Nothing ofihe whole proceedings mor 
di^tinctlv shows tlse d'lusion that over 
spread the whole company. 

•'.Iifr'ic Jarksoii — '•^'l.n likr Wushineton. 
«av'-i 'li- r.ijiin'ry in war; mid like JoffiTsoi. 
»rill savf it in pence." 



To CO-.lipi'.rt- 
New-Orlean-. 
Wa-hington"s ir 
the war of the revo' 

gance we should supi..-L 

proceed from a sane mind, 
phetic comparison with Je'l 
be regarded as the plianiasy o 

In his speed), Mr. Havne oii • ., = 
Mr. Livingston in eulogizing ibt u- a- 
eral. And he relates an anecdote of 
his saving an infant Indian wliose moth- 
er was killed (•^accin'eniaily,") the cniic 
clinging to her breast : taking him !i ni^ . 
& rasing him.a< of itself sufticii-nt i. n- 
(ute the imputations cast api'-i ?'ie 
cliaracteroftheGc'icral. Strargc. ;' at 
Mr. Hayne's ksiowledge of the world 
did not instruct iiim. that trails of hu- 
manity, like this, have at time>, charac- 
terized the most ferocious of our spe- 
cies. The Red Rover of ihe seas, 
has been alfected by them ;is wel 
as General Jackson. Tlie author ol 
VVaverly hardly tiioughtthat he liad in- 
vested HalbcTt Glciidenning «it)i a 
trait of charrter that might exempt 
him from all vi.Ience of feeling and 
harshness of temper, when he put him 
to carry the new born infant of Julian 
Avenel from ihi- tieldof battle, nli ongh 
old Staworth Bolton commen'ied the 
deed. Nevertheless the anecdote is 
cr ditable to General Jackson, and like 
old Siaworth, 1 would pardon him seme 
half dozen of his misdoi;.gs, uj)on that 
account. 

Foreigners, admirers of monarchical 
government, ard contemners of Rejub- 
lican, cannot but exult, when they re- 
ceive the accounts of the recent cele- 
brations. They are devoted to a sir.gle 
man. Bonaparte was never more be- 
praiscd by the enslaved F^rer.ch. F.i^g- 
laiid never witnessed such man service. 
WTien they compare the character a;id 
services, the pretensions and talents of 
this idolized being, with the adulation 
poured out before him,they can sav little 
ravonil<lc to our intelligence orrepuhli- 
■anism. Tlie> cam ot fail to see that 
we are (asl pushinginto the current that 
'las swept all ri-piibiican governments 
into tiic vortex of monarchy That we 
'•outly dispute both the iiicts and the 

Terence argues little against their ex- 
"•■tence. 'Were onr eyes open to our 



REMINISCENCES. 



J3 



dais-.T, it would lie a- an end. and such, pie. But they weie open in their 
wa» the condiuon of all who have pre- opinions of the unfitness of General 
ceded us. i Jackson for the station of President. 

Januarv -2>>. 1S28. i After the election ol Mr. Adams, they 

j adhered to rbeir old views, occasionally 

^ — expressing themselves very sensibly. 

upon the comparative and respective 

REJii.MSt E.NCES. , qualifications of Mr. .Adams and Gener- 

Oiie of tlie rciTular toasts of the great a! Jackson, for the proper discharge 
Ja' kstin dinner at Washington, is in of the ex'-cutive duties. At different 
diese Words: i periods. the different gentlemei, became 

__ . ' irterted with a certain political disease 
.r..tsm f-KuiepmrTh- con-cienc«ofpub- once Called n/^H/ra%. but now more 
Kc ftien, and seltin; jart buunds lo tbeir ambj- : generally described as ^^ stradling the 
tsfn." fence." And since July last, in each 

A more correct sentiment is seldom case, this disease has assumed the type 
uttered, ar.d t.i give it practical t-fftct of a confirmed Jackson fever. 
is tiie -ole oi.icci for whicii tiie present But before I proceed turther. it may 
work is esia..li-ned. Much good has not be amiss to give some explanatioa 
l>e;.a effected by a free discussion of of those affected with the disease I have 
pri.'K-iples and measures. But the mentioned, and its usual probable ter- 
moit ffficient ageitey ot the press, is that mination. Edmund Burke, a most pro- 
wi.ich is employed, in a critical exami- foui.d political casuist, thus describes 
naiio.i of the pretensions and motives of the subjects of this disease, as they ex- 
th.>se who hold, or are candidates for isted in Ecglcind, about llie jear 1793: 
office : or who otiierwise disti:iguish | 
tlie.-n-f-lves in public affairs. Even! " Sach men can serre no cause, for this plain 

1 -1 L- _A- _. *' Ti reason — th»^v bave no cauae at heart. They 

man bears easily his portion Ot general ^„ ^^ be^^^ork onlr as mere mercenaries.- 
cer.sure. Not so, does he leel a critique Jhej have not been guUtj of great crime* ? bat 
a'»on hi« own dearlv beloved self. — 't '- "nly because thev have i;ot encrcv of mind 

Hence ti.e press, to be -#W should '^J^^^Z k'^^'^thtTr^fr^se^a'bTe 
occa5:o:ially take up and examine the fowls whose flijht is not abovs their dunghill 

political historv and political preten- or hecruost. Bet they tremble before the an- 

■•_ ,- J.1 " I J I „^„. „^„ „r.k„ • Ihors of these horrors. They admire them at a 

Sions ot the^ould-be great naeo ot the ; ^^^ ^^^ respectful dUti-Jjce.-* Tlere nerer was 
land. To do this Ul a proper manner, | a mean and abject mind that did rot admire an 
ha« a two-fold good effect. Just pun- ' intreHi! and delteroos TiUain. In the bottom 

ishment is indicted upon the delinquent, °^ j}':;\^''Z\^'\wlV^ 2^,6^1l ^i 

. r T creants to be the only men qualineu lor ^reat 

and a salutary (ear imposed upon such aflairs^if von set them to transact a business 

as mav incline to follow an evil exam- with »ach persons, they are instantly subdned. 

pie. Within the period of the last sea- Tbej dare not somuch as look their antagonist 

i r in the lace. Thev are made to be their sub- 

SOn. three eminent characters in UtllO, jects, not their arbiters or controllers. These 

have pur-ued a S>mewhat extraordi- men. to be sure, can look at attrocioas acu 

Dar%- course, and some two or three "ilhout indi^aUon, and c,n behold saffenn; 

, , , Tirtue without sympathy. 1 nerelore thev are 

great men of lesser note have borne tbem considered as sober and dispassionate men.— 

company. As thev are all politicians. But thev have their passion?, thonsh of another 

•ind occupants of. or aspirants after of- ^"«ii f »d which are infinitely more likely to 

c . . \ , ' - 1 carry them out 01 the path 01 tneir duty. They 

face. It IS deemed proper lO give them a are of a tame, timid, lansuid, inert temper. 

place in the .Anti-Jackson Expositor. tehenmrthe ice//ar» o/ others u f»n«nwrf. In 
At the last Presidential election the ' ^<^ ""'^' =^° they bare no moUve to action, 

^, 11 J J 11 I -1 : they never possess any real abUitT, and are to- 

gentlemen alluded to. were all hostile • „,iy destitute of all resources." '>theonly thing 
to the election of General Jackson. ! that occurs to such a man, when he has ^ot a 

Thev were neither active nor efficient '-nl"*^.'"' °^r' *■»» ^i* ^^nds, is, how to 

.f - L 1 1- ,^ L 1. , :iiake his own tortone oot ol it. Insteaa ol 

in their hostihty. (I mean the three of , .hinkinz how he shall defend r is grnond to the 

eminence) because thev are vour pru hist, and if forced to relreat, how little he shall 

dent cast of men. who' seldom expose | -iye "r, <*"^ fei"^ o'" "a" considers how much 

, , , , . . ' 1 01 the intt-rest ot bis emploTer he is to sacnhec 

themselves to labour, inconvenience. , ,„ ^j. adrcrsary. Having'nolhing but himself 
•or reproach for the good of other peo- in view, he kno'w?. that in scrrins his principa*. 



54 



BEJUIxMSCENCES. 



with zeal, he must probably incur some resenl- 
ment from the opposite party. Hisobjccit is to 
obtain the pood will of the person «ith whom 
becouteiids. that when the agreement is made, 
he may join in rewardiun him. I would not 
take one of the?e for .ny arbitrator lur ?o much 
as a fish pond, for if he reserved the mud to me 
he would be sure to give the water that feil the 
pool to my adversary." 



Now, I do not take upon me to say 
thai our gentlemen of the fence are en- 
tirtly of (l,e same character liere de- 
scrihetl. Nor do I assert, that, after 
sittinsupon tlic fence the appropriate 
period, and then dismounting on the 
side oppo.-ite to that from wiiich they 
ascended, they are still to he consider- 
ed and estimated, as though they re- 
m:iiiied upon tlie fence. In general, 
however, it is very certain that thev 
ascend tlie fence for the purpose of ta- 
king the hest possible survey of the 
contiguous pastures, and, no doubt, ( 
with the intentionof dismounting upon 
that side uhicli thev deem the most 
rich and luxuriant : 'and should they 
gel into a field of cheat, we mav he 
very sure that they mistook it for "timo- 
thy. Probably their object is as cor- 
rectly described in another metaphor, 
.-ipplicd to the same general class ol 
poliliciaus, at a diflercnt period: 

" They stand in sight 

And (|uiei|y see the parties fijht, 
Judgiugthc stroncest side the right, 

Till anc prevail. 
Syne, smack, to fa' wi' a' their might, 
On them wha fail." 

But to return from this digression to 
Ihc eminent personages of whom I pro- 
pose to speak. I must, how ever, pre- 
'nise that I find some diliicullvin intro- 
ducing them, all having been dii^nila- 
nes enlided to the courtly appellation of i 
himnrnlitc, \ knttw not how to give a pre- 
ference, in the order of naininc ihem, 
Hiat shall be satisfactory to them all. 
Tliey all commenced their public ca- 
reer together in high stations, which 
they all abandoned lur other vocations, 
where Ihc gradation oflheir importance 
has been changed, literallv making the 
first la,-l. and the last first. To follow 
the prciferencc, as it was arranged, 
when their honors first blushed upon 
them, whil>t it graiihed hii,i who would 
thus he preferred, would lo namini: 
A//)i last, who has attained the highes'i 
-tations. and who ..lands now ""most 



prominently before the public. This 
might seem inviduous. On the other 
hand to give him precedence, w ho is 
now most conspicuous, might be regard- 
ed as a mean attempt, on my part, to 
court the rising sun; a thing that I 
abhor as I do bad wine at a good din- 
ner. But, in either case, I am compel- 
led to place much the greatest man, 
in his own estimation, in Hie middle, 
wbcrebv I shall certninlv gi\c otfence, 
for though lliere may be safetv, in a 
medium there is no honor it. ' To 
cut tlien this gordian knot, let me sav 
bluntly: I refer to the late lion. T. 
Scott, and to the present Hon"*. \Vm. 
W. Irwi.v and Eatha.v ,\. Brown. 

In the year 1810, these gentlemen 

were appointed judges of the Supreme 

Court of Oiiio, contrary to the constitu- 

I tion, and in violation of the undoubted 

rights of the then existin<; Judges. 

Then this was matter of controversy. 
.'\orc it is indisputable. It is onlv refer- 
red, to as evidence that the gentlemen 
are liable to fall into \ er) capital er- 
rors, on politic at subjects, where tliev 
are personally concerned and as 
evidence also, that, in times by gone, 
they were willing instruments ofa'tem- 
porary faction.aiid lent ihemselvesto the 
erroneous doctrines, the faclionisis set 
up, lo prevail once, aiid lo be everafter 
abandoned. 

After a service of about five years. 
Judges Scott and Irwin, becanie se- 
riotisly impressed with the belief that 
theirhigh lalonts were not sutlicientiv 
compensated with as;,|.iry of one thous- 
and dollars p-jr aninim. And because 
the Legislature would not increase it, 
they took a lit of the pouts, and, in the 
midst of the circuit of the court*, with 
most significant dignilv. sent in their 
resignations, and returned lo the pro- 
fession of the law. 

in the fiill of It!|;>. .ludge Scott was 
elected a member of the House of 

Kepreseiilatives from Ross county 

But he dodged and /omAc/ so man v im- 
portant ipiestion.s, that the people of 
[loss coiinly hnt all confidence in him, 
and he could not be re-elecled. In 
ini7. his honor who had resigned the 
chief justiceship with a salary of oric 
thoqsand dollars. wa,s a cantlidate for 
the office of President Judge wiih thr 



KEKIINISCENCES. 



aamc salary, and [;ol a few votes, so as 
to stand third on tlic list. From that 
time, his honor was a standing caiidi- 
dato for judicial stations, wliencver 
there was a vacancy, up to 1824, and 
with about the same prospect of sac- 
cess. In 1824 his honor warmly advo- 
cated tlie election of Mr. Adams. A- 
mongst other Ihinjjs lie wrote a long es- 
say vilifying Mr. Clay, and General 
Jackson, which he sent to the Adams 
committee, at Citscinnati, for puhlica- 
tion,bu( which.they deemed it impolitic 
and imprudent to publish. After the 
election of Mr. Adams, his honor set it 
down as certain, that the laljourer was 
worthy of his hire, and accordingly, up- 
on the first suitable occasion, put in his 
claim. Conceiving that by (he pas- 
sage of a new law, or by the death of 
Judge Tod, there would be a vacancy 
in the bench of the supreme court of 
the United States, in the winter 1825- 
182G, he drew U]) a i'Ccommendatio!i of 
himself for that office, and personally 
solicited subscribers. Having obtained 
?omc thirty or forty, he proceeded to 
Washington, where he bored the Pres- 
ident, Secretaries and others, with such 
pertinacious indecency, that it became 
impo>>il)lc for even their politeness to 
conceal their disgust. He was disap- 
pointed, and came home a gentleman 
of the fence, where he sat gazing a- 
round him until July, 1827, when the 
declaimers (i)r General Jackson so be- 
clouded his virion that he mistook a crop 
of cheat for timothy, and slid himself 
down upon the Jackson side of the 
fence. He attempted a miserable a- 
pology and again presented hhiiself to 
the people of Ross county, a candi- 
date for the Legislature. But mene 
lekel was written in the ballot boxes, 
and the ex-chief justice,would-be Presi- 
dent of Common Picas, w'ou Id-be asso- 
ciate justice of the Supreme ("ourt of 
the United States, is left to follow his 
profession, and sing hosanah to Gener- 
al Jackson. 

Next in rotation comes the honora- 
ble \Vm. IV. Irwin. His honor, having 
abandoned the supreme judge-ship in 
1815, was again willing to take that 
station in 1817, was a candidate and 
received a very paltry vote. Again, in 
1819. there beins a supreme judge and 



a senator in congress to choose, his 
honor long debated, in his own mind, 
which ol'tue two olliceshe would oblige 
the people by deigning to accept, aiid 
finally learned there was no possible 
chance for him to obtain either. In 
1 823, he conceived the state stood in 
great need of his services for governor, 
and ol)ligingly consented that his name 
might be u>cd ; but the ballot boxes 
bore testimony that his honor's good 
opinion of himself, had again deceived 
him. The county of Fairfield, in 1825, 
compassionating his yearnings for pub- 
lic employ, elected him a number of 
the House of Representatives, and he 
was chosen S[)eaker. Again he felt 
his budding honors fresh upon him; 
and a vacancy in the Senate of the Uni- 
ted States being near at hand, he con- 
sidered himselfcertainly placed in that 
station. Sensible that a majority of the 
Legislature of Ohio, was Anti-Jackson, 
he took occasion, when out of the chair, 
to make a flourishing Anti-Jackson 
speech, on the Tennessee amendment 
of tlic constitution, which gave him con- 
siderable repute with the supporters of 
the administration. He was again e- 
lected to the House of Reprcsenta- 
(ives, in 1 826, but not again elected 
speaker. The election for senator 
in Congress came on. His honour 
was a candidate, and voted for, under 
the impression that he was a friend of 
the administration, but a belter tried 
friend was preferred. Disappointment 
again beset him, and in 1 827 he dis- 
covered that he bad been a lacksoninn 
for the last several years!! His seat 
upon the fence was of short duration. 
He floundered from one side to the 
j other, with all the confidence of a 
dri'.nken sailor,and deserted old friends 
and courted new ones in a style which 
Arnold himself could not have exceed- 
ed. Next fall his honor is to be a can- 
didate for Congress. As 1 am no pro- 
phet, but an historian, it behoves me 

to be silent 

I come now to the Honomhle Ethan 
Alku iSroavi, who, from a lawyer with- 
out practice, was made a judge of the 
SupremeCoiirt. in violation ot'the Con- 
stitution, and in violation of (he right 
of another judge; and who was re- 
elected judge, because he had kept his 



56 



KEHINISCENCKS — VIRRIMA CONVENTIO.V. 



station when hi.s colleagues resigned in 
digiiilicd dud<;eon about salary: who 
ivas afterwards elecled Governor to 
get liinr off the bench, in opposition to a 
candidate, a Bee-hcxter by prolcssio', 
who could hardly write hi* name And 
who was re-elected Govertior when no 
one else sought the station. Accident 
and the unpopularity of the opposing 
candidate transferred him lo the Senate 
of the United States, in the descent 
from which station, his fall was com- 
passionately broken, by the appoint- 
ment of Kund Commissioner to the ca- 
nal. The offices conferred upon his 
honor were matters tangildc to his 
senses: the chapter of accidents by 
which he attained them was too sulitle 
for his comprehension. He fancied 
h\mse]( a pro-'Ii-ffi-ous great man, and 
his greatncsship has taken offence, at 
we know not wiiat. He mumbles miser- 
able F'rench. and therefore thought he 
should have been sent minister to Mexi- 
co. He could not see or feci a reason, 
why he was not conliyucd in the Senate 
of the United States, for he had no 
comprehension of the accidents that 
placed him there: So he became soured 
and mounted the fence. He once lived 
in New York, and Dcwit Clinton had 
accorded him the honor of being one 
of his retainers, ten degrees removed, 
about in the station occupied by Caleb 
Afwatcr; consequently Ucwit Cliriton 
must be the greatest man in the world; 
Dewit Clinton him>elf sat upon the 
fence, looking which side he should 
take, and the honorable Ealhan Allen 
Broivn was conformable. At length 
Dewit Clinton declared for Jackson, 
and the honorable Enihnn Allen Brozrn 
exclaimed. "/ en/ diltn." For this he 
heads the Jackson tiiket in Ohio, and 
linds hini-elf rcparated from most of 
those, who helped to make him a great 
man, and associated wilii those who 
have uniformly opposed him, and <.'ven 
affected to despise him. F.rce ■ji^niun! 
Of the /«.<£»• great men, I will now 
name only two. 

Firstly. The Honorable David 
Smith, his ride ujton the fence and tinal 
lounge into the cheat |)asl ire are larless 
selfish than that of his compeers. He 
is more zealous than mcrcenar)'. But 
unfortunatelv he is also more zealous 



than discreet. Those who si.oulu i:ave 
cherished him as a colleague.have heat 
'lim off as a drone. He ascei.did ihc 
fence reluctantly, and sal upon if cast- 
ing many a "longing lingering look" 
U|>o)i tlie field-i from which he was ex- 
p' lied. His case is a hard one, and 
calls for commiseration rather thnn 
censure. 

Second. The Honorable John C. 
S!>orl,a gentlemari who^e moritid sen- 
bilities became desperately excited, at 
some fancied insult to the niaiies of a 
deceased relative, in reveiige of which, 
he felt himself constrained so to act. 
a? to excite suspicions, in the mi ds of 
many, again-^t living ones; taking care 
however, to reap lor himself, an imme- 
diate reward for bis change of course. 
His seat upon the le^ce was briet^ if 
ii.decd he sat all. His change of po- 
sition resembled the leap of a breaciiy 
horse, and his apology bears all the 
marks of being manufactured for the 
occasion. He has been cordially 
greeted bv his confederates; and tliey 
mav,no doubt safely trirst him. I am 
very sure liis ca-e is not that of Sear- 
gcant Champ, v. h:itever else it m;'.v be. 
RFMRMBRANCER. 



VIHGIXIA COXVFrVTIOX. 

The subjoined extract, from the Ad- 
dress of the Virginia Anii-Jackson Con- 
veiilion.is considered a particularly ap- 
I pio|)riate article to be inserted it' tlie 
I Anti-Jackson Expositor. It pourtrays 
, in vivid colors, the strong objections 
j that exist to the election ot Gen. Jack- 
! son. President of the United States, ai:d 
I it is recommended by the consideration, 
j thai it proceed* from tliose who were 
I neither original >uppor!ers of ]\Ir. Ad- 
lams or Clav. The base and stale 
I charges of coalition, bargain, and trans- 
j feree, can in no sense he applied to the 
framersor adopters of this address. — 
They were neither Adams men, imr 
I Clav men, nor have they been engaged 
•in supporting or eulogizing either ol 
these di>tinguished men. They are 
meii of higli standing, of mature age, 
and of the first order of character in 
I Virginia. The opiiiioi,* they advance 
■ are not liable to the objection thatthw 



VIRGINIA COJIVEJJTION. 



57 



are pensioned editors, or beggarly of- 
lice seekers. Tiiey occupy siations in 
life to which the^e iniputuiions cannot 
attach. Ami wliatcver they assert is 
entitled to the higiest conlidcnce. — 
Nothing is more maiiilest than that a 
regard Cor t!ie cou-itry, and just apprc- 
hosionofthc coiisequence of rnaknig 
Gen. Jackson President, arc the sole 
motives of their action. And surely 
the redecting part of the community 
cannot permit themselves to disregard 



sened. F om wliat lia? r. cci; J. t i iS- 
pired in Congress, it would seem ; lat 
tiie illegality nf this execution is noi to 
be longer dispulcd; anaticnipt is lo be 
made, to ca>t the blame ironi Gc'ienil 
Jackson to Governor Blount of Tennes- 
see; this cani.ot succeed. It was the 
duty o( Gen. Jackson to know tne law, 
and the ign )raiice or indiscretion of 
Gover;;or iilount, w!io was noi called to 
decide in a case of liie and d*'ath, can- 
not be ^et up as a ])lea lor him. He 



the opi'iions of such men, called out i perpetrated a %„/ murder, if that 
under such circumstances'. I which the law did not aulhorize can 

Thev are not tlie men, who in lG24,jbe considered legal, if not, then the 
denounced Gen. Jackson, and depre-i homicide is v\it;ioul any justification, 
cated his election as a rwxc upon //icj But furlherintrodu.tiouis useless. Tiie 
anintri/. Thev arc not the men anathe- 1 extract from the address speaks for if- 
matizcd by Gen. Jackson at that time,' self. Let every well meaning man read 
tar otherw'isc— Those who manifested it, and, if he can, lay nis hand upon hi« 
so much horror then at the thought of i lieart, and vote ibi Gen. Jackson. 

Gen. Jackson's success, are nozv his ac- "The fnenUs of Gen. Jackson have cofiacBt-. 
live supporters. There seems to have i b h^ia hun up, as the favorile of the People— 
1 a; •• ft • *!,„:.. .^., I have iusi ted ihut, 111 the last election, liis plu* 

been an aftmity of temper in their mu-! ^^,,^^y ^,|.^^j^^ _,_.^;^,l ,,„^j^j^^ n.e choice of the 

tual violence, that recommends them , nalion— and have bitt.rly cdi.ii.lamed, that 
to each other. Like all extremes they i <('«' choice was impro. eriy disapijointcd by the 



meet and harmonize. The supporters 
of Wm. H. Crawlbrd, have brought 
themselves to ofler adoration to Gen 



Representatives in Congress. 

Never was there a n.orc direct appeal to thos« 
prejjdicesand passion?, which, on ail occasi(jnp„ 
the good shoiilil disdain, anil the \vi:e should 



Jackson, and to support John C. Cal- repre-s: ntverwasa complaintmoreultprlv un- 
, r> t iL ti Til' J J iloundeil; and neverone niore characteristic of 

houn. But the authors of this address ,hat disr.^ard f,.r the Con-iitutn,n, which ha. 



notof the number. A\ hilst they vin-i been maniiested on more occasions thaii one, 
dicato the I)ublic course of Mr. Adams, »''«" ■'-' l"-ovi>-iou stood in the way of General 
, I I ,1 1. 1 ■ -n 1 Jackson's Uiarcli. 

thev do not Hatter him, eitlier as a pub- 1 ., ^ , , • ,. o , , r 

,. • . ^ rrii \ i Whether Gen. Jackson IS the People's favo- 

hc or private man. ihey content '^^^ „ to be tested b:> the evmt, not a,?uined as 

themselves with speaking the truth,' the bails of the pei.dins eliction. 'that his 

naked and unad. rned. Neither dol plurality of votes prove,) him to be ti.echoiceof 

, . , , . ,. ., ,. ■ I the nation at the last elecuoii, we conlidentlr 

tlicy indulge m ranting vituperation, or j ^1^,,^. ,( .^^^^ ,„.ri,ap., be found, upon exam- 

Vulj;ar invective against Gen. Jackson. | iaalion, that, w idle Gen. Jackson had a plurali- 
And whilst thev expose the mischiev-; 'V of electoral v.,les, Mr. Adams had a phirali- 
, , - ' , ^,. 1 I tv ol voles at the poll- ; and we are corlidenf, 

OUSand dangerous tClidencyof Ins pub-j^,,,ti|Mr. Crawford and Mr. Cla^ had beer 
lie conduct, diey ex;>ressly actiuit him I withdrawn from the canvas.^, and the come' 
of any evil design against the public l had been single-handed between Gen. Jack>or 
, ■' , ,, ,.^,1 . 1 i . ti and Mr. .\danis, the election would liive resulti 

good. In all this their conduct is the L^, ^^ ,t has done, in the choice of .Mr. Ad- 
rcverse of that pursued by the support- ams. 
trs of tiie General. Tiiere is a tern- But this isnot the li?ht in which this question 

,.^ 1 1 i. ii • J 1 diserves consideration, riieuiindsol the peo- 

per a- diik-rent between this adiliess, ,,,p „„^,,j „„t ,„ ^e influenced by such exirane- 
aid tlie JiroceedingS of t!ie Washington ous considerations; and above all, t!ie i>nnci- 
Jackson dinner, as if they took pl;ice h''e' of ""■• Constitution ou-hi not to be abused, 
, ,, ' , f y./j- ,' bv ailiiiiltiiis; fv>r a moment, iliat the nluraiity 

amo.lgst the people ol a ddlerent COUn- | „f ^.^i^, ^„e„ ,„ General J nckson, -honld hnVe 

try. They Sta:id in as strong con- 1 i^ovemed the choice of Ihi- Hou<e of Repre- 

trast aslifrht and darkness, as 'Topaz\»>>^-*"'''- V ''" "°t meai to say, that a 
,_,,"_,, . . . ■ 1 iiroocr res.. ert for the wishes ol the nation, lair 

fuul Ebonji. The one is characterised 
by a dig litied moderation, tlie other b\ 
a desperate a"d reckie?-; violeme. 

In this a<ldrcs.5, the ilkvgal exccutio 
•f the six militia men i« divlinctly ' • 

H 



Iv asciTlaiiied,'>ii!;ht not always to be observed 
by its Reoresi-ntaii'es. Rut we do say, th'.t 
the present t hicf .MaRitrate holds his se.it t.y 
(he will of the pennl of the IJhiied States, 
I'iU arly exjiressed, in ili.-o:ily way in v. hirti 
an expression of that will has any authority. 



s» 



VIKGINIA CDNVENTIOJT. 



They hnve uilleil, in the uiost soicnaii form — 
in the I'onii or a CuiistitutioD, which Ihey de- 
clare thall be llie sujirtme law of the hind — 
that a plurality of votes sliall n>>t coDstituteaii 
election; that, when then' is such plurality, 
the Hepresentativcs shall cU ct, voting hy slato. 
Thus withdrawine from the people, that equal- 
ity ol influence whioh is ;iivcn them m the lir-t 
vote, ai.J tran-ierring it to the stales in the 
secoiui. This provision ol" onr Con'tituli m is 
in tue true spirit which pervades the whole of it, 
anJ which oiark^ it the result of a conference 
between state-i, siirreiidenngin part, and retain- 
iusin oart, their political equahty Shall tin* 
•pirit bi; appealed from, on every occasion in 
which it was intended to sooUie ind conciliate, 
and tiie spirit of faction be invoked, to osnose 
our lllngi^t^ate3 to unpHt prejudice, and brins 
ou"^ ihstituti.na into discredit! These Ihinu'' 
are revolutionary iu their tendency, and oughi 
to be diicniraned. 

Of like character is the complaint again^it the 
Ken'u. ky delegation. Cor di^i«t,'arding the in- 
tttnctions of their Legislature. We have too 
loucli rt-:i|iect for the Lepslatiire of Kentucky 
losup;>o<e that they meant to hind the delega- 
tion by an instruction. We ■ an only suj'pose 
thatth.y me int to furnish the be;t inforuMiion 
iu thi power, of the opinions of the Peojde on 
a tpiesliipn which had nevi r been sMbmitte<l to 
thcai. ^iich iufiriualiou was entitle! to iht 
respect oue to intelli<eiil opinion, and no inor>-. 
It was i..<l the cuiHlitutioiial or:;an through 
which t. e will of t^ie people was to becon\eyi d 
to the !('■ iresentative. The Ileprejeiilatives in 
Congre^i were direcllv responsible to their con- 
stitnenti, not to the Legislature. And an at- 
tcm 't .rf the Leiislatiirc toco-Hrol tlie immi'di' 
ate llepreseiitativesoflhtt People — would he an 
usurp itioii U[ion the rights of the Pe^i^le — an 
act, which, iiisteail -f dc-erviiij; obedience, or 
even r'spect, requireil resistance and even rep- 
rohaliou. The faithful reiresentativc will 
obey the instructions of his constitui'iit« when- 
ever coiislittiti'Miall) given. He will oa\ a re- 
apectf ilaiteiition lo their wishes, and every ev- 
idence of their wishes. But, iviien not bound 
by instruction, he will look beyond the iiiiner- 
fccl evidence ol their will, inforinJy convey- 
ed ; he will rest upon the conclusions of his owi 
mind, fornieil from the best lights he can obtiin; 
will consult his country's good, anil (irmly in.et 
the resjnn^ibdity of those acts, he d<;eins proper 
for its Rtt.iinment. This »vc believe (be Ken- 
tucky deles.itioii did. Thej were not instriict- 
Isd — iie.y d'd not choo'e to sh'lter them". !\i s 
from respons'ilility, under tiie cover of a !■ l'i-Ih- 
tive reconinieiiUHlioii: eoiisnltiiig their own 
ludgni'Mits, they preferred (he man thought 
most capable of advancing the interest of his 
country; and there is no ipiestion, that Vir-^nnia 
then concurred iu the opinion, and approved 
the net. 

This vole, which, if honestly given, is an af- 
fair ch'.elly betwe ii the Reprcseutativ'' and his 
Constituents, woulil not have been obtruded on 
yonratlelilion, had it not been connecti'd with 
ii charge of grave import, imde uion the purity 
of the clecti.iii, impenchiiig t'le integrity of the 
Chief MaL-istrate of the Natiui, ami the fir:-t 
niember of his Cabinet This charge, in its 
ilrongest form, imports that, at the last elec- 
tion, the vote of the Kentnrkv dele/nlion was 
tn the ni'irket, for the I'i.-h. -t hid'ler; that it 
rrai •Ifered lo siie candidate, and buiof; refused 



by him, v.-as sold to the other; and ili.,i ihe 
consideration of the vote, wa> the office of Sec- 
retary of state, bestowed on Mr. CI ly. If thi; 
were true, we should not hesitate to a.firai,that 
It stamps inlamy on the characters of the guilty, 
ai~i.jcnders tliem forever unworthy of public 
trust. 

This charge, not so strongly, howcv r, a* hai 
oeen here staled, was made for the first time, 
.•endi.ig the PreddentiaJ election. It was 
roiuptly met, and challengoil by ^Ir. Cl.iy, and 
deserted hy its supporters. They rallied a^ain, 
aft r the election, gave it a form soiiiewhat va- 
reid, drew to it some imposiii^ circuiiistan- 
ces, and, at last, gave it the public sanction 
of General Jackson's name. Mr. Ciay again 
publici) denied it, called for thB proof, and 
c!;allenged inquiry. No proof has appeared to 
sustain it, no inquiry h:is been ^nttituie'i. and 
now in all iLs ph.<s-s, it stanil reprobai.-d, by 
a b >dy of jiroof, so s tron; an i 'i) c niviiiciiig, at 
to re^piire from the li-astchdrilalile. its open dis- 
avowal, and from the most 'us|,ici,„,5^ ^ candid 
ackiiowledgciuent, th.it they have done injus- 
tice in even thi:ikiiig it probable. 

It may not be unw«»rthy of notice, as one of 
the means by which the public mind has been 
preju liced and lollamed.th.it opiii;ons,the most 
olTensive to a Rep'-hlicao peuple.have been nu- 
warrantalily auduiicaiilidly irfered from s.jiue 
■ <f the President's coii.uiiiuicatious to Con.russ, 
and grivelj impnled to i.i n as doctrines in his 
political rreeil. He ha- ei one occasion, not 
nerhaps with stiict rheiojicaJ proonety, used 
ihc Words "p.ilsii.J by ^he will of our const tu- 
eiits"' — in relerence to duties enjoiacd by the 
Coiistituiion. 

This phrase has been torn from its context, 
iuisinteri>rete.l, niid used as the utilhorit) upon 
which the Prcs i^leiit is charged with the heresy, 
that a representative owes no oblieation to the 
I rtillof his constituents. On another occasion, 
I incautiously taking it for grauled that eiery 
j one wuul 1 uuderstanil thai the high obligation 
of an oath was lierived from Heaven, he has 
again, perhaps, witiioui innch felicity of phrase, 
I made an obvious, though not avowed rtferencj 
I lo hisoith of oiBcc, as im osing an obligation 
above all human law — and this reference is tor- 
t tureil into .1 pualic avowal of the oUious doc- 
1 Ihae, that his political power was jure divino. 
j If these hod been the taunts and the railing of 
aiionyiuou* newspaper scribbler*, they would 
I have been dnen.ed unworthy of this public 110- 
I tice. But when such ch.irges arc seriously 
made and reitenUed, by men hohling high sta- 
tions in r.e go*trnuient, ami exercising strong 
iadueuceover pnohc opinion, they cannot be 
loi' -tr,«igly Condemned. 

Mr. AJains, it is .said, is friendly lo a regula- 
tion of the Lirilf of duties, with H view to the 
enconraeement of American nianiifaetures, and 
[ this is clnjii'<roiis|v urged airainst him, as a seri- 
ous objeclion, by those who support the election 
of General Jackson. 
I The objection seems to have l>een treated, be- 
fore the public, as if .Mr. .Adams were the found- 
er of a new and odious dortrine, and the father 
of the me. isures to which he hid given biilh.— 
Nothing ran he further irom the truth. Not a 
sinxle act of covernment. on this snhiect, has its 
<h>(e within his administration. And so far 
is he from bcinc the foumler of the doctrine, 
(lint it istraieil to the earliest and purest limes 
' of the Republic, uvowed and acted upon from 



VIRGINIA CONVENTION. 



Sfi 



thi: Ibumlaiioa of the Governnn^nt when the 
F;itlu?r olhisCuiiutry presided ovrrits dc?tiiiK-s. 
Bi.r.ire the adopti );i oi'the Federal C'onstitii- 
tii)i., the power of regiilutiiigcomiiicrce, anil ini- 
pgjing duties oil ini iDfts belonged to the ^lite 
Governincnts, and such nfthein, as doenn d it 
expedient, s;> r»gul*ted their tariff of duties a* 
to •^ive encouragecoenl to tlieir niiiii;ifactiire=. — 
The (^u!i!<titutijn Iransferreil to the Fedei;il 
Gbvorniiient, bj' express provision, the power 
of rt'^i .ting comiiierce, and of iniposinj duties. 
An act, pas.*cd at the first session of the first 
Coii.res.-, hild under the Constitntii>n, advoca- 
t('d hy James M'l .ison, and signed b)' George 
VVashinsTton, on I'le <!Oth of July, 1789, com lins 
the lir't laritf of duties on imported goods laid 
bv the General Government, and its preamble 
recites, that it -.v.is "le-ccssary for the support 
ofG >vcrniiciit, 'orihe diseh irge of the deblsof 
the United States and the encouraff^'ment and 
proti'ction of inanufactures '' This doctrine 
was ai:ted upon, by e\ery ^ucccedinir Adminis- 
tration, by the older Adams, by Jeirersou, by 
Mndisun, and >I I'.roe. The policy of protecting 
Sz encoiira:;in^ tnannfactiires was recommend- I 
cdhythem di; the t irilF was increased from 
time to time, wiih a view to that object ; and yet, 
no champion ol tlie Constitution, thougii many 
and bold in<\ able there were, always at their 
posts, e\er ctiall'iiged the authors of these 
measures, as invader- of constitutional crouiid; 
until, during the administration of the last Pres- 
ident, whi'nthe fathers of the Constitution, hav- 
ing mist of thim retired from the field of action, 
a nii'iibcr ironi Virginia suggested, in Congress, 
tlie wait III con'litutional power to give pro- 
tection to manufactures. 

On this question we forbear to enter the field 
of argument; and content ourselves with sav- 
ing, that the power of Congress to regulate the 
taritr of duties, so as to give protection and 
encouragement to agricultiir'', manufactures, 
Ciunmerce, and navigation, cannot be denied, 
without dnnyiiig to the letter of the Constitu- 
tion its plain import, and to its spirit its most 
obviousandcs-enti il attributes, w th.jut alfirin- 
ing ihat those who have adiuinislend the Gov- 
ernment, from its foundation to the present 
day have either misiin lerstnod the charter of 
their powers, or wan'only an I habiiually yio- 
lat"dit; wiinait coming to tile e>;tr lordinary 
conclnsiiin, either that a power which existed 
in the State Governments, and was freipienlly 
esercise.i by them before the adoption of the 
Fed. ral Constitution, was annihil.Ued by the 
secret and magical influeneeof that instriiinont, 
or 'hat such powerdoes not properly pertain tu 
the Legislature of any free People 

The exercise of this powcris necessarily refer- 
red to the sound discretion ofCongres5,tobe just- 
Iv anti impartially employed for the common 
bemfit of all — not to he perverted to the purpose 
of advancing the interests of one class of com- 
munity, or of one part of the country, at the ex- 
pense of another; and whatever some of ns may 
think a» to its abuses uniler a former adrnini-- 
tration, or of the danger of such abuses under 
the present, ill must noncurin the opinion, that 
the remedy is not to be found in the electiim of 
General J.icks'in; but, ifsought at all, should 
be looked for in the vigilance and exertion of 
faithful and able Senators and Representatives 
in Congress. 

The opinions of Mr. Adam=, and his reeom- 
aicndations to Cengrets, in relation to internal 



improvement are iinpopuhvr in Virginia, and 
have been urged against hiiii with much > arie'st- 
ness, & perhaps with some ilT -i t, even though it 
cannot, witti any *oior of reason, be contended, 
that his comjietitor, 'ren. Jackson, is exposed to 
precisely thf eame objection. We tloliot vindi- 
cate tiiese opinions, or discuss them, because 
they fall within the interdict we have imposed 
upon ourselves — wedilfer in opinion concerning 
them. But we will remind you, that the^e opin- 
ions, whatever may be their merit, have produ- 
ced but few and unimportant act-, during the 
present .\liuiHistrati')U: and we will avail our- 
selves of the occasion to ap|ie il to the good 
sense and feeling of Virginia, and invoke itf 
inll leiice in tempering the asperity of party 
politics, and securing to every subject of nationn 
al interest, a deliberate and candid considera- 
tion. VVe beg leave also to remind them, that 
the questions of Constitutional law and State 
policy connected with this subject, are.impor- 
lant, d'dicate, and of acknowledged dilliculty ; 
that there are array 0(1 on cither side ofthein, 

] .Staiesuien of approved patriotism and talent, 

I whose opinions should be examined with great 
consideration, and whose measures, if deemed 
wrong, after being judged with candour, should 
he opposed with reason,not with passion — with 

; firmne-s, not with violence; — that those among 
us, who deny the Constitutional pow'er, and 
condeiiiii the policy, should entitle ourdoc'rineS 
'o respect, by the fairness of our views, and the 
force of our reasoning, and give weight to our 
opposition, by its temper and its dignity ; while 
those who alfirm the power, and approve the 
policy,shoud observe the most tespectl'ul def- 
erence for the opinions of the many and the 
wise, who differ from them ; and should consult 
the public interest and tranquility, by confining 
their measures to objects of acknowledged and 
general interest, by infusing into them a spirit of 
the most exact justice: and by observing, in 
all things, scrupulous care in the exercise of a 
power so delicate, and so much coiitrovtirted. 

Thus far, we have endeavored to correct er- 
ror and disarm prejudice, that reason m giit be 
left free to estimate fairly the present AdmiiiiE- 
tration, and its principal measures. VVe have 
oU'ercd no panegyric on the present Chief .Ma- 
gistrate; — vve cheerfully leave you to estimate 
the value ofhis long and varied public services, 
his great experience, his talent, his learning, 
and his private virtues, — and to set off against 
tiicm, wh.atever your fancy (■ • your judgment 
may iiiid to blame, in his private or public life. 
Wh'Mi you have done this— rellect on the char- 
acter of the office you are about to fill — incjuirc 
what fe lings, what tompor, what talent, what 
acijiiirements, what habits, are best suited to 
the discbarge of its high duties; and then care- 
I'iilly compare John Q. Adams with .Andrew 
Jackson, in reference to the great question. — 
Which of them is best qualified for the first office 
in the nation — which most likely to preserve to 
us the distinguished blessings we enjoy — (roai 
which is most ila'.ger to he apprehended to our 
peace and happiness, our live- aad liberties? 

It is not in wantoness that vve secak; but, in 
the sadness of onr hearts, we are compelled 
to declare, that, while we yield our confidence 
to the present Chief Magistrate i.i very different 
degrees, we are unanimous and unhesitating in 
the opinion that Andrew Jackson is nltogcihei 
unfit for the Presidency, and that his eltction 

j would be eminently dangerous ; tl,a.t, ivliile mc 



(iO 



VIR«rXIA CONTENTIOX. 



cheerfully Hcrord tn him hi« full share of the 
glory »li]'h rciijers the aiiiiiv>-r';irv ol' the 8ih 
ofjiiu iry, a day of joy and triuii>|)h lo uni 
IhiiiI, wp niu$t,in the must <ulciiiii manner, pro- 
test aeainst a olaim tu civil rule, fiufided exclu 
aivcly upon military reiiowii; uii>l avow ihil 
nothint; has occiirretl in the history of our coiiii 
try so much calculate I tosh ike our confidence 
in the capacity of the people for sclf-guvern- 
Jiient, :i» the hiT .)rls wliirii have been made, an 
are yet i.iakin.-, to cicvale to thi; tirst .itiice in 



military subordinate to the ciril power; that 
luercy evento the guilty, and humanity always 
lo the conquered and the captive, are pan of 
the law ofCioil and wan, found in etery civili- 
sed code, written iji every human heart, and 
iiidisjieneable to the true glory of the Her p. 

General Jackson h 19 bc'-n unmindful of these 
truth!:. Though he has enjoyed cubordiiiation 
b. precept, and enforced ii by authority, he lii-" 
not recoinnienilol it by example. Hoha-oiri r- 
cd indi,-nity to Itie ?ecrrtar) of War, in the 



then iiioM, V'C linn, who, disob'->i'ii{ the onlers very letter which aMiijiKil his reasons for ilisO' 



of hii nuperi'irs, tr minlin; on the laws and Con 
sti'iition of h 9ciiu:.tr>, sncnficini; the liberlie- 
and lives of men, ha^ in.'i.le his own arbitrary 
will the rule of hi? conduct. 

In ^tatiii;; anopi'tion «o unfavorahlo to d dis- 



b. ying un order to iiisbiiml hi- troops; he his 
placed his own autliority in o position to ih it 
if the War Ueiiartmcnt, by a general order, fir- 
bid lin^ the oiLcers nf his command to obey the 
iinlersofth t t)-partoi"ni, mile-- th y p;isfcd 



tin^jwisii.-d lua., who has rendered valuable scr- | through the channel which he ha I chosen to 



rice* to hi- country, a proper re-p<cl for our 
selve' and f.ir \ on, requires that we should de- 
rlare the reason w:ii' h compel as to withhold 
our confi.lence from him. 

Capacity for civil i (fairs in a cnunfry like 
OTirs, where the road to preferment is open t 



[irescribc; and he diwibeyeil the orders of the 
Government in hii miliktry opcTution.<p in the 
Spam-h territory. 

He has been unmindful of the subordination 
of military to civil oowcr, and has violated the 
law and the< onititution, by declaring martial 



merit, in every cla.-s of society, is never Ion,- lawat .Vew-Orleans, and niaintiiiiin^' it, .f his 
eoiicealeil,a al selloni Icftin .etir'-iiieiit. Gen. I own arbitrary will, for more than two m inth? 
JacK^on h-.s lived bc-iaid the age of6d ycirs i after the en.my hail been beii'en and repulsol, 
an'! was hr -d to the proiV'sion best calculaied j and all reasonable ap,ireheii£i»n of their return 
to iinpove and disiilay fe facullics which civil ! had ceased ; by surrounding the hall of the Lou- 
emiiioyments require; ^ t tnehi<tor\ ofhispiib- ' i-iana Legislature wiUi an armed forcc,aiid su»- 
lic life in these iiUDJot inents i' told in a fe.v pending their deliberali.ins; by seizing the 
brief lines — m a sinjle pa^e of bis biography, j person of Lonalher, a free citizen of Louisiana, 
I4e filled, successively, for very short period', i and a menitiernf their Legi'lalure, and briiig- 
tb' oilic"of aiemher of the Tenne';-ee Conven- I ing him to trial before a military tribunal, for 
tion, which lonn.- ! their State Constitution; ^ having the boldness to denounce, through tlic 
[{....resentatfVeand Senator in Congress; Judge I public press, the continued arbitrary reign of 
of the Supreiu"' Court oi Tennessee; and again, I martial law ; by diwipproving the acqiiital of 
.-v-aator in Coiisressof the United States. Here i Louaillier u|>oii his trial, when to have coii- 
vvHs ample o;> ■ortunity for di-tinctlon, if he ' demneil and executed him, wouhl haveexi>o=ed 
po-»s-ed the talent, taste, and application suit- j the actors in the fatal tragedy, to the legal 
cd for civil eminence. B.it he resigned three, ! pains of death; by suspending, of his own arbi- 
aail paivseil through all of these stations, a-- I trary will, the writ of habeas eoqwf, when the 
k'lowle'ging his unlitncss in two instances — Legi-^latiirc of Louisiana had refused to susiend 
manifestly lecling it in all — and leaving no sin- it on hisapplication, when no law ofCongress 
g'e act, no trace behind, which stamps his | aiithorizeii it, and no iin i.inent danier pleaileil 
(jiialiacitijns above mediocrity. 



F'lrcivil government — and in no station more 
etufiiiatically t!ian :n that of President of the 
United States — .iwell governed temper is of ad 
niittid i iipurtance. General Jackson's friends 
laaient the impetnosity of his, and all the world 
has vi'lenceof its fierv mi-rnle. 

Ti maintain peace and hanoony in flic deli- 
e:i'.-rela!i.>n» existing between the Government 
of the Union and (he various State Government- 
in iMir Ciinfeler icy, reipiires a courte-y and 
f irbearane.e in their i.itercourse. which no pas 
s;!''i shoiil.l di-t irb. Let the spirit of d.niiina 



ts apology ; by arresting and imprisoning Judge 
Hall for is-ning the writ of haocas corpus to re- 
lieve Lonaillier trom illegal confmem.-jil, and 
nrrc'tingand imiihsoninc two other oliirers of 
the law, lor ap|)ealing to civil pricess against 
his tyrannic rule; by the arrest, trial, and esc- 
culioii of <ix militia men, who were guilty of 
no other offence, than the assertion of their law- 
ful right to return home, alter their legal term 
of service had exnired: and by organizing n 
cornse of volunteer militia, and appinnting it? 
iilicers, without any warrant for so doing, ami 
ig.iiii't the provisiniis of the Constitution, 



(,.. displired i i Ge .oral Jackson's celebrated i which exiiressly reserve the appointment of 



letier to Governor lt..ibiin, w ir a ii^oftbe dan 
g -r fc ..uniitllii'; to hn keepniix this precioii- 
ritip lilt — saered to the iinion of our llepiiblies. 
a;>il to the freetloni of iiian'ktnd. 

Military men should lever be allowed to for- 
re'. !li'»t the obligation 1. 1 ehey being the sole 
f.iiindati n of th aahurily to comiii ind, thev 
sho.ii.l i'i.:nle^iesrih.irdiiialion, nil by precepi 
only but by ex-Miiile; that profoniitl re-[»ect for 
the laws .mil C«iMstitiition of their eoiinlry, i- 
a'l iiidi'neasahle guar.intee of their worlSines- 
to lie eiilrnsted with the sword which is drawn 
to defrnil them; that Ihi-y sho'ild lose no fit oc- 
'^-isi'iii tor niaiii 



cersof the militia, to the stales respectirely ; 
and by making w.ir U|Km the Snanish territory, 
seizing and hoi liii; Spanish iiost*, in violation 
■)f the order of his government, and whil-t 
peace exictcd between Spain anil tlie United 
States. 

That mercy an'l humnnity may unite with 
the olTen'led La« ami Constitution, in acciisiiij; 
rjen. Jack«on i>f being unmindful of their voire, 
tiid in refusimr to his laurel crown the rays of 
true cliirv, will he aeknowlc'lced by impartial 
nosteritv, when they review Ihe lii''t'>ry of his 
I idtaii cani'tai^ns, and es'>ecially when they 



ting that respect, bv practical i read the stories of Ihe coM blooded massacre a"t 
illustriDn. of the principle, saered in every 1 1 le H.rse Shoe; of the deeoved and slaughter- 
well ordered Republic, whiel» proclaims the led Indians at St. Marks; of the wantoii and 



VIR&INIA coxvEvrro?f. 



fii 



nnexampled ex..c.ition of *'"''"»'"' ^"^L ! 
d.slima,., tbun.l 6fM„x?, it .' true, .n the rank. 
If thM Sem.noles b.H taken |.r.soner. tr.c.1, I 
doo.ur.l to a miUler punishment, and execut.-, 
bv..r>ler o. the comman l.n- General, a^.in.t 
the.entcnce of the tr.bn.ial appo.nte.i b.v hu..- 
self: an.l ..fthe st.U ..iore inj .red Arbntl.n .t, 
a„„ I.er Br.ton, not beanjii arms at all,oMl> 
fo.in.l :m..,nc th^ warring IimI.hm^ a trider, aiid 
auadvoc ite lur peaee. ... ^ , 

We have doae with thi« -icUeninj catalisTMe. 
Y.o, have now a bnef Mi,n...ar.> ol the oyid. ncc, 
on 'he anlhoritv of which we r jard General 
Jaok«on a- wholly d.^qnaltfi. .1 for the Pre=ulen- 
cv, i.id lo k t. t;ie ,-ro^..c. t of his election with 
til' ino't £;1 >omv forl■b.)dl^g^. 

You think, oerhans, we oav a I'Oor corapli- 
me'it t> the virtues of our p.'.>ple, and the 
.tr-M-lh .ifo.irinHitnti'.ns b. i id il-inj m ap- 
prrhJii'i'.isofdn.'er from the en .roachment. 
of ..iliiarv ,)OW.r, m tie voiith an 1 usorof our 
R .i.iblic,andinthe niid=t of ir.f..und peace. 
Wh should, inieed, do ^r^.'l i i.i'i^ice to the 
virlni- of our People, the cir.-.utnst..nces of our 
coinirv,am! the value of our Government, if 
we in iu:g.-din the idle fe^r, (hat an open altuct 
,M>..n our liberties, male with any m.litarN 
f„r-e which General Jack-on cnld probably 
rommaiid la the course of his adiiunistralion, 
would bri.i? us under the vok ol his POwer — 
These arenotoura.nrehen-ions: we woul 1 bid 
a pr )ud deSance to hi- i.o.ver, il he should so 
J ,re our liberties. .\ .r will we do hina the in- 
i'lstice trtcharjK hi< ambition with any ilesigns, 
at (iresent, on 'the liberties of his country, or 
withhold our acknowledgement, that, if they 
were availed by oth-r=, we h lieve 1 he would 
proinplly and boldly drawn bis sword to detend 

But we have no security for the continuance 
of peace, in whatsoever hands the Government 
mav be placed; and it is not unreasonable to 
thiiik, that in the hand* of a man of military 
pride and talent, and of ungovernable temper, 
the danger of w.ir will bo increased. .\ foreign 
war may come, niay ra5e with violence, and 
fiml Gen. Jar.kscu at the h'-ad of the civil gov- 
ernment, and commander-in-chiet of the land 
and naval forces. Dissentient views araonj the 
States may arise, controversies crow up between 
the State and Federal authorities, asdis ensions 
and controversies have heretofore arisen ; and 
who, then, we pray you, can answer lor the 
consequences uf that spirit which sail to Gov- 
ernor Rabun, fVlien. I a.n -n tlic field, you have 
no audfriti/ to is.tuf a miliUiri/ onltr? Reflect 
on this question, we beseech you— on the pecu- 
Jiar structure of our government; on the colli- 
sions of opinion, and the threatened colli-ions 
ofnction, both in peace and war, which have 
already occurred between the State and Feder- 
al -tuthorities— and then tell us. whether the 
fear is altogether visionary, that the first foreign 
w»r, seriously waged acainst the United States, 
with Gen. Jackson their chief, would bring 
danger of civil discord, dissolution of the U- 
ni H^and deatlito the hopes of every free govern- 
ment in the world. 

We say nothins of the danger of civ.l discord. 
even when no foreien war should afflict us— 
tlwiiigh the retrospect of a few short years 
would teach us that such ilanjer is not imagin- 
ary—and that the slishtest want of tact, in its 
management, the least indulgence of temper, 
-xi the part of the Chief Magistrate, might in- 



flame the whoK- nati in, and light the luoeral 
pile o freedom. 

There arc dangers of another kind. If we art; 
"-■rrect in the detail of offences committed by 
G iieralJackson, against theiuo^t sacred prin- 
ciples of our Government, what will be the mor- 
al effect of the direct sanction given to these of- 
fence-, by rewar.ing the offender with the first 
ho.ior oT the nation ! Can we preserve our love 
and revereice for institutions which we suffer 
1,1 be violated, not onl) without censure, but 
with applause. Will not our affection and our 
Trneraiion be transierred from thode-pised La«s 
and Constitutions, to the lionored 1I« ro wlio his 
abuse 1 them — Irom republican simplicity and 
virtue, to military pomp and glory J Will you 
not,inCne,by sucii example, lay the sure f.in- 
ilatiou of that moral depavity, and admiration 
of irms, whicli must soon reduce us to the con- 
dition in which Greece was eu'l ived by Ales 
ander; Rome, by Caesar; F.-igland, by Crom- 
well; France, by Bonaparte ; and in which we 
will assuredly li'id «oine future J ickson, not too 
fastidious to' accept the proffeied crown, and 
erect a military despotism on the ruins of the last 
Republic. 

We appeal to the people of Virginia, 
to ■iay what there is in the present party 
pilitics, so alluring on the part of Ihe 
O|iposilion. so Irighiful on the part of the 
Administration, a? to reduce them to Ihe 
fraternal ernhraie. or drive them under 
the piotection, of snch a man as .-\ndrew 
Jackson? We ask an answer to this ques 
tion. not from their otTeiided priue, not 
from the prejudice which attarhment t 
party never fads to beset; bul we ask it 
from" their love of country, their love of 
truth atiH virtue; we ask i!. afler a deep 
and dnpassioiiate consideration of the true 
state of the question; after a candid esti- 
mate of the Itltle to he possibly gained by 
the rejection of Mr. Adams, the incalcu- 
lable mischiefs winch may probably attend 
the success of his rival If you indulge 
the faint hope, that, under the Adminis- 
tration of Ciener;»! Jackson, the trilue 
which asrricultiire will pay for the encour- 
a;jement of domestic industry ;ind eiitcr- 
pri-e. will be someivh it lighter than at 
present— we ask you fiist. whether the 
hope is not groundless? and next, wheth- 
er it is wise to insist on enjoying the profits 
of your estates in the uttermost farthing 
of their fancied value, at the risk of hav- 
ing your free allodial lanas converted into 
military tenures or liefs of the crown? If 
vou are fighting liie battles of General 
Jackson, in this political contest, with the 
vain hope that victory will conquer from 
your adversaries some barren spot ofcon- 
stitiition:il ground — He ask whether you 
will wage such a war w iih your counlry- 
men. at the hazard of laying all your con- 
quests, and all your former possessions — 
tne Constitution itself, and the freedom if 



82 



VIRGINIA CONVE.\TiO\.~'-TIIE Ql ESTION. 



was intended to protect — at the feet of a j gamcnt. The ^ilsehoud assumed in thi« propo- 
(Icspot ? This does not become the char- j sitioncau hardly now be denied by rxiiy hcuest 
aclcr of Virginians! j man. The pruof leares no room i .r il.mbt.— 

In tlie uncient state of political parties. | And the most iaiprndpnl ptrvorsioncan do lon- 
rihen federali>t ■ k lepiililic ins couten'iei.' [ gcr say any thiiii; to give c»li>r to the charge, 
for ascendency, there was something in j Mr. Clay's Address and tbedocumtnts accom- 
• llie great question? of foreign policy, iu : panyinc it, have settled the "t/ie question." 
the leading principles of const.-TjctioM ap- 1 In this ?tatc of the case, thecentnl while- 
plied to the conMitution. bearing strongly , wa=hin?c..ra.iiittee at Washington have i.^sued 
on the C'f-enlial character of the Govern- 1 a proclnmation for proof, and have m..dc a loud 
roent,and worthy of a generous struggle! ,.„unt of what thev intend (o do. And the 
between the statesmen, »vho. on the "no i felograph Colonels ;,ar no6,V^ /ru't.nn, a pair 
hand sought lo guard ag nnst a dissolution of nohle broih.-rs h'-v opened their .^wr. of 
of the I n.oii, by strengtnening the F ede- ibiii.o^g^te u-on Gen. McArthur, Col. Brent, 
ral bond, and, on the other, endeavored to i^nj ^,|,„,. ■J.^^^ Annies and blackzii^rds in 
avert consolidation, by establishing more , Congress and out; th.' Deshasand ihe Di«->,ns 
firmly the Slate authorities. But this state ^^,^. Enquirers Repoblican., and .Merrurie,, 
of things has passed away and the fee!- ^<,,th, South, F.ast, and Wcsf,_open ,n cn- 
ings and doctrines to which it gave rise.,,, rt. The scene is not nnl.ke one which may 
though not entirely forgotten, are almost I (,,. sometimes witnessed in a court of ju^tic^, 
iinknow-nin the party di-tinctions of the j „.,,^„,^„„,j ^„^„^^,^^„^^, ,^ ^„^^^^ ^^ .„ 
day Federalists and republicans mingle U^^^^^,^ ^^^^^j^,, ^ ^^ ,^^„^ ^^^, 

tojether in the ranks ot the opposition — I , . u „ i • i- 

f", ., ,, ^ . .1 I J 1 , champions, who arc ready to swear, lie, or 

and, tosrother rally aroifnd the standard of , .' , . . •' . ' ' 

.V • ■ . .■ >ni, 11 1 tieht lor her, as occasion may require, 

the Administration. There will be no ^,, . , ... , ;, /... , 

, r- ,.,■ 11, .1-1 It IS now beyond dispute tht this cliarje of 

ereat principle of political doctrine to (lis- , •' , ■ ^ ^^ ' , 

^. .', ,. ' I .L i-> . ■.■ ri I bargain and corruption originated wilh General 

tmiruish them, unless the Opposition, fol- 1 , = ,» o •, 

, =. . , 1 ., r . . c .1. I Jackson. xVlr. Buchanan had 

loivmg too closely the lootsteps ot those 



had a conversAtion 
with hira, which the general entirely luisun- 



who trample on the Laws and Constitution . , ,,,... 
of the country, should give to the suppor- j '^'="'°'"''. '^"'' ""^°'" f«f ""I"'"? '" '"^ for 
tersof the.Vlministralion some daim to I "l'"''"''^''"' I'^"''"?'"^'* ''" misu.ken version, 
be the champions of civil rule and consti- ('"J^""""^ conversations with various persous 
intional law. Shall our parties be hereaf , ""d at various places, notwithstanding which, 

in his Beverly letter, the Gencr.il hail so little 
regard to the real state of fact, as to say that 
the "6e^innin?q/"fie;noU<T irai at hii oirnjirc- 
sidc,'^ as much as to say he had not mentioned 
it at any otlier place. 

To make out a plausible case, Gen. Jackson 
states, in his Utter to Beverly, that "two days af- 
ter" he had rejected the proposed bargain, it 
was known th:it .Mr. Clay intended lo vote for 



ter founded on local interests, .and marked 
by geographical boundaries, arraying the 
North against the -outh.the East against 
the West — losing the generous enthusiasm 
which is always inspired by a contest for 
principle, for honorable distinction, for 
pre-eminence in the service of our com- 
mon country; and acquiring the bitterness 
of spirit, acrimony of feeling, narrow pol- 
icy, and sordid views, which ever charac- I Mr- Adams, thereby conveying the intimation 
terize the contests of men, slrivin5-,not fori that .Mr. Claj had, until that time, reserved 
the promotion of the common good, hut l hirostdf, so as to bo nt liberty to bargain with 
for the advancement of their own peculiar I either party. Major Eaton labours to sustain 
interests — and which must lead, inevita- ] this view of the case. He tells us of a meeting 



My, to the entire subjugation of the weak- 
er party, or a dissolution of the Union?" 



"TIIE(irF,STIO\. 



that took place on the 2ii\ of January, "u/ffr it 
had been aicertuirud Viat Jarkson icould make no 
disriosure as to his cabinet " And then he tf lis 
us of Mr. Clay's chnnse of manner toward 
Gen. Jackson on the .Monday following. Ue 
"/ladnci'fr btfnre perceived .Vr. Clai/ Hius dislatil 
•■The table orator-'at the srcit Jackson din- I "■>'^« General Jackson, hating Ucn prtiioushj 
ner at Columbus, very candidly confessed thnl!?"i'f the rnersc." Major Eaton asx-rt., too, 
Mr. Adams was to be turned out of oilioe, not that until this time Mr. Clay had concealed hi? 
for what he had done, but because he was in. 



Uo distinctly asserted— "the ftiTSTioN I'j ni/ 
ir/iot he has done ? but hoie he ;;r<t there." He 
got there by barg-iin and intrigue, and, there- 
fore, he ought to be turnc<l out. Such is the ar- 



npinions. "On the 23th January, and not ear- 
lier. Major Eaton says, was a declaration made 
of the course he hod concluded to take. H'hy 
Uit neeet.<it!/ of a silence so hn;; and so ripidiv 
pruervcdV All this is said by General Jacksop 



'THE (irEST10N."-TPE COMPANY. 



<i-J 



'first ami by Major Eaton .<flor«'anl5, 10 furnish I that ho intended to vote for Mr. A.iUms. 



an inference, that Mr. Cl.iy reiuaniwl silent, 
tliat lie might n»ake a bargain with Gon. Jack- 
<«on— anil that if the General would not Ijiirgain, 
then that abarcain misbt be made with Mr. 
Ailaais. Cinsetinently, when the General so 
loudly Triusvd the trade, it was drove with Mr. 
.Aila:.i5, and then Mr. Clay rame out. This 
mi-htv labour of inference is now put to (light. 
IVIr. Clay's silence, upon whic:h it 15 founded, 
is sh»\vn to be an unwarranted as5um|ition of a 
fact in .t did not exist. Mr. Clay did not pro- 
cl.iim his intention to vote for Mr. Adams in the 
ta|.itol, nor i.ublish it in the newspapers. Had 
h.; done so, he would have been charged with 
using aa undue influence upon the election, and 
denounced for his indelicate interference. He 
k.'pt his opinions to hims'lf, except in conver- 
sation with a few frien.ls. .*nd for so doing he 
is charged with ni-.nting to make a bargain. U 
seems, therefore, that he could not move with- 
out incurring reproach. • 

But the question '■'how he g(jl there'" is now 
put to rest. The whole foundation of the bar- 
gain, as lonitructed by Gen. .Iack;on, has been 
found to rest upon sand. Mr. '.'lay did not re- 
main in the market li.i the best bidder. He 
made up his mind in favor of Mr. Adams, r.nd he 
expressed it, not only to Gen. La Fayette, but 
to Mr. Senator Beuton, and this before the mid- 
dle oCDecember. Here is Mr. Beulon's letter 
asserting the fact, and putting it beyond all 
doubt or controversy. Gun. JacksBO'sanl Ma- 



j'hue is no mis-lukc in the date, as a ,viMt 
which I made to your part of Viiginiiv 
about that time enables mt to lix Jl ^^ ilh 
teitainty. I left Wa^iington.on that vis- 
it, about the iSlh ol iJetemhtr, and haJ 
received liie int'orniation of l\lr. (,'lay be- 
fore I sat out, and told it, wliilu absent, in 
the family of my father-in-law ColnncI 
M'D.iwell of your county. l'>ul the infer 
ence so much insisted upon, that I must 
have told the same thing (o Mr. Kalon and 
others of his political I'ricnds, is wholly er- 
roneous; for, having no authority from .Mr. 
Clay to promulgate his inlontions, 1 only 
spoke of them in the boMimof a pri\al<; 
family at two hundreil ii.iles distance Irom 
Wasliinglon Since that period, and es- 
pecially during the present summer, 1 have 
on several occasions, and sometimes in the 
presence of political opponents, when the 
coufs.- of conversation led me to it, men- 
tioned «hat I knew of Mr. Clay'a early 
intention to vote for Mr Adams; and in 
this way I came to speak of H agam, some 
two or three weeks since, in the house of 
my father-in-law, where I liad lirst spoke 
of it near three years ago, and whence, 
with some additions and variations, v ith- 
oul the privity of any one present at the 
conversation, it lias crept into the paper 
which you have sent nie. No one ever 
asked my leave to publish what I said; 
if any one had, the author of Ihe puldi- 



jor Katon's infeiencts are dispersed as to the I ctiop [^ the Lexmgton paper might 
four winds of heaven. False— false— false is \iy^^,p beg,, spared an oflke which nuisl 

have been inexpressibly painful to their 
honorable feelings, as I should' not have 



written nfon themby thchandofMr. Bi;Uton,oDe 
of themselves, a leading luembtr of the combi- 
nation. Mr. Be.iton confirms Dr. Drake's 
statement and the statements of others, and 
DulT Green dare not denounce Mr. Benton. — 
The question, then, which the Columbus "/a- 
lile orator''' siys is the true and only que, is an- 
swered aal the answer stamps falsehood up -n 
the orator's inferences, as well as upon the in- 
ferences of his superiors Mr. Adams "g-o< 
Ihere," was made President oy the votes of 
those who preferred him to Gen. Jackson, as he 
will again be made Pre»ident by the same 
uieaas. So much for "</»<? i;urs(io>t." — Cin. Gas. 

COLONEL BENTON. 

Washinglitim Cilij, iJcc.lllt. 1827. 
Sip. — your letter of the 13th ult. cov- 
ering theLexingtotiV irginia Intelligencer 
of tlru date, has been duly received, and 
in answer to the enquiries you put to me, 
1 have to state that the article to which 
you invite my attention, is substantially, 
not verbally, correct, so far aa respects 
me as saying that I was informed by Mr. 
Clay in the forepart of December, 1821, 



refused lo the adminisliation any testimo- 
ny in favor to give, notwithstanding the 
character of the war which the great 
body of their forces are carrying on a, 
gainst me. Vouis. respectfully. 

TllOM.\S II. liENTON 



THE CO-liPANV. 

Mr. Vice President Calhoun and hi? princi- 
pal supporters, dined on the 8th at Washington, 
with Mr. Van Buren and others that were ac- 
tive supporters O' Mr. Crawford in 1824. la 
March, 1824, the Washington Republican was 
in the interest, and supposed to be under the 
influence of Mr. Calhoun. The following char- 
acter of a portion of the company of the 8th, 
was published in the Republican of Feb. iJth, 
1824, the day proceeding the cnncus that nomi- 
nated Mr. Crawford. It will be seen that there 
was no sparing of scurrilous epithets. Faction, 
Trmion and Traitors, wpro as uncereineni- 



«A 



T1:E COMPANY TO t;EX. AXDREW JACKSON. 



Haste Hwaj, llifii — c;irpe dii-iu! 
Tho«e th.il woulil |irevciit ^ou— fl^'ero! 
Youth arift iis:c, with dilfereut facei; 
All who hopetir ^-k for plnces — 
Folly with hiscaj) auiJ belU — 
Ra'ifiie'iS «:th?<;.l>oiic itthatswclU — 
All, with em.it^ '.onu- to luock us 
Stragcliug, one hy oue, to Caucm. 



ouslv applied to the \"aD Buri-ns, Forsj thes and 
Cobbi", as it is uow, to those who administer 
the govirniiicnt. These Traitors and Faction- 
iitf, are now io happj unanimit) and brother- 
hood Kith those who thvi'. described Ihcm. — 
VoriJy, Uiose arc singular associations. 
PARODV. 
Wend you with the liadt to night — 

Tall and short — ami wc*ak and witty — 
Slaiiy >iiicjothat h.itts the lij(ht — 

An I I .ves confusion— more's the pity— 1 ..,.,.„ , . ,^.-onv 

Sh.illuw knaves, w.th form= to mack us, TO (.L%. ANOiU.M JAC»t.>>0]S. 

Are ilra.-linc one by one, to caucus. \ g^ \;^ ^^_^^^ ^,^^^ j^ COIISciouS ol' 

There the fears lor the future — the paugs i , . ... , ,„|, ;,„,,,. 

for the past having perlorincd ins diiU to his couii- 

May be swell'd or expunged as the r.ids try and to lii> tV-llow men, can oojoc i to 
'win or loose: a candid examination of Lis conduct. 

■'"''''w.llbeca!!',''' ' 1^' i^''"^'- *"^'''-' ^'^'^/"'^^ OIUSW..O.C 

That will make' many wish their stiff i private and public life will bear, in all 



] respects, a strict and lliorou<;li inve>ii- 
gation. It is liuman to err. We all 
; therefore, stand in need of the forbear- 
ance and ciiariiiej of eac.i other. 
Fault? of ^outll,and the minoi otiencee 
I of manhood and age. should be over- 
j looked and forgiven. J«ol?o, however, 
I in resjard to crimes and olTences of a 
I deeper die. Thes-e it is always lijjiti- 
' mate a: id proper to notice, both for ihe 



necks in a noo^c. 

Wend you with the Radi to nipht — 

Sixty -five perchance they'll niLsler — 
There'll be none of niinil or iuii;h( — 

Uiit sonic three-^core in a lln^ler — 
General Chandler wiil be then — 

Toudi as steel, nd bidd as Hector — 
Bats'l, with Virginia air — 

/on, the Albany dinctor — 
Forsi,Ui,v:H\\ his I'orenrn graces — 

Edieards, U i//iiinij, in a f-tew — 
riotiins brains and dirty faces 

With the blushes rediicninic thro'— , _ 

;Miallow knaves, with forms to luock us, : sake o( piil)lic morals, and lor llie 
Strajri^lin^ one by one to Cancns. punishment of tiic olTender. The 

Wenil yon with the lixids to nicht — i practice is sanctioned bv our law^ and 

A motley crew, and bad the best-- j imposed bv neces>i*v. " In addressing 

Win.'in; Irom Ihe boalh their (litht— • , ,•• ,• "i^ ■„,„ ,-,^ I 

With two poorstra-Jersfruiuihe West- vou therelofp. I invade no ri2:iU; ior I 



"Ti« the tide of fad ion llowin^- 

' Tis the noon of treason's rci^-u, — 
i/o',r(of Maryland is joitie — 

DicI.erson — and Holmes of M.iine — 
Western Thomas looking grimly — 

From Xew York, a hagard few, 
Led by Lot Clarke., seeing dinily. 

Spectacles and va]iour thro' — 
i^hallow knaves, with form= to mocks us, 
Straggling, one by one to Caucus. 

Wend you with the Radi to-ni.ht — 

Where all eyes will gladly meet you — 
If you area proselyte 

'EviTy ■^oiil will -I'nng to greet you — 
Where the demon of dispuir 

Reigns the tyrant of the hour, 
And every dark intriguer there, 

Jostlesin the race for power, — 
J,ahoriT«, suited lor the job, 

Will he there at thecio'e of ilay, 
Sarbour, h'loydy and Fuol, anil CobL— 

Lamttan, ready for hi- pay — 
Both the JlarOours, men mistaken '■ — 
■Sint/t/i shall scarcely save his bacon — 
Gailanl Cock from Ycnnes--c— 
Some in uloom and some in .jlee — 
Shallow knayes, with forms to mock us, 
Straggling, one by one, to Caucus. 

Wend yon with Ihe liadsfo night— 
Caneusin his court presides — 

Proiiii»es-Jind power invite — 
Traitors point — and faction piidcs. 



shall only call your attention to a sub- 
' ject which has been made public by 
vourself, ai-.d which relates to matter- 
of K^cat political interest. 

As a candidate lor the Presidency 
you will at once admit, that it became 
you to observe a l*gh mind d and 
h. norable course in reference to your 
I competitors. It is your conduct to- 
' wards Mr. Clav, which I propose tc ex- 
amine. )Vhatever may have been AiV 
I faults, they alVoni no apology for yours, 
I vour duty was i)lain — to remain silenL 
or to sav nothing concerning him that 
; was not strictly true and susceptible of 
I i)roof. " Lnpifssion':'^ and •'Ulirj"' fur- 
I nish no excuse for the circulation id 
Islander. Otherwise the calumniaioi 
might go unpunished. a!>d the laiiest 
I reputalions be ruined without tlio pos- 
i sibility of redress. It i- equally reprc- 
j hcnsible for ;i man to assail another by 
insinuation and surmises. This mode 
1 of attack is more fatiil and malignant, 
' though it possesses at thesauie time, all 



■ro orv. Avntn^wj ACKsov. 



66 



the Jani:iiiig • i .i, •.:■ oi tii a <•• ■ i ni 
*inv:irdice. Ii ^dire-st's itself to tiie 
HI iri)id iinagiiiatioiis of t!ie vulgar, who 
Biagiiify a nod or an iriue'ido, inlo a (h- 
rec charge, while the defamer shrinks 
fri>m re<ponsihility under his guarded 
expressions. No ina'< of sensitive hon- 
our will assail an adversary in cither of 
these modes. If lie be disinterested, 
and have any tiling to say, he will 
speak wit'i a precision and !)old less 
that cannot be misinterpreted or misun- 
derstood. 

That you have both spoken and 
writ;en of Mr. Clay's conduct, in refcr- 
ei'ce to the last Presidential eleciion, 
cannot be denied. The character of 
jour remarks, both verbal a',d written, 
is of an extraordinary kind. I sav ex- 
trfoHiitary, because vou have evinced 
thes 'me equivocal temper, so co-spicu- 
ou- in your letter to Dr. Coleman, on 
the subject of the Tariff. And is it not 
extraordinary, that a m.m of vour reput- 
ed candour a.id fairioss, should always 
bo misunderstood? You eitlier have 
arraigned Mr. Clay before the Ameri- 
can public, for his conduct on the Presi- 
dential question, or vou have not. It 
is in vain to shutflc out of tlie alterna- 
tive. Your own language' as given to 
the people, must delermine the point, 
and the rule of construction must be the 
same in this, as in every other case. 

The first attack upon Mr. Clay, by 
yourself, which I shall notice, i> in voar 
letter to Samuel Swartwout of N. York, 
dated at Washington, the 23d of Feb- 
ruary, 1825. The election of Presi- 
dent had ju>t transpired. You soon 
after congratulated Mr. Adams upon 
his success, showing by your conduct, 
that you had every confidence in his in- 
tegrity and talents. After speaking in 
the most bitter terms of Mr. Clav, in 
your letter to Swartwout, vou proceed 
In the following manner: — 

"When the penple failed in their cnl!pj;f« to 
make rhoice of a Presiriciit, nu <me beheld me 
seeking Vtmuffh art or manai;'-mf-nt, t'l entire 
arty representative in Congress from a consnen- 
tions responsibiliti/ l.i his oirn. rr tlie tris'ies of his 
ooistitaents. Vi midnight taper bvml bi/ me; 
no secret C'lm laves irere liclil, iu> rahnls entered in- 
f?, to persiia ie any one V> a viotction of p!i dgrs 
girm, or of instructions rectirei. By ME n/i 
t>lans were concerted to impair the pwe principles 
of our rrpuljliran institjUions, nor to proslrat' that 
Ajnda'nental maxim idiir.'t mrtii'tnias (he supre- 
^•c^of the rKortle'srrftl'" 



1l is a iiuiuer of asiOi'.isnnie t i . n a 
man of your rcpui.ition, and situated as 
you were at the time, should hate writ- 
ten such a paragraph as this. It is .-till 
more astonishing, after having writ en 
it, and knowing that it was publish. 'd^ 
that you siioulil have written and >aid 
other tilings in direct contradiction to 
it. For you have said in another lei rf;r 
which I shall notice presently, th.t; 
i/ou •> ■iave ot been Mr. Ctay^s accuser."' 
Read the extract and inform the Amerf- 
can people what you intended t!.ey 
>hould understand by it. Was not Mr. 
Clav in your mii;d when vou wrote it, 
and did you not intend every word of 
it to apph to liim? You were writi, g 
to Swartwout about him — you spoke 
of him in terms of harshness and re-" 
proach, and immediately fall into the 
above strain of saying that you had r)ot 
intrigued, &c. &c. No other fair in- 
terpretation can be put upon the quotat- 
tion, ttian that you believe Mr. Clay, 
was guilty of the very practices of 
which you boasted yourself to be free. 
It was so understood by the people. In 
the bitterness of jour soul, sharpened by 
disappointment, you poured forth your 
Complaints into a kindred ear, embody- 
ing all the charges which had-ther, or 
have since been preferred against Mr. 
Clay. Yet you have'lihe audacity to 
come before the publrc,.and declare 
that you are not Mpj 'Clay's Accuser! I 
grant sir, thus far^tharf in Hire d krrns, 
you were not Ms p>1?cusef. You availed 
yourself of the usual subterfuge of the 
slanderer, and covered your ciiarges 
under expressions of such a character, 
as vou thought would leave you room 
to escape. But it is in vain to attempt 
it. The import of your language is 
plain — it hats been published to the 
world, and yo\i must abide the conse- 
quer.ces. Fully written out it would 
read as follows: "Mr. Clay has sought 
through art and management to entice 
Representatives in Congress to disre- 
gard their own responsibility and the 
wishes of their constituents. He hag 
burnt midnight tapers, and entered into 
secret conclaves and cabals to persuade 
them to violate pledges given, and in- 
structions received. He has concerted 
[)lans to impair the pure principle*^ 
of our republican institnMons, a»d fo 



J. 



C6 



TO GEN. ANDREW JACKSON. 



prostrate that fundaniental maxim, 
which maintains the supremacy of tlie 
people's will.''' I defy you, sir, or any 
of vour apologists, to escape from the 
rei'li'ig I have here given the quotation. 
True, the text has not the redeeming 
qualily of bold and direct assertion; 
bm< it is i rte:idcd to have the same 
forro andeffct. It discovers a willing- 
ness on your part, to calumniate witliout 
th- manhood to me'it its responsibility. 
I -^unmit to you and tne country wheth- 
er F 'live not taken a just view of the 
ma;i3r in question — leaving the point 
witn this remark: that you did on the 
23d of February, 1825, charge Mr. 
Clay in terms too plain to be misunder- 
stood by the puMic. wit'! all the in- 
tr'2ue and conuplioii, which Kremer 
and otiiers have preferred against him. 
Tii'j next thin;^ connected with my 
subitct which I shall notice, is your 
coi'duc*^. or rather silence in the Senate 
ef the U:iited Slates, when Mr. Clay's 
nomination for Secretary of Slate came 
before that body for coi.firmation. — 
You were a member, ar'd according to 
your ow.i showing, were in possession 
of afi the information relative to the 
pretended bargain, whicii you ever 
had. Rilleet upon your position — a 
grave Se .alor, sworn to support the 
CO'istitution and bound in honor to i-ro- 
tect the parity of the Government. Be- 
sides, you had that reputation for 
severe justice, which wouhl not permit 
you for a moment to look upon intrigue, 
even in its mo-l fascinatirig furm-. You 
had bee!; m:ide ac(|uainted with Mr. 
Cla^s alleged miscoiduct, early in 
January, The appointment was some 
time subsequent. But what did you 
do ? Did you rise in your place as 
an hoTiorahle and high minded man, 
ami protest against tlie appointment ! 
Rt,'i;ardless of private iirterest, and 
solely bent \i\m\) the good of your coun- 
try did you call for a committee of 
investigation, that you and Buehaiian, 
and your other inlbrmants might dis- 
close to the Senate the infamous mon- 
ster tliey were about to ap[)oinl ? No 
Sir, you did nothing of tlie kind. ^ ou 
gave a silent negative vole, ami let the 
njan whom you have branded as the 
basest i:!triguer. pa.^s into ollicc with- 
out a single manly eflbrt to prevent it. 



Consideri.ig your character, ai d the in- 
formation you pretended to have, wiial 
ought a reasonable public to think o! 
your conduct ? Mr. Clay was at hand — 
the witnesses were all present — the 
pretended bargain had just been 
made — the thing was fresh — tlie Senate 
had power to investigate it ; and you 
looked silentl) on, and in tendaysafter- 
wards wrote a letter to New-York, pre- 
lerring in substance all the charges 
against Mr. Clay, and boasting that you 
were free from them ! Sucli conduct 
is certainly very extraordinary. — 
What the public in general may ihiik 
of it, I know not; but for mv«elf, 1 can 
give it no other construction than tlial 
you did not know any tliingagainst Mr. 
Clav, or that you had not iionesiy aiid 
boldness enough to assert it. Review 
the case and see how it stands. Early 
in Jauuar}, you say, a friend called on 
you, and told you of the intrigue that 
was going on between 3Ir. Clay and 
Mr. Adams, you diil a'tpposi he came 
from Mr. Clf-y, ikoiigb he used the term 
^'- Mr. Clay's friends." Again, Carter 
Beverley asked you wliether the over- 
tures imputed to Mr. Clay were well 
founded ;yourreply was,"/nw:;f;-f 5/ him 
cann'illy, Lcing unable, as rrf// as Kuinll- 
>ng to refuse lelliitff things I had heard 
and KNEW TO BE TRUE!"' You 
knew the things you had heard to be 
true! Yet « iiii all this ii-.lbrmalion 
you pennitted Mr. Clay's iiomination 
to be confirmed, without a struggle. 
Did you do your duty as a man or a 
Senator? Certainly not. The truth is. 
Sir, notwithstanding all your verbosity 
and circumlocution.your tales in letters, 
tayerns, and steam boats, you knew 
nothing against Mr. Clay or 31 r. Adams. 
Enough has been developed of your 
character, to convince any man of ob- 
servation- that yon would have trampled 
Mr. Clay to the dust long before thi?. 
if you had had it in yourpower. 

-Vlthough I have relerrcd to youi- 
denial of being Mr. Clay's accuser, still 
1 deem it proper to examine that point 
iii a particular manner. Korthis pur- 
pose, I Millrecapitulaieinsubstar.ee 
your remarks, and add such as I have 
not iierototbre noticed. Your char- 
ges in (lie SwartwDut letter have al- 
ready been quoted — it would he sufli- 



TO fiRN. AN'DRFW JACKSON. 



er 



cient to rest tiie aigument on tiiisj 
point alone. But I do not stop liere. 
Voii have bet-n vociferous in your de- 
nunciations of Mr. Clay from the time 
of the election to the present moment. 
On your way from Washington city to 
the Hermilagf, just after the election 
had transpired, you made use, both in 
taverns and steam boat-;, of the follow- 
ing language. — " If 1 had made the 
same promises to Mr. Clay that Mr. 
Ad imsdid, i might have been elected 
.President!" This language is proved 
upon you by the most respectable wit-j 
nesses. I need not mention their | 
names — they are already in your pos- 
session. If any thing further were 
wanting on this head, I could refer to 
your conversation which took place on 
Sims' poarch, a tavern kept at Wheel- 
ing, Va., where you said in public com- 
pa-iy, the same thing, though at that 
place, you acquitted Mr. Adams of 
any participation in the '■hcirgain.^ You 
repeated tlie same declarations in dif- 
ferent parts of the country — you made 
no secret of your sentiments, though 
you took care at all limes to provide a 
way for retreat. On arriving at your 
■seal in Tennessee, in answer to Carter 
Beverley's enquiries, you declared be- 
fore '• seven VirginiiDis, awl a crowd of 
company, that Mr. Claij s friends made a 
proposition to your friends, that if they 
zcould promise for you that you ivould not 
put Mr. jdams into the seat of Secretary 
of Stale, that Mr. Clay and his friends 
would in one hour make you the Presi- 
dent!" This language Mr. Beverley 
published in the Fayettville Observer; 
and on the 2Gth of June you confirm 
the publication, and add: '■'I anitvrrrd 
Mr. Bc-cerley freely and frankly ; and did 

SUPPOSE THE GENTLEMAN WHO INFORMED 
ME, CAME FROM MR. ClAY^ ALTHOUGH HE 
USED THE TERM Mr. ClAV's FRLEXDs!" 

In your address to the public on the 
28lh of July, you continue the sub- 
jecl, by saying; '•'■Mr. Beverley requested 
to kmne of me, other gentlemen being pre- 
sent, lehclhcr the overtures imputed to Mr. 
Clay, zt'ccc ii'cll founded, awl if I had any 
knomledge of the fact myself. I ansu^er- 
cd him candidly -^ being nimble as well as 
un:L-illing to refuse telling thinss I hid 
lie^rd awl KNEW TO ^?E TRUE!" 
Vo'.i then repeated ihr overtures which 



you pretei>ded had b<e;i made, and 
close by sayiii;: "To be tluis .tpproach- 
ed by a gentleman of Mr. Buchanan's 
high character and sta.idiiig with an 
apology proffered at the time for what 
he was about to remark to ni'": one 
who, as I understood, had always to 
that moment been on familiar and 
friendly terms with Mr. Clay, assuinig 
me, that on certain terms and condi- 
tions being assented to, on my part, 
then by a union of Mr. Clay and his 
fiiends they would put an end to the 
Presidential contest in one hour, v;}iat 
other conclusion or inference was to be 
made, thari that he spoke by nuthority 
ci/Aero/MR. Clay himself, or some or 
HIS confidential friends!" 

After having written the Swarlwout 
letter and spoken and pubKshed the 
above declaratioi'S, you have the hardi- 
hood to say to the American people 
that you have not been Mr. Clay's ac- 
cuser — that tlie origin and beginning of 
the business had been at your own fire- 
side, and that you should be rejoiced if 
Mr. Clay could clear himself of the 
charges against him!! Is it possible, 
sir, that you consider the people of the 
United States so stupid as to believe 
one word of your assertions? If a ca- 
lumniator were to be sought among all 
the ranks of the opposition, none could 
be found of greater perseverance and 
malignity than 3'ourself. You have 
pursued your object with a spirit as 
remorseless as tiie grave. The man 
who disappointed your inflated ambi- 
tion has been marked as your victim. 
Neither yourself iioryourminions could 
persuade or bend him to your purposes, 
and you determined on his destruction. 
But tliank God he has escaped your 
toils. " Ttuth is might ij and must pre- 
vail IT 

One thing in regard to the part you 
have taken in the slanders against Mr. 
Clay, has always struck me with sur 
prise. It is your total indilFerence and 
carelessness in relation to facts. After 
declaring in the most insinuating man- 
ner sufiicient against Mr. Clay to sinl< 
him to the lowest depths of degrada- 
tion and contempt — adding at the same 
time, your conviction of its truth, you 
say with all the meekness of a hypo- 
crite, "thrityou may have done him iujn'- 



08 



TO GEN. ANDREW JACKSON. 



tice ; if so, the gentleman informing you 
can explain ! P'' There is something so 
moiistrous in this cold hlooded calcu- 



refrrred to the same Iransaction. You 
ditTur ii. dates a." Well a* in material 
(aci-^. li. the tir>t place vou say, tl.at 



laling resen-atioii, that I can attribute Mr. Buchanan visited _vou"ca/7i/ in J: n- 
it to nothiiiji; hul an utter depi-.iviiy j i/an/, 1825" — made lo you the mer- 
bothofthe head and ot' the heart. Is i ture^, tc. Mr. Buchanan says it v as 
it ii<ual for honorahle men thus lo deal | '^on tht lO/A DfitmhfT, 1824."' I r." te 
with their compi-titors? Is it just and tliis not as material; but to show your 
risjht to cast upon a man the foulest im- careless;,ess and inaccuracy in the 
putations upon opinions ami belief, and i ^tatPmLMt of iacts. You ag;ain say, 
alter the slander has taken effect, to | that Mi. Buchai an "inloimed you tl.at 
sax that otlicrs can coriectit? A dif-, there was a great intrieue going oi, — 
fcrent mor;ility has taught me tha m<Mi I that he had been informed by the 
should he extremely careful to ''■.ty rniEiim ot'Mk. Clw, that the friends of 
nothing discreditable to their fellow ' jtfr. ArJitas hcd made mcrtnres to thfrn^ 
men, without the clearest and liest au- • saying if Mr. Cli\ and his friei ds would 
thority. h was your duty, therefore, unite i'' rtid of the election ol Mr. ,A.l- 
to have a.-ccrtaincd pret jsely and dis- ams, Mr. Clav should Bi Si cket.^i t or 
tincily, what Mr. Buchanan aid your t.\te. That the friei d> of .Ad ins 
other informants haf said, before you : were urgi: g as a reason to ii dure the 
ve;iti>red toacld ihe woiifhtofyonriiame friei ds of Clay to accede to their prop- 
to a public declaration of it. You -ay, ' osition, that if you were elec'ed Ppsi- 
**ifyou were incorrect the gen'leman dent Mr. Adams uoiild be contii.u. <■ 
informing vou could explain?'' surely Secretary of State, (ii uei do th( re 
if 'le could ox|)lain to the pul'Ilc, he would be tio room for Kentuckx.)" 
could liave e.\.|)hii"ed to I/OK. He was This is your accoui:t of the ovi rture. 
within vour reach; and a man careful You aver di>iii'ctly that Mr. Buclian- 
of reputation and witling to be just, an told you tha' the ii trisrue was goi; g 
Wiiuhi have >oug!U the explanation be- i on between the friends of Mr. Adcmsaua 
jbre he had ventured to circulate "de- \Mr. Clay. Clay"« friei.ds had told l.inj 
oeptive rumours among the crowd."' 1 iso — overtures had •ll^^•ady been made, 
repeat, there wa:* an indifference and i &c. ?Jo\v hear .Air. Buchanan"s own 
callifii-ness of feeling in your conduct, i version: he says: '"1 staled to Gen. Jr.ck- 
w lich calls for tlic severest animadvcr- \son there tras n report in eirmliiliiu thi t he 



Sion. The charges against Mr. Clay, 
or ifyou please, your insinuations and 
©pinions, were of the blackest cliarac- 
ter. If true, they were sutiicient to 



H.VO DETEHMPCED HE WeiUD ATIOINT Mr. 

Adams SECRrTABv or Stafe, jn ease he 
Tverc elected President; aid that 1 wished 
lo ascertain from Mm whether he had 



de-troy him Imth as a politician and as [ ever intimau-d .-uch iiitti'lioi'. T'r.at 
a man. Yet vou repeat them, confe>s- ' he musi a' o ice perceive how injvirirus 
ing at the same lime thai you may be ' to his election sucli a rcnort might be!"' 
wrong, but takiiig no pains though you • Does this corrc'po d !'• the least v ilU 
had the means to be right! Ou the | your assertions? So far fioui it. Mr. 
same principle a man may slander his, Buchanan was t.ilkii g, not about Mr. 
neighbor's daughter or his wife \\Uh\ Clay''s friends, at^d what thev aid the 
ini|)Uiiily. He may say, "//"//ii.uc (Aj/sc | friends of Mr. Adams were doii g: tut 
her injustice the gentleman informing me I what it was reporlt'd i;ou had said, and 
can explain!"' Such, sir, is not the I what _i/oti were I'oing lo do. He came 
moral feeling of the people of the Uni- 1 to you, accordiiig to his own dela- 
ted States. ration, not to trll tf any intrigue, but 'o 
1 pass now to a comparison of your know whether yo^i hnd said cerl'iin 
statements with those of I\lr. Buchan- j /A(')(<^.s- which he conceived wonM le 
an, a witness produced bv yourself and j injurious to your election! Mr. Buch- 
on wliose testimony uMi relv for justiti-i aiian then proceeds to give his rea'^ons 
catio;t. So great is the discrepancv i :c/iy the report in circul.Tlion would l<c 
bC'vecn Ihcin, tb.it no'e but 'Ourl)lii:d| iniuriou* to von. He ^aid there wire 
TVorshippers woajd have supposed they ' other gentlcnicn. among whom he in- 



TO GEN. ANBRinV JACKSON INWIANA CONVENTION. 



C9 



eluded Mr. Clay, liiat might aspire to I But again you say : " I did suppose Mrj 

tho office o(" Secretary of Stale, Hiid if 6'((/i(nw" had come frovi Mr. Clay 
it were believed vou had already de- a/though Iw used the tirm Mr. C ail's 
termiiied to appoint Mr. Adam's "«< l/ncrtdi." How in the name of common 



inig'it have a most unhappy effect upon 
their exertions & tiiose ol'lheir fi-iends!" 
Not a word in all tins ahou' Mr. Clay's 
intrigue—not a syllable coaccrnijtg of- 
fers made by Mr. Adams' friends to 
Mr. Clay's friends! But tlje whole 
CO iveriation related toi/ourself- — giving 
you tliis advice, that you should make 
no promises or deilaraiioiis tiiai would 
d'-'ter those who mii;ht aspire to the of- 
fice of Secretary, from voting !or you. 
M- Bucba:'an then proceeds to say, 
that he relaied to you the substance of 
the (onversatio he had held with Mr. 
M Tdev; and what was this? Was it 
th it he liad my proposi ion to make 
from Mr. Ciav or his friends? No. 
Did he come from Mr. Clay? No. Did 
he vofc for Mr. Adams? No. Wlial 
then was Mr. Markley's mission? Let 
Mr. Buchanan answer. He says, Mr. 
Markley and I got into coaversatio.i, 
witen 'he aciverl<i.l to the kumouji / had 
medt oned and said it ~^as caladaled to in 
jure Get,. Jackso7i !''"' flerc then werf 
two of your friends, for they both voted 
for vou, contriving ways aiid means to 
effect your election. Neiiherof them 
had any commission from Mr. Clay or 
his friends. Both had heard the repon 
that you had said, if elected, you %vould 
continue Mr. Adams in the oiBce of 
Secretary of State — both thought that 
Mr. Clay might justly aspire to that 
office, and ibat a declaration on your 
part beforehand, that you intended to 
appoiiit another man, might disaffect 
Mr. Clay and iiis friends, and lose you 
tlseir votes in the house! It was to con- 
tradict this report, t' al Mr. Markley 
and Mr. Buchanan held this conversa- 
tion; — and it was to get i/'/ii to niithorize 
its co:itradiction, that Mr. Buclianan 
waited upon you. So far then from 
furnishing you any evidence of a bar- 
gain between Mr. .4d(ims and Mr. Clay, 
the conversation was totally upon a dif- 
ferent subject. It was an attempt or 
t' e part of your friends to be author- 
ized to court the favor of Mr. Clay and 
his friends. Hence I am bold to say. 
that Mr. Buchanan does -lot support 
von thus far, in a single partirnlar. 



sense, could you suppose he came from 
Mr. Clay, when as he himself discloses, 
he visited you on a subject referring 
solelv to your own reputed declara- 
tions? But hear Mr. Buchanan: he 
says, "I called on Gen. Jackson on the 
occasion which I mentioned, solely as 
his friend upon my individual responsi- 
bility, and not as the agent of Mr. Clay 
or any other person. * * Until 1 saw 
Gen. Jackson's letter to Mr. Beverley, 
the conception never once entered my 
mind that he deemed me the agent of 
Mr. Clay or his friends, * * He 
could not, I think, have received this 
impression until after Mr. Clay and his 
friends had elected Mr. Adams, frc. 
Again Mr. Buchanan says: "Had I 
ever known or even suspected tnat 
Gen. Jac'^son believed I hud been sent to 
him by Mr. Chiy or his friends, I should 
have immediately corrected hi« ivro- 
leous imiiressions." Here again you 
and Ml'. Buchanan are at varia>ce. He 
denies, but in teims of as much delicacy 
as he can, that he ever gave \ou 
reason to liclieve that he came from 
Mr. Clay. Yet it is said and by your 
permission, that he supports you in all 
your material assertions! I close the 
subject by expressing my entire convic- 
tion tiiat vou are not altogether so dis- 
interested in this business as you and 
your friends pretend. You have spo- 
ken against Mr. Clay without cause, 
and have charged him without proof, 
you have lent yourself to a faction, 
organized for personal agraridizcmerit, 
regardless alike of the peace and hap- 
piness of the country, and of tlic repu- 
tation both of yourself and your oppor 
nents 



INDIANA CONVENTION. 

The following^ Electoral Ticket was 
agreed upon by the friends of the Ad- 
ministration in Indiana on the 14th ult^' 
Joseph Orr, rf Ptiinam county 
John Watts of Dearborn, 
Joseph Bartholemew of Clark, 
Isaac Montgomery of Gibson, 
James Abmstrovg, of Mnnrnr'. 



GE.\ERAL RErLECilONS). 



«;E>ERAL, ItErLECTIONS. ( 

Truths wliicli assail our vanity by 
expo-ii]g weaknesses in our character, 
are seldom received with satisfaction, 
aiid are most generally, either resented 
as impertinent, or rejected as inappli- 
cal)le. So fal-ehoods which (latter our 
pride, by ascribing to us virtues which 
We do nolpossess, are geperally receiv- 
ed with complacency, and secure to 
<hose who utter them, some special 
mark of our regard. All this results 
from the disposition so natural to our 
kind, to be thought favourably of by 
others, whether we deserve to be or 
not. And as men generally prefer, j 
rather to communicate pleasure than I 
to give olVence, eo flattery, however | 
gross, is more common than reproof, j 
however deserved. These principles j 
it is believed explain the whole theory ] 
of tliat miserable hypocrisy which pre- i 
vails so universally in the world, and j 
erjsrenders so much mischief in the com- 
mo.i intercourse of individual life. 

Ii were comparatively well, how- ; 
ever, if the circle of individual associa- 1 
tion could lie made to limit the action 
of these principles in its intlucnce upon 
the characters of men. But all experi- 
ence shews that this cannot be done. 
They pass into the great mass ofna-j 
(ional feeling, and make a part in tite ; 
great aggregate of national character.! 
Hence the Paipir love to be llattcred 
as well as individuals; and they are 
about as sensitive, v\hen, however; 
titly, they are made Ihe^ subject of re- 1 
proof. Hence the bolder and more 
palpable the truths which implicate 
their patriotism, their good sense, their 
intelligence, oi- their virtue, the deeper 
generally, is their indignation at the 
fancied impertinence which dares to 
entertain them, and the louder thecr> 
of denunciation against the man, who 
is honest and independent enough to 
give them utterance. T.n the other 
hand, they swallow as with a greedy 
appetite, and often re'ward with their 
special favour, the honeyed cant and 
flattery dealt out to their credulity by 
designing demagogues about " the peo- 
ple's riishtf, the. people's iiilelligcnrc, and 
ihc priipli'spovcr,'^ &-c.; while the heart 
which such miserable (lattery disguises, 
is replete with studied policy and de- 



liberate falsehood. It is the purpose 
o( tliis paper to speak the seiuim< nts 
o( truth arid soberness, without a (ear 
of consequence;, and without a fastid- 
ious delicacy in the choice of terms, 
whoever, or hewsoever many may 
take offence thereat. And should the 
happy consequence result, of awaken- 
ing the people to a proper con.-idera- 
tion of ihtir claims iipnn ihcinsehrs, as 
well as upon those who are ca'ididaies 
for their sulFrage, the etibrt wliicli pre- 
sumes to treat so plainly, and with 
such certainty of odium, a subject of so 
much delicacy, will be abunuai'tly re- 
warded. 

It is a grand mistake, and may one 
day prove a fatal one, to suppose that 
the American people have arrived to 
such a degree of intelligence as lO be 
proof against designs on theircredulity, 
or to such a dijiree of moral power, as 
to place them beyond the pos-ibilit\ of 
an improper and wayward induliienti- 
of their passions. For all tiie ordi^ ary 
purposes of maintaining the integrity of 
their institutions and ensuring the pres- 
ervation of their form of government, 
their every day habits and modes ot 
thinking, suggested and regulated by 
their most direct ard palpable indi- 
vidual in'erests, are doubtless a sutli- 
cient guaranty against their going radi- 
cally wrong. But this proves nothing 
of superior intelligence — nothing of 
extraordinary virtue. The boy has an 
C'lual claim to either, \\h>-> has so learn- 
ed his way to school, and loves so well 
to travel it that he could not lose it. 
if he would, and would not if he could. 
It is only in times of great political 
emergency and excitement, when some 
1 formidable revolution is scugbl to be 
jetTcctcd either in fundamental princi- 
I pies or (ixed habits, that national intel- 
ligence can display its greatest power, 
and national virtue exert its influence 
with the most sensible elTect. It is 
only in times like those refered to, that 
aiiy moral necessity exists to call out 
the genius of a people, or to put their 
virtue to its strongest test. Hence, 
that people reposes in a (alse security, 
that relies upon that sort of inielli- 
gence, which reters to a routine ol 
principles merely habitual, to meet the 
emergencies of extraordinary events-. 



GENERAL REFLECTIONS. 



and Uj)on tbf^M^ of moral strength, 
that answers ^^11 enough for the 
smooth and steady sei of life, but is 
lost to its proper sphere of action, when 
it encounters ilie whirlwind and the 
storm. 

Unless the present alarming excite 



its projected application, must date a 
new era in the political history of our 
Republic. 

The task is too great, for cither 
friend or foe, to undi-rtal<e the discus- 
sion of Gen. Jackson's pretensions to 
the Presidencj", as an nbstrncl question. 
ment of the public mind, and thecausej The field of argument furnishes no re- 
of it are greatly misjudifed. they pre-] sources in his favor, because (ruth and 
sent a most lamentable illustration of i good sense can point to no principle 
the prevalence of ignorance overiutel- j that is properly connected with the sub- 
ligencc, and of morbid passion over iject, that can at the same time, be asso 
sound and deli'H'rate judgment. It is ciated withone singlefiualificationofhis 
a truth too, almost too le.-irful to be I character, that marks him out as a fit 
uttered, that this ignorance, and this ] candidate for such a station. Tbat 
pa-^sion, in the desperate and reckless ; field is al^o equal, y barren of resource* 
enterprise in whicii ;ill their worst attri-j in opposition to hijn; for what man of 
bules are enlisted, receive their im-i common sense would resort to argu- 
pulse and direction from intelligence j ment to prove that a fool was not a 
of the highest ordt-r, sliamefuUy per- wise man, or (hat a political, or any 
verted to the uiihallowed purposes of other sort of knave, was not an honest 
personal ambition; the accomplishment one. The slirewdest of the friends of 
of whicli, proposes the elevation of a Gen. Jackson are abundantly aware of 
few leading political desperadoes, to' this dilemma; and accommodating the 
the highest seats of power, at the ex- course of their discussions to an evasion 
pcnse of all the principles, all the vir-'of the inference which that dilemma 
tues, and all the blessings which ren-' fairly authorizes, arc meanly coiitent 
der the government of any value, in ' to rest his claims to elevation, upon al- 
thc administration of whicii, (I'.at pow- : leged deficiencies in his competitor. — 
cr is legitimatelv exercised. Let it he , When driven from this paltry refuge 
admitted and believed, as it doubtless by the almighty po\frer of truth, and 
should be, tliat the American people called upon again for positive, instead 
are too honest to go wrong by design: of negative recommendations, they 
It is still too true, that tliey are not suf- 
ficiently Jealous to suspect, nor suffi- 
ciently shrewd to detect the arts thro' 
which a desperate combination of dis- 
appointed demagogues are assailing 
them, to resist, in any considerable ex- 
tent tlie allurements by which those 
arts would decoy them into the mnst 
tatal errors. Hei'.ce, those imposing in- 



urg^' upon you (lie very ]ioin(. which of 
all otiiers. in itself, and i(< connections, 
furnishes the most powertul argument 
against him. They refer you with af- 
fected confidence to his military ser- 
vices — the only ones with which his- 
tory does any honor to his name thro' 
a long life of sixty years. They call 
him the saviour of his country — the 
fluences of military friscinations, opera- 1 Hero of two wars — the second Wasli- 



ting upon the passions to prevent the 
wholesome discriminations of moral fit- 
ness and expedience, which had kin- 
dled up a flame ihroug'iout the union, 
threatening a catastrophe thatsliall burn 
up, iiidiscriminat(;ly all tlie good and 
evil of the la!:d. Hence, that anjazing 

and alarming popularity of a military ; military glory was also the theatre of 
thief, which for tlie last three years has his military usurpations: — that the soil 
brought so much distraction upon the! which his bravery assisted to defend 
country, and which threatens the intro- ; against om enemy, became the domin- 
duction of a principle into t!ie exercise ' ion ofr/;!o//i(7-in his own person. They 
of our elective (Vanchise, as novel as it | never remind you that the precious 
i> dancerou*. and which if successful in' blood of AnrioncaH ritizen* \\;\? shed 



ington. Our language is too j)oor and 
too cold to express the half they feel to- 
wards him. and too limited in its num- 
ber of hii;h pounding and adulatory ep- 
ithets, to keep pace with their phrcn- 
zied zeal in applying (hem. But the} 
never remind you that (he field of his 



itt* 



GENERAL REFLtCnONs. 



even to thelastebbo<*Ufe, in the mere 
waTilon'icss ol powt-r, without the ro- 
ni'>t^»t die. ate of policy to recommend 
it, or oven tru* common forms of law to 
ju-tifv or warrant il. Tliev never re- 
mi il yoii that the first and most sacred 
pr!i;lc(Tpof tMe Constitution — the writ 
of Habeus Corpus— was suspeuded — 
that tlie freedom of the pre^s was out- 
ratjed by liie w.iiiton imprisoi merit of 
an independent citizen who liad the 
bold'iess to assert and exercise it; and. 
in tine that all the departments of the 
civil (government were virtually hatid- 
ed over to the keeping of a soldiery, 
with the certain understanding, that the 
severest mililarv inflictions would mark 
the slightest act of disobedience to a 
military despot's will! * 

These are matters which it is not 



nominal file leader, but in fact, its mis- 
erable tool. T'le decencie.- of deliber- 
ate discussion have no quarter i;i such 
places; and tlie cliaracteristic modesty 
of sound argument always retreats dis- 
gusted, leaving tlie boisterous passions 
that opposed it, in full and confirmed 
possession of the field. 

Hence the grand secret of General 
Jackson's popularity in relation to the 
Presidency. All the worst passions of 
the heart, undisciplined ')y moral prin- 
ciple and uncontrolled by thought, arc 
warring in his favor; and honest but de- 
luded ignorance is enli-ted in the cau<e, 
because it knows no better. Yes. let 
it be repeated again and again. a:id let 
it go forth, as a solemn and alarming 
truth, to the furthermost corners oi our 
land, that, with the ho'iest mass of the 



oo"vcnient for the friends of General | people of these Uiiit"d States, G-neral 
Jackson to remember. Tiiev either i Jackson is su-tained, solelv, by that 



pass them over as venial errors, un- 
worthy of serious discussion, or treat 
them with c<):iti-mpt, as talse: accord- 
ing as intelligence or ignorance may 
happen to be the subject on which 
their efforts in ^^upport of theGeuerars 
pretensions may chance to be directed 



sort of higli exeitement which ig or- 
ance i-alwavs liahU to, and which ig- 
norance.however honest, always enjoys 
— an excitement, which, in the case in 
hand, has reached a point of delirium 
tlialstrugslcs against all depleting rem- 
edies, ai.d fight- against all impressions 



in the reading roomsand literary circles hut such as directly tend to add more 
af our cities and our towns, wliere mind luel to the flame that keeps it up — 
is fairly opposed to mind, and where a . When it will eid, and how much mis- 
knowledge oifach is possessed by eve- 1 chief it will do in the vast expanse of 
ly one, common policy, as well as a ne- ; territory over which its contagion has to 
eessary courtesv, requires the admis- operate. God only knows, and time 
sion of certain indi.-putahle truths. In only can de;ermine. Meanwhili' it be 



8uchplaces,theheroism,the patriotism, 
the genius, tiio respect for the constitu- 
tion and the laws, which the General's 
friends are so sedulous in their attempts 
to fix upon his character, are all under- 
stood, and, by honest men, regarded. 



lioves every honest man and well wi>h- 
er of his country, to do his utmost to ar- 
rest its course, and if he cannot alto- 
gether put it down, at least, in some de- 
gree, to neutralize its moral influence. 
•Viixious forchodincs have frequently 



with tiic degrajingqualificalions which i been expressed by some of the soundest 
properly hehing to them. But in the , Statesmen of our country, in reference 
taverns and tlie cofl'ee houses, in the I to the great problem of the durability 
grog sho|)s and the shambles, at the of our institutions. The spirit ol the 
bear baits and in the race fields, the revolution is rapidly jiast^ing away; a 
Ger;eral is known only as '• the Hero oft new race of men, with new feelings and 
New Orleans" — ''the Saviour of his new motives to action, is fast superced- 
country," and every attempt, however ling the generation of patriots to whicli 
honest and prupiih dirf-cted.lo retnove : the revolution ^ave existei.ee and char 
th<' veil which cover-the grossiniquities acter. Men are more selfish now. th.m 
ofhls military liie, and thcdark deprav- j then, because they have ]css pulp-iblc in- 
ity of h- moral character, is met with ducement to.l.e patriotic. They look 
the gross abuse and hull\ing defiance | more lo themselves, &, less to their coun- 
that arc suited to the c-i'.isr which nrjres i tn .because their country seems capable 
hJsprct(n«ioi.s,andtothonw,>»whoisit's'of takins (are of itself witi»out ihetV 



GKNERAL UFri^CCTTONS THE PAfiFANT AT NEW OHT.EANS. 



•rs 



assistance; thev have no enemy at 
tiieir gates to dispute witli them the 
posses'-ioii of their tiiosidcs; no cry tor 
the (lefooce of liberty, to di^tiir!> the 
sile-it repobCoCthe nigiiUor, in ti'.eday 
time, lo draw them from the iiOTie?t 
laHours of their pcareful lives, to the 
on.T.itioiis of the tented field. T!ie 
qa stioii, then, of los-^ a .d gain, in the 
acC'iu:it current of individnal interest, 
de'eriiii'.ie> most men to look to the in- 
d^s^idual advantage ti\cy are to acquire, 
before they make up their minds to 
hazard pcrsoinil interests upon the un- 
certainties of political aflliirs. If this 
he true, and we iiave examples of it 
e\erv dav, what great permanent and 
abiding pri'iciple of i;aiion;il cha.ractcr 
ca ■ we rely upon, to sustain us in fu- 
tur:' conflicts, with the storms of fac- 
tioii? Here is a diflii ully full of dan- 
ger to the permanency of our ii:stitu 
tioiis; a'!d, if the matter be not greatlv 
inisiudjed, tiic period of time that shall 
change our form of government, will 
be marked with the blood of conteidir.g 
parties; who, if they each be asked 
whether a better form of goverr>ment 
could be devised tiiaa ihe one they are 
overturning, would eacii prompilv an- [ 
swiT, no; and yet would each sacrifice ' 
their country in the co'test, rather ; 
than lose a paltry triumph to them- j 
selves. This sort of spirit exists in I 
embryo now. It will grow with our | 
growth, and strengthen with our I 
strength, U!itil its full maturity of gesta- 
tion shall invite some future JACK-| 
SON to perform the office of its birth, 
a."d christen it with the cognomen of I 
MILITARY DESPOTISM. We may ' 
no: live to see that day, bi^t it may 

rOME. f'l. 



TTTE PVREANT AT NEW ORLEANS. 

There is one historical fact of unde- 
niable correctness, which ought strong- 
ly to arrest the attention of e^ery con- 
siderate American. England is the 
O' ly country in which any thins like 
liberty and security lia^ been perma- 
nently maintained through her whole 
national existence as detailed, in au- 
tbe':tic historv. I-i English liistorj' we 
have pf» instanw oftiie nation, or any 



respecta!>Ic portion of it, abandoni"g 
themselves to the idolatrous worship of 
a si; gle man. No political pageai.l.or 
religious Jug^cnaut !.as been set up 
in lliat country for u:.iversal ailoralio;i, 
in the person of a mortal man. Her 
Alfreds and Williams, her Edwards 
and Henrys, her Elizabeth, Charh ^es 
and Gi'orgcs, have had their paras'U'S 
and pulfers. But the nation recOcj' i- 
zed no one of them as an object of ;>.'i- 
oration. Nor did the Hampdens a d 
Sidneys, t!ie Fairfaxes, or the Crom- 
wells of the Commonwealth, receive 
from the people the adulation, too com- 
monly bestowed upon men in power 
or professed supporters of the public 
gopd. Ergli~hmen have in all aues 
l)iefen bigoted, factious and vindictive, 
hut never the suppliant idolizers of 
men no better than themselves. 

When we turn to the historv of other 
countries, we find that ma:'.-vvorsi>p 
has been a very common idolatry: a. d 
we find too, that subservience to men, 
and the prostration of put-lie lioerty 
iiave, in most cases, bee^' coixurre-.it 
events. I speakofgeteral results, a d 
do not mean to specify particulars. — 
Whoever has read historv, Itnow:. tJ:at 
from Alexander of Macedoii, to Boi'.a- 
part(' of C'or>ica. successful military 
ciiieftaius have bee;: deified, by their 
countrymen, the military ci'ieflaii s of 
! England alone excepted; and Englav.d 
alone has preserved even the semblaicc 
loflibert\. This fact speaks volumes 
I of instruction and of rcl)uke to the A- 
merican people. 

I The recent events at New Orleans, 
'.associated as they are witli surrou d- 
; iiig circumstances, cannot be regarded 
j with too much attention. All that -er- 
viie svcophaiicy a'.'.d impudent impiety 
' dare attempt to confer honor upo;i a 
frail mortal was there attempted. Tite 
I whole scene is calculated to create a 
1 loathing disgust, in an upright and iit- 
! dependent mind. Tite following arti- 
cle, copied from the New OrIea:'= Ar- 
gus of the third of January, pair;t> in 
strong colours, f l;e follies that were ex- 
, pected to take place. 
I "No custom has longer received ihc 
sanction ol"mai>kind, than that of ceb'- 
' hrotinc witi: m^I nr ri'es. parable-- and 
Ifeslivit&s, those da)9 that have been 



t* 



TIIE PAGELiVT AT NEW ORLEANS. 



rendered meinoraMe by the occurrence 
of great and important events. The 
advent of the Redeemer is thus com- 
memorated throughout chrib eudom. 
The hirih of great ai.d distiniruifhed 
mjii, the achievement of victorio*. and 
the elfeciuation of grt-at political ac- 
complishme t;, are e^ery wlicre ac- 
claimed by punlic Cflebration, to con- 
tinue tlip impress^ion of their import- 
ance upon tiie mind* of the p'-ople. 
Who does not feel the fervor ofpat riot- 
ism upon t'le a:iniver!-ary of our inde- 
pendence? Who does not feel gratitude 
to the great disposer of events upon 
the birtb d:iy of \Va<liington? And 
whit patriot is not proud of the achieve- 
mi-iit performed on tlie 8th of January, 
l.al5? These ceh-hraiions arou-e the 
best feelings of our nature, and i^t-ep 
alive the love of our cou.trv and its 
happv in-litutions. How baneful and 
degrading it is, that these sacred oc- 
casions sliould ever be prostituted to 
Ui ' allowed purposes. Ir'Sfead of ol'- 
fe g up tlia'.ks to Almighty God for 
the greatest boon the world ever rc- 
ceiv. J, the day, on which the Saviour 
appeared, has been too often devoted 
to wic'-:cd and unrighteous pur-uit*; 
and the jubilee of our national inde- 
peiidenc- has oftesi been spent ia riot 
. and di--i'ation. But the approaching 
8thof Ja.iu:iry, will he the first instance 
of the sacrilegions violatio.: of a day 
coiisecriicd to our counlry's glorv, to 
the purpose of promoting the poliHcal 
views of a man who has no quaiilica- 
tions for tlie ofli^ e he seeks, and is oilv 
impelled to the aspiration bv the vanitv 
of hi- military renown, aid tficur^ings 
of a faction, that liope< to profit bv his 
gratitude il he succeeds, or to tcakc ad- 
varitage ofiiisii;capacity tobring them- 
selves i'lto notoriety. 

"T'-^sc"-igns( f the times'' arc omin- 
ous of evil, and dcgiadii.g to the moral 
sense of our co mtrvmi^i. Far better 
would it be, to Icl the day pass without 
obsr;r\ance,ihan toha>e it thus abused. 
The roar of cannon, the ringing of bells, 
the shouts of a multitude, tlie strains of 
music, and all the poinj) and circum- 
stance th it can bo <;ot up. are intended 
to e\ dt in public opi'iion a man, who 
stanN CO- demned lief>re the world, as 
».vioiater of tiie coustituiion and laws 



, of our country — whose hand is stained 
I with the lood of his fellow cit;ztns, 
I slain in premeditated malice and cold- 
j ncss of heart — who delights in blood 
land carnage'. — who ha* outraged the 
j best laws of social order and whose 
lips have habitually uttered the most 
hideous profanitier — who, to repress 
! the rising prospects of hi- rivals, has as- 
serted the most calumnious falsehoods, 
and sealed them with an oath swora 
by the God of Heaven ai'd Earth. 

"The puppet of a faction he is to be- 
made '•to tiglit his battles o'er again," 
and like the u^ly idol of Juggernaut is to 
lie iield up for the adoration of slaves 
and children, fools and denwgogues. 

"All this absurdity would only be 
worth V of contempt and ridicule, were 
not the sacred rites of religion to be in- 
fringed upon! It might have beea 
hoped that these would not have been 
put in requisition upon this most unhal- 
lowed occasion. I3ut the *Hero" is to 
be conducted into the temple, dedica- 
ted to the living God. surrounded by the 
admirers of Voltaire and Tom Pnine, 
and thrre the most venerable prelate of 
ourland is to congratulate him upon his 
hop.ors, and rail down blessings frorr». 
the sides upo;i a man who holds reli 
gion in contempt, -id audacioaslv pro- 
fanes the nnmc of God ! y invoking it 
I for the most wicked purposes'. Tiic 
, venerable Fa'jier, v.ho. bendiug u-der 
j the weight of eighty years is to be diag- 
iged forth O'.i this ocrasio'".- has the 
w-armest aftV-tions of our population; 
I and how ji.iinful w Ml il be to see. (possi- 
, biy) tlie la^t clei ic^i act of his life, ron- 
trilnitiiig to the fulsome purpose of oiler- 
ling inceise to a njan ''Utanointed and 
unannealed" by any redeemir.g act, 
feeling or sertimcnt, from along life ol 
vioieiice and profligacy!!! 

"After all this mummery, this modest 
and unassuming; repuidican will return 
to his Hermitage, stuffed to bursting 
with ttie '-vanity of vanities," and then 
claim tlie suffrages of the people of the 
United States for the highest office in 
their gift."' 

1 have not ret seen a detail of all 
the particulars: but I have seen enough 
to satilymc.that it was.in truth a pageant 
for '^staves on/i childrni. fvnh ami dnna- 



A pageant in which dcraa 



tilep.i<:e.4.nt at new-orleans. 



w 



gogues were the principal actors,slavcs, 
children and fools llic mal'Tials wil' 
which it was intended to produce an 
iinjwsi' g ctTect. In the eyes of m-jn 
of undor?taiiJiiig it was a complete fail- 
ure. But upon those it was never ex- 
pected to operate. If it produced e(- 
tecl upon the minds of imbecility and 
ignorance, it lias answered every pur- 
po.--e contemplated hy its authors. 

Some twelve niont'is ago, one of your 
Taclv.-onian under workers, whom I do 
not remember, proposed to the Legisla- 
ture of Louijiana, to invite Gen. Jack- 
son to join in the celehration of the 8tli 
of January, at New-Orleans, in I8'28. 
No man could >"i?iake the oiiject, but 
that truckling spirit, whicti, in all ages. 



oftlic hero, give him eclat, and strength- 
en his pretensions to distinction in tue 
public mind. Gen. Jackson well knew 
surh was the object, aiid contemplated 
result. AVhen lie accepted the invita- 
tion with this knowle<lge, he became a 
participater in all its meanness and in 
all its deception and baseness. He 
made himself tnc chief pageant in a 
show, the whole protit of which was 
to redound to his own advantnge. In 
doing so. he evidenced a sentiment 
no more elevated, not one whit more 
honourable than that of Col. Pluck, 
who exhibited his own person, in ridicu- 
lous military decoratioiiS, for a given 
sum of money to each visitor. 

Where is the diflcrei ce in principle? 



has sought to compromise with a mis- Col. Pluck is a tool riatural, and with- 



•chief it was unwilling to encounter, bo- 
cause addressed to (-.("[lular prejudice, 
assented to the proposition. The invi- 
tation was given, as if from the whole 
peojle, to a public character, upon ac- 



out any natural feeling of decent pride 
or intelligence. Mischievous wags 
play upon his credulity and puffhini up 
with the most absurd notions of his own 
importance. Thus played upon he is 



couiit of his past services, and without brought out for the amusement of all 



reference to passing events. All parties 
knew the t nth was otherwise. The 
object was palpably to produce effect 
for present purposes, not to consceraic 
good feelings upon account of deeds by- 
gene. Yet the invitation was given, 
and accepted upon apparently total!} 
differe'it groui'ds. 
In this course of proceeding, there w as 



concerned, to make sport for those who 
despi-e him. To stamp his folly with a 
mark peculiar Sz iiidelible,he is exhibit- 
ed for pay. Gen. J. if not a deliberate 
participatorin ihe fraud must he an idiot 
politic:il. Interested demagogues have 
discovered his political imbecihty, and 
have conceived that they can turn him to 
account,in subserving thelrown purpos- 



a fraud and meanness, on the part of es. As in the case of Col. Pluck, they 



those who gave the invitation and him 
•who accepted it, that cannot be too 
much reprobated. There is aii oifenoe 
againstmunicipal law, in mattersof pro- 
perty, called deceiving by false pre- 
tenses. It is punished as infimous, and 
is seldom conmiittcd but by black-leg 



deck him out with fancied virtues and 
talents, all of v.hich he puts on, as did 
Col. Pluck his military spurs and epau- 
letts. The coarseness of his percep- 
tion and the voracity of his appetite, in 
mattersof self applause, are drawn out 
md practised upon, until it is discover- 



pretenders to character. The common ed that theGeneral.like Col. Pluck, can 



thief is more despised, but is not geiier 
ally esteemed so detestable as the per 
petratorof this otlence. The political 
practice of false pretences should be 
held in equal detestation. 

Theinvitation to this pageant, affected 
to be given and accepted as a matter of 



jie made exhibit himself as a show, 
as a pageant, an automaton chess 
player, or any other automaton, for the 
protit of himself and those who use him. 
This being ascertained, the General is 
brought to New-Orleans as a show. — 
Where the whole scene is not unlike 



general national feeling and sentiment, i that, in which Vulcan convened all the 
■was, in reality, both given and accepted Gods to witness his own dishonor, in 
for the purpose of working pol tical ef- the person of his wifecuriouslymeshed. 
feet. It was a contemptible and fraud- in the arms of a paramour, of which it 
ulent trick, which it was calculated is said: 
■wowld operate on the timid and the ! ,, r , j ■, •,; . ,, ,• j j , 

' , ,. , ., . , :'■'■ F.arh deittiviUi laxigkUr tired, dtnarh: 

'■a n and thus enlist them m the cause l» Bvtali sminudiat I'uicn fn t/ictt hiaris" 



16 



THE PAWEANT AT >-EW-ORI.EA>S»'. 



geaiit lia.- bce:i characterised ;>\ eil'ort 
to produce efffct. The manager* ks.ow 
well cnouiili thit in all that co reriis 
inti-ilectual excellence, General Jack- 
son is l)op»'l(.>-l_v deficie:.!. They kmsw 
also there is little o;' moral heautv iii his 
character. Con'ei)iiei tly he is not a 
man to gain upon liie understand! as 
or kindly social feeli. gs ol'men. His 
way raa>t l)o made good b\ recomine."- 
dations ahogciher extrinsic o!' hims.-lf. 
Hence it is : ecessarv lo dccoraic !.im 
like a show bullock drive:, through the 
streets of a city previous to his slaught- 
er. This is a com mi i! device of a 
butcher who wishes io ^-ell !iis beef at 
an u common higli price. Her.ddres- 
«es the eye. not tlie palate of the gour- 



The childu'P, -laves, and fools were 

no 'Joul)t d-lig'itcd and astonished. — 

T'>o master spirits could not bu'. laugli, 

ai Ge ■<ral .1 ickso'i, thus played otf like 

a p.i ..'a'lt of straw, to liis ow.! disgrace, 

a d ior his own political advancemi;;.t. 

No alleniative remains ro him; "«»/ 

c/i/irimulgus aiUfautor.'''' He is t!ie par- 

tiza 1 or the instrument, tlie hero orthe 

Co! Pluck of the exhibition. 

S.iicerily is a cardinal virtue, from 

w'iicli no man can depart without jeo- 

pardizi-g his own m 'rah. Whatever 

is '0 'ransacted, as lo convince consid- 
erate men, that it is founded in false and 

heartl,-RS professio'is.generates a feern:^ 

o! distru-^t and a sentiment of di-gust 

a d contempt towards all coiiciri'cd. 

Tiie attempt tocoMner' personal adula-jmand, inwhichcase mere var.itv. m:.kes 
tion to General Jackson with national ; many purchasers. SoGeii. J. ispresti.t- 
festivitv: mere party advancement ed to the eyes tif "he people. trick<'d cut 
witii national ulory; to create efTect in ir. gaudy habiliments. A 'd, lest i is 
favor of a man u: der cov^r of maifest- should rot bee.ough, he is-urroii' ded 
ii;g patriotic fceliigs. is an ofTeiicc witli all conceivable aid practica'. ic 

circumstances that mav ?erve' lo excl'.e 
the pride of life, and lusts of visio;>. by 
ostrich, cannot but fei-I that the pro- which men are deceived. Nothi ij 
ceedi::g is, in some degree, disgraceful, need be more humiliating than a move- 
Andeachle'idaha;.dioconsummatetne ment like th's, w!ien krown lo be 'he. 
follv which he hop''s others do not per- mere eirort of party mammerv. No 
ceive as di>iinclly as himself. It is ma'i has been made more ridiculous 
true men deceive themselves oftner than General Ja Lson, i)v i>xhibiiio;,s 
than thcv deceive other-; ; yet they are iof 'h'schariiet- r. No one has ever been 
not always deceived, when tiiey appear! pla\ed olfso frequently and so palpably 
to be so. Hence we frequently fii.'d , for political etrect alone, as this same 
persons exceedingly testy, upon occa- liero, wiio for his very gullibility in sul)- 
sio s, when they feel that the foll\ of miitiiig to lie thus u^ed, might i' xur 
tii"ir conduct is scarcely compatible the im[)utation of an egregious block- 
witii ih(;ir cliaracter for unders;anding. ,liead. 

Their good sense ti Us t'lem tliat what I It is now something more than I'om 
they are about stamps fool or knave years, since he was first brought out. 



against all propriety. F.ven those con- 
cen:ed,yyho have as mucli brains as an 



upon their foreheads: and they are en 
raged tliat any one should presume lo 
read it there. 

Those concerned in getting up a ri- 
dicalnus pageant and actiiiga conspic- 
uous part in it, are ever ready in their 
hearts, lo doubt tlie sincerity and ques 
tion the motives of others. Their own 
hearts tell them, that much, that pro 
duces public regiird, is but a trick. 
piTulised on the senses of those who 
do ot care I" lliiiik. Thcv make their 
0^^ n conduct the sta d ird of their 
judgment and consequ(>iilly pronounce 
cond'-ninalioii. 



During the last Presidential canvass, 
the east had their candidate, the .-ouik 
their candidate, and the west LMeii 
candidate for t!iat high ofhio. General 
Jackson yvas got up, a sort of South- 
western candidate. It is asserted up- 
on apparent good authority, that the 
friends of the Mastcrn candidate set 
him up, to break doyvn the candidate 
of the South, and this wears a goodly 
face of pidbabilily. But far (Vom ins- 
pecting the maiKiuvre, the Gen. per- 
>uaded him>elf that his pretensions 
yvere of the first grade, and thought of 
Mottling less tlian being made a mere 
Rvcry step of this Neyv Orleans pa- 1 man of «-traw. The conceit that he 



fWE PACKANT AT NEW-OU LEANS?. 



lY 



was ilocmed fi( for President, infused i 
a belief into iii^ miiid. that he was a 
statesman ai'd jioliiic iaii Full of tiiis 
notioi', he lugaii to look wisely and talk ; 
ohscureh ; and tinally took a stalion in j 
the councils of the nation, as Senalor | 
from Tennessee. When he proceeded 
to Washincrton. the scheme of jjlaying 
liini olF to make a division in favor of 
tlic Eastern candidate, was prosecuted 
with iiicrcased activity, \Ve all re- 
■lember the party given hy iVIrs. Adams, 
on the eighth of Jantiary, 1824, iri 
honor of Gc.i. Jackson. Tlie Hero did 
not take up the distalf. as he of old, to 
cultivate a tender passion. But a mis- 
guid.'d ambition made liiTii the pageant 
of a !adv"s tete. for belles and beaux to 
wovder at: and whilst he attracted at- 
ter.tion, like the newest rarit\ in a mu- 
seum, he was tuiconscious th:u even 
tlien, he was showed off for political 
affect. I 

The friends of the Southern candi- | 
datt^ perceiving that the (jieneral was 
likeh lo be a useful puppet for those : 
of the Eastern one, determined to work j 
with hmi also. Tiiey plied him with 
presents and praises, whicii were re- 
ceived with equal relish. And the I 
General was acrually vvorkea up into a 
kind of universal iiero. Tlic •' adini- i 
rrihie Cnihlon" was riothiiig to him. j 
Ladies and dancing-masters, gour-j 
inands and anticjuarians made court! 
to him, until the general imagined ; 
himself, not merely a Iuto and states-' 
man, but an Adonis, connoiseur and \ ir- 1 
tuoso. Tents, pistols and jc-wcls, cards 
and compliments, almost overwhelmed 
him. The puffers and donors regard- ' 
od liim as one, from whose political 
prelC'isions nothing was to be appre- 
h'^nded ; whilst he, poor man. attributed 
all the honors and atteiitions bestowed 
upon him, U) the irresistible attractions 
of his own perfections. It was amusing 
enough to see the south and the cast 
blowing up Gen. Jackson, as. they sup- 
jjosed, boys blow bul)i)les in a tul) of 
soap suds, which the\ can cxtinguisti 
again by touching. And see them final- 
ly intlate him to such a pilch as actually 
to press him befort both their own can- 
didate«,and sivehima character, which 
re.'dered 'iin ' dnng'-ious rival to both. 
This rcsnlt disclosed (he bllo^ancv 



of the General aiid his peculiar fitness 
for a poliliral pageant: and, since the 
election of Mr. Adams, he has been 
dcxtcrou-ly used to turn the tallies 
upon those who (irst pulT'd him into 
notice. In 1 828, Mrs. Adams would feel 
no disposition to make the 8th of Ja- 
nuary a gala day, in honor of Gen. Jack- 
son. Page mt as he is, he is now iu 
other hands. He is used as he was in 
1824, for tlie same purpose, but by dif- 
rent managers. The pi'escnt pageant 
at New Orlca: s, is but a new and en- 
larged and embellished edition of the 
pageant at Washington, in 1824. How 
far this foUv and extravagance can be 
yet extended, and how long the Gene- 
ral may l)e preserved for sinnlar exhi- 
bitions, are matters for curious sjiecu- 
lation. It may be that four years hence, 
other hands may play hiiti off, to the 
great annoyance of his present mana- 
gers. Van Buren mav put iiim at Cal- 
houn, or Car.uuiM at Clinton. So long 
as lie lives, tliose who wish to delude 
the people with a pageant, will soTnc 
of them make Gen. Jackson the princi- 
pal puppet. 

AVe learn that the late exhibition has 
produced no effect favorable to the 
chieftain or his cause. It degenerated 
into the grovelling rancour of party, 
and was as remarkable for virulence of 
1 sentiment as the dining party at Wash- 
' it:gton. The Geneial, we understand, 
; had rot been well instructed in his va- 
' rious parts. His speeches were so 
I written that he read tliem with ditii- 
Cnllv, arid once or twice commenced 
the wro g one. The show in the Legis- 
; lature, the church and the theatre, was 
' not of the talents and character and 
[ property of the country. — but rather 
{ of ^^ slaves nml cliihlren, fnnis and dimu- 
' p^o^ursj''' There was a parade of gun- 
i boats, and a roar of cannon, and a 
crowd of such as attend a crim. con. 
trial or an execution. Such as. threw 
up their greasy nig!it-caps and shouted 
when Ca<sar refused the crown. And 
the General dined, and dra!d< toasts, 
and thumped the tablc^, and huzzaed, 
for our noble selves, witli as much glee 
as anv of the company. And modestly 
esteemed himself the great desidera- 
tum of all, u; disUirbed by a si'gle sus- 
picion that all was got up. and hitnself 



■w 



THE PAGEANT AT NFm-ORLEANS. 



exhibited, not for his own sake, but to > Tiie delegates from New-York, 
^'■prit down the present adminhtrUwn,lho'\thrijn^h Mr. Hamilion, dohvered a 
pure lis the angels that minister in hinxen.''' \ speccli. It m:i» cotniiig behind others 
Every thing appears well on paper, for fulsome tlatlery aiid bold assertion. 
Speeches upon speeches were made at . Let one specimen sutfice. 
the General, and replied (o bv him.: "In discharge ui ihe immt-rous and bif^hly 
His replies, more than anv tiling else, ' i'"P"f'a"« civ.) trusts to winch ^ou (,»«■ be.n 

mc> iv.^. .. , .. iv- _ J, ' j c;illed Ir.m a MTV f:arl\ period uf '-.iir n:iti..i)al 

expose the true character Ot the pa- ! e^,,tericp almost'to ihe prescm d:..,, .you hare 
geant. No m.m can suppose that thev! luviinaoly muced talents, prudinci- and Ill- 
were prepared by the General hiuiseli. i «*snt), alik. hoLorabu-to jour*t;l.-..na condu- 

_,,■,', •' . /• .1 u i cive t'l the i.uIjIic welfare. ' 

The style betrays them, for t he v bear .1 . .. . .. r \i „ ) , 

^, . •' r k 1 , I . -„^ Alas! that the sou of Alexander 

the mipress ol a scholai, arid a prac-l.. ., , 1 . 1 1 ». ■ 1 

.. , ' .. ,.-, ' f„ ' . I Hann ton sioulu Hod this language to 

lised writer. \Vlien a great m;in sub-i i 1 11 00 

mits to have speeches put in his mouth, ^'"''"cw Jackson.. 

we can be at no Joss to estimate his 



.Mr. Hamilton presented the Gene- 
ral •' in tlie name of the cor|>oration of 
the city of Ne«-Vork, with a m. dal, 
struck in commemoration of the corn- 



true character. 

The add re jses to the General.abound 

in the most extravagant hyperbole. ,- .1 i- ■ r> 1 i 

,r>u c u • . t f „ . I P etion ol the Lne Laual, ana a copy 

The following extract from one, ma> ' ' ai r- 1 1 • ,u n t 

" J c^\ ■ ^ „i ol Mr. Colden s memoir on the Canals 
serve to give some idea ol tlieir general I \- 1 •■ -p^, r- 1 1 

■ ^ '^ " iol New-iork. The ucneral wa? al- 

character: . 1 1 1 1 *i i\ ,. ■ 

most overwhelmed bv the •• Haltering 
"The Legislators of our country have sus- 1 , . •) ,- .1 " < j .1 

peiided their, leliberation=-tl.e multitude cover, dlstllXl ions ol ti.tt present, ai.d thc 

the banks of this gnat river — the temples are) supersidded Compliments and COiigra- 

opened— theincenseburn9,ascen.linetoheaven,iiy|;,t[Qjjs of the "Republicans of the 
tosrether with the blessine? of a eratelul people! j . , » rxi \T 1. •' 11;, 

<jSs happy conqueror, go! and^hear the voice! City ^'"^ '^O""^)' "".^ New-lork. HlS 

of mothers greeting the hero who brought them managers make him reply thus: 

back their -ons— Gol .ind hear the cheering' „, ^^ ,,g,^j, ^„^,, coMPENSATtD /jr my 
of the wives and daughters Irom wl om voii I ,^„.,,.„ j,p„jip,„pn^ ;,. being all.iwed I., accept 
averted the insults of a lawless Suldiery. Ixo . ,^p toV.,\n vou present, of the ap).robation of so 
and meet the kind, the rapturous welcome ol „^^„„o,,^ a„j patriotic a portion . f my fellow 
the new generation — the children born since ctj^puj." 

1815, the future men of Louisiana, await also 1 ,,., ' ,, . , .,.. , ■,»., . /. 

the deliverer of their fathers— thc Chieftain who 1 VV hat blessed humility! What unat- 
alrendy lives in history, Uu chieftain equal to the | fected modesi V ! '• Mure than compensa- 
herot,ofanrU7aday,y , ,^,y ., r^^^^ j,"^^ ,,j^jjp^, ^^^.^^ j^^ Qg,jg. 

Those who could make, or receive ral nothing. He has subscrii)ed a re- 
such an offering as this, might well play coipt i'l lull! What further claims can 
their part in a jiagcant at Ispahan. 1 he have upon t!ie Presidency? How 
They evince a taste for other habits' can so motlest a man continue his aspi- 
than those of plain republicans; other j rations for an office to which he has no 
governments than one founded in 'claims — for which he has no qualifica- 
Cfinality. and resting upon thc suprc-tion? 
macy of law. I We see no account of a speech from 

Tiiroughout thc speeches and replies 'the Pennsylvania, Oliio, Kctucky, or 
the General's violations of law, at New- Mississippi delegations. Tlieir names 



Orleans, are studiou-ly misrepresented, 
and most unc|ualitiedly vindicated 



arc not even mentioned, though their 
position, at the Natchez dinner, is no- 



Pursuing the false impression made ticcd bv an anonymous puffer, who 

Upon the |)ul)lic mind, from the first. 

thev are asserted to have taken place 

while the danger was imminent, and 

the nocessily imperious. This ijene- 

rality of assertion serves to protect those 

who make it, from detection abroad, 

except amongst such as have made 

themselves actjuaintcd «ith the facts. 

Its true character could not but Ik- 

known to many who had heard it made. 



hopes the public may be gratified 
with the "courteous toasts" of " the 
vflermi Piatt and the accomplished 
WnlkcrP 

Some queer things took place in the 
cathedral. " A discourse prepared by 
the reverend father Antonio de Se- 
dilla," a vcrv aged father of the Catho- 
lic church, wa.s delivered by a young 
clcigyman. A reply was delivered by 



THE PAGIEJILNT AT NEW-ORtEANS. 



If 



General Jacki^O;., but we are not in- 
formed by whom il was "prrparctl."' It 
eoiitains, liowever, tlie Ibllowiug pas- 
sage i 

"To your pioii!! labours in thi? commuuity, 
tlol ;ittribiitriiiai;ri.itilegree,tlirit di liverance 
from tlic iiiva('ing I'of, which crowned the v;i- 



adoration. No common mind conceiv- 
ed this daring. It is not merely con- 
verting a cliurch into a political arena, 
or into anamphillicatre Ibi the exhibi- 
tioii of poliiical gladiators. It is per- 
verting the very ottiees ol'religion them- 
selves. Divine service was performed, 



lor ol'mv comrades on thi day ol which thi> i? ] ,. . ,. . . , , -.. . 
thean^hcrsary; for a mora; and relijrious Hfe ; a divine blcSSing invoked, a divine ben- 



is a constant appeal to the lav r of heaven, auii edklion dispeil'^ed. And carnal pride, 
j« a sure guarantee of faithful and heroic patno- ;,„(1 „oildly ambition and political ran- 

*'■■"■' j cor were the predominant sentiments 

What a commentary upon the Gen- Uf the pretended xsorshippcrs! And 
erals own life ! VVliat a precious speci- j holy men sanction such an abuse of ho- 
ment o( complimentary nonsense! | |y oflices, and connnend the prodiirfte 

The "pious lai)ours"' of father Sfdilla Uzza'iswho put forth their unhallov. -d. 
in the "■community'' of New Orleans, hands, to touch holy things, and were 
*Hn a gred degree" achieved the victory, not stricken dead', 
wliicii "crowned the valor" of the Gen- The Ursiiline nuns too, -kctc intro- 
eral and his comrades. It must then duced into this pageanl,all carnal, sen- 
have been the "mora/ «w/rc/i'fi'W!W /(W sual and voluptuous as it was. That 
of the New Orleans militia, which sc- these holy Virgins acted upon their own 
cured '■Hhc favw o/" Aroifvi" upon the impulses is not to be believed. The 
army of defence. Of course the Gen- trick is more gross than all the resf. — 
eral himself, and the men of Kentucky The\, who are retired from the world,, 
and Tennessee had no part or lot in the and its vanities and strifes, its enjoy- 
niatter. Thev had not been benefiited ment- and delusions! they, voluntarilj 
by father Sedillas '■'■pious labors^'' they ; mingle, in political disputes, to invoke 
had no pretensions to "a moral and rcli- heaven's blessi:igs, upon one of (lie chief 
gioiii lift,'^ could make no '-appeal to ' combatants, a profaie and relentless 
the favor of heaven,'" and were without man! The thing is incredible! But 
"guarantee ol faitiiful and heroic pat- they have been brought before the 
riotisiiv'!!!!!! Such is the plain read- world in this character. And so in! ro- 
ing of this sentence. It is absurd e- duced, the Ursuline nuns, have found 
nough to have been manufactured by favorwiiere pure and undetiled religion 
General Jackson himself— i)ut the style i could never hope to find it. In the 
is not that of -'o mirror tu slimululc /o , Bachanalian orgies of a political feast: 
future exerlioii."' at the Washington, 8(h of January 

One of the most reprehensible parts ^ dinner, the Ursuline nuns were made 
of this pageant is the attempt to make the subject of Volunteer toasts!! — 
religion bear a share in it. There can ' There is impurity in the association. — 



be no proper connection between re 
ligious feeling, and a cause so unholy, 
or an individual whose life has exhib- 
ited such unmitigated profanity as that 
of General Jackson. There is a daring, 
in attempting the association, that c- 
vinces the profligacy of the managers. 
There is an unhallowed impiety in some 
of the movements calculated to shock 
and confound a truly religious mind — a 
political Jugeernaut,a(tended by a rab- 
ble of political enthu>aisls, and put in 
motion by political demagogues, is to 
be wheeled into the temple of the liv- 
ing God; and there under the impious 



To be applauded by such company 
caimot but affix a stain,on vestal purity, 
unless the applause be altogether gra- 
tuitous. Have vestal nuns so con- 
ducted, as to be in fit association,&, nat- 
urally call forth approbation at a polit- 
ical carousal? Then have they certain- 
Iv forgotten their characters. For 
light and darkness cannot be more op- 
posed than the proper avocations of a 
religious reclu5e,& apolitical bacehinalj 
a timid, a virtuous female, and an impu- 
dent, and presum|>luous political aspi- 
rant. 1 doubt not, the simi)ncity of 
these nuns was imposed upon, by some 



Dretence of wor-hip, is to be made the! intriguing ecclesiastic; and the fact 
spectacle of curiosity and an object of' shows the profligacy of the means u-.e<i 



80 



THE PAGEANT AT NEW ORLEANS JOHN 1VOOUS. 



to give eclat to the pas;eant. Noth- 
ing is too pure to be defiled, if there- 
by the opi)<)=ition can further its great 
objects. With them it is iiothitig to 
(ic'unide the moral seti-^e of their fel- 
low citizens, 1))' amu>i:ig tliem wit>i 
shows and spectacle:, tor poliiiral pur- 
poses. It is nothing to caknniiiate ilie 
wise and the good— it is nothing to lav- 
ish applause upon the undeserving: it 
is nothing to palliate crime, to vindi- 
cate "^eduction, adultery and homicide: 
it is nothing to attempt elevarLig to 
high otfice a weak and a wicked man, 
a contemner of law, an indulger of his 
own appetite, a follower of his own 
will. — It is notliing to subvert princi- 
ples, to de-ert connections, to abuse 
religious otlices. and mi-lead religious 
votaries. All this is notirnig, is v.-nial, 
nay laudable, if it do but te id (o pro- 
mote the great political end— o(" pros- 
trating tiie present administration. — 
Can that be right, in its<ll. which at- 
tempts to <'lll-ct Us accomplishments t)y 
means so irreconcileable with good 
morals? I sb.ould answer nav. Lei 
every good man .inswer for himself. 



( i<> thus stated by a writer in the Keoluc^y 

t "The dav on Mbicli Woods commilted the 
|\)ffi-nce forwiiicli lie expiate: with t>is life, he 
] WHS on guard Ttit oiEciT wlu co.iiiiiaiiiirJ 
! the guaril, hail piriiiiltfil Woods .fter hU relifi 
i to "o to hi-^ ti-nt and snutch a hasty bri-.ik ist. 
. 'lis tuesj had unished, and left somi;thiiie r'.ir 
i him in a skillet. Seat J on the ground by llu- 
side of this skillet, he was cnj'iyiii!; an humble 
mia't, nerhaos thinking ofhi? hume and the 
friends he had left behind, when a in-tty, -elf- 
iniportaiit assistant to a stalf oiTi^cr. passed 
aloii;:, who ordered Woods to pick n > and car- 
ry off some bones that lav scattered abujt ne ir 
the place. "V.iods refused to comply wit. the 
order, statin? that ne was on guard : — the Ml.cr 
with an oath swore that he should do ii, and 
also cursed him ror leavin;; his guard-lire. 
Woods still refused, and rose to return to his 
guard, savins liiat he obtained leave of his 
ollicer for hi? absince. By this time the lialf- 
ofTicer fairly swe'led with rngo, and itew to a jun 
tliat was layini; in >lie mo^ith of a teiii, tociu- 
pcl him to obey, or to take him prisoner; but 
poor Woods, nuthin^' daunted, primed his tun, 
and told the little ollicer or any one else, not to 
approach him at their peril; and then dcliherr 
atel\ walked to his guird, and surrendered him- 
self pri-oner to the ollicer on duty. 

Who, hut (Jen. Jackson, would have 
; thought of pulling a militia man to death, 
for a transaction like this? By the ivay 
I Major Eaton says not a word of Harris 
I and his C'lmraiies who weie sliol. He is 
silent even about their desertion. — lie 
I kiieiv it tvas a dark affair that could iicr! 



JOII.V WOODS. 

The case of this militia man. executed 
under the direrlion of tien. Jackson, at 
J'oitSlrothcrin 1813, is a curious inslance 
of giving col'oi in the manner of telling a 
story. Gen. Jackson's eulogist, .Maj. Ea- 
ton,"tlius relates it: 

"The execution of a private, (John Woods,) 
who had been sentenced by a eoiirt-iiiarti.il, on 
a charge of inutinv, produced at thi> time, ffreat 
excitement, iind tiie most salutary elTects. That 
inulinous spirit, which hi.d so frequently bro- 
ken into the camp, and lor a while sii=peiulcd 
all active operalioiis, reiiiaiin'd to be cheeked. 
A lit occasion was iioiv at hand lo evince, thai 
although militia when al their liiv-si.ies at 
home, hoa~t an exemption from coiitroul, yet 
in a field, tlioM- 1iis;h nolions were to be iibiin- 
(loncd, and subordination observed. Painful as 
it was to the feelings of the general, he viewed 
it as a sacrifice e-*eiiti,il lo the preserra'ion of 
•rood or.ler,nnd left the smtence of the court to | 
hfiinllieled. The execution was productive ol 
(he happiest cllVcts; order was produced, and; 
that opiiiiiii, which had so Ion,- prevailed, that I 
:i iiiiliti;i-iiiaii wa^ privdeged, and for no <.f- 
fence liable to «iiircr death, was from that mo- 
ment abandoned, Mild a stricter obedience than 
had been practiced, afterwards cliaracteri/ed j 
the army." 

Maj. Eaton is careful to say nothing of 
Wx" circnmstanceo of Woods'' oftencc. It 



l>ear the light. 



Fiom the .Marjilandcr. 
GEN. J At' K SON.— The late election 
cering trip of this personage to N-Orleans. 
should, we think, disgust all men of proper 
feeling. If the system of personal solicit- 
ation which has been (iractiserl bv ramh- 
dates for inferior ollices is to be extended to 
that of the rreii.iciit there will be lui end 
lo every thing like iii;:nity abotil llie situa- 
tion, "riiat nolliingbut the selfish molivc 
of lisbingfor the votes of Louisiana, could 
have induced him to travel that far no one 
will doubt imlecd nothing short of thai 
could have prevailed on him. after the very 
pointed neglect ol the legislature of that 
state in It! 1 5, to accept their invit;itioii at 
this late day. .^nd considering the Gener- 
al"s aversion to overlooking suposed or real 
injuries be is really presenting bimselt in 
a very humiliating posture, lie must in- 
deed consider his cause as desperate, when 
I he stoops to such miserable artifices to cre- 
ate an exiileinent in his Civour. liom'V- 

er, the iiiipeiial C;esar wooed the peoph- 

n the market place. 



TiiUTM'^ ADVOC^ATE 

AND 

MO TIILY ANT5-J iCKSON EXPOSITOR. 



CINCINNATI, OHIO, MARCH, 1828. 



GENERAI. JACKSON'S 



.cations were in every respect liis su- 
periors. Thcv :;1! went tlirougli ;i 
A pamphlet eii'aiied, "Truth is no [sfrles ot"hard.^lii[\s .-ind dilHcullies iiev- 
Slander," piibli.slied at Natchez, i'.i i er exj>crienced by Gen. Jackson. Ycl 
J827, and wrilton by Ci/;;/f;/;i Clemknt, flc are told lie is a second Washington, 
lias been sent lo iis by liie jninter: we 
make from it the lollowini; extract. 



the se<'oiid Saviour of his countrv, &c. 

He did his duly merely as a soldier 

for liiis he has been amply rewarded. 
To exalt him hii;her is fulsome anil 
dirgiisting adulation. 

Evlract. 
, , , ,, r.i 1- 1 *i "Truth is miohtv, and shall pre- 

he such by gentlen.cn of the highest I, ^,^., thu. Gen. JacLeu begins a let- 
repu'.ilion m this city. What he hasjter to a gentleman in Baltimore, dated 
said is ;.poken in a plain nngarnifched |4th of September, 18'2i;, wliich has 
style, and comin<«, from a person whojhocn publi^l!ed in many of the news^ 
was an eve witness, is entitled to a ^o.ip<'-P^\''' 
ber and Jandid examination. i _ ^Iter^such an introduction and ap. 



in submitting- to the public this por- 
tion of the pamphlet, it is proper to 
-tate that Capt. Clement is a man of 
integrity, and veracity, and !:no\vn (o 



We know it is coiisidered by the 
GeneraVs sychophantic admirers to be 
Iiigh treason to doubt of Ins military 
qualifications and capacity. Because 
he won the battle of New Orleans, or 
J-aiher because that battle ivai von, he 
lias been compared to Washington and 
set down beside the greatest military 
heroes of the woild. History, how- 
ever, will doliim ju.-tice in this respect 



peal, it is but fair to conclude that the 
General meant, not only to call in the 
aid of truth, to refute charges injurious 
to his character, but to cliailenge, thro' 
trutli.an investigation of his morals, his 
veracity, his public services, and what- 
ever else might concern the ])ublic, in 
order to enable it to form a just esti- 
mate of his fitness and capacity to dis- 
cliarge the duties of the olHcc for vrhich 
he Is a candidate. 

Whether the General intended to 
invite this liberal application of the 



A single successful engagement gives i '■"""' or no!, I think it iught to be eX' 
no warrant for milifarv'skill. General I ^^"'^,'il ^^ 'j'^'' '" ^^^^'^'^P with every 



Jackson can never justly be compared 
with many of our military leaders. — 
Brown, Scott, Miller, Harrison, Ripley 
and several others, were, to .sriy liic 
least of it his equals in the last war. 



candidate for public f-ivoK I think it 
is the duty of every American, who 
takes an interest in the prosperity ot 
his country, and in the wisdom and in- 
tegrity of ' iis rulers, to set forth /acta 
relative lo a candidate, as thev'com6 



.,,„,,. , . under his own observation: or as he 

Ri the Revolutionary war, leaving j^.^j. ' ^ 



Washington out of the ipiestion, who 
should be compared to none of them. 
Generals Greene, Lee, Hamilton, 
Gates, Marion, and others were supe- 
vior to him. For impetuosity and rash- 
ness, Allen, Putnam, Wayne, and Mor- 



as conclusive reason to believe they 
id transpire. Upon this principle J 
shall proceed to make a few remarks 
on what occurred at Nev»- Cleans. ai«3 
its environs, during the time that the 
General was in command there; and 
in order to be explicit, or as much so 
as my scope of mind will enable mo to 



^n. hesiitos eombining eth'^r qualjli-'be. 1 "h-iH have j^mejimps Cperiwps 






l.>V<rl--K%l. JA«>hS«tNN MILITARY PRFTKNSIONS. 



jthe manner in which I was engaged 
duri'ig the time; which, by ^ome, will 
no (loul)t be thought cgotislick, and a 
•Jti^iik of vanity. 

On the 9tli of December, liciiig in 
command of tlie 5icam-!)oat \ c-<avius, 
vvliile lyiii^ to, at the bank of ilie Mis- 
sissippi, a little below St. Francis river, 
repairing some damage, and taking in 
•Wood, 1 was pas«cd by Gen. Carrol's 
brigade, embarked on board of flat 
boai>, amounting, as I afterwards un- 
derstood, to 2,900 or 3,000 men. The 
next day I procedoil down tiie river, 
pvcrtook and passed Gen, Carrol, and 
either at this place, or somewhere be- 
low, received his aid, Col. Havie, on 
bojid, as passenger for Ni'w-Orleans. 
():i titc evening of the l-2t!i 1 arrived 
at Natchez, and on the following day 
took onboard 120 recruits, belonging 
either to the 7ih or 44lh regiment, 
which of them I do not remember; I 
Ihen proceeded to New-Orleans, On 
the 15lh I made a stop at Baton-Uouge, 
wliete in a group of persons, who 
evinced a great deal of anxiety, I «as 
told thai our gu"boats ne-;ir New-Or- 
leans had been laken by the British; 
thit the number of British troops upon 
the coast W'as computed at 17,000, and 
that they were fully of opinion that 
liew-Orleruis would be cajttured be- 
fore I could get there. I went on, and 
arrived at New-Orleans the iv^xl day, 
Nvhere I found great anxiety, and much 
•drspomieiicy prevailed: and indeed the 
appreiiensio'is of the citizens arc not 
to be wondered a(, for llie British for- 
ce.-, liiO amount (jf wliith was various- 
ly e-limnled. hut by all exa^;gerated, 
W'TC iiourly ex[)ectcd to land; and at 
the lime, the only defence of' the place 
cpnsisied of the town militia, amount- 
ing to about a thousand men, with 
parts, of the 7th and '14th regiments, 
mostly raw recruits and a small num- 
ber, probably 150, sailors and marines, 
ii''dpr the command of Commodore 
Patterson, 

Here let il be particularly remark. 

cd, I'lat there was at this time, and 

had been for a month previous, within 

three hundred miles of New -Orleans, a 

'rcf under Gen. lackson's command, 

'lilfciTcnt points, of more (ban four 



inousaiid inen; one jodv ol wtiicn, ac 
cording to Col. Russel's statement, 
consisted of tlie '*2d, 3d, and 8th regi- 
ments; none of them," he says, '• but 
little more than half full, and some i.ot 
that; detachments of the 24lh, witii a 
(tiW companies of artillery, and the mi- 
litia." In another part of his letter, 
he .-ays, •'the militia were from Geor- 
gia, Tennessee, and Mississippi, with 
about six or seven hundred Cliickcsaw, 
Choctaw, and Creek Indians." This 
force was stationed at Mobile, and 
from the above statement we may safe- 
ly conclude that it amounted to, from 
three to four thousand men; indeed I 
understood at the time that the num- 
ber was mucii greater than I have now 
estimated it. The other body was Gen- 
eral Coffee's brigade of mounted rifle- 
men, containing 1.550 men, stationed 
at Sandy-creek, a place more than 140 
miles in the interior. 

Again: let it be remembered, that il 
was not until the morning of the 15th, 
four days after it was known in New- 
Orleans, that the British were on the 
coast, and two days at'ter an attack up- 
on, and destruction of one of the gun- 
boats, that Gen. Jackson sent an ex- 
press to Gen. CoflTee, ordering him to 
march with haste to New-Orleans. 

Now, I will ask any impartial man. 
whether it is not strange and unac- 
countable, that a place containing tb« 
wealth, and being in every way as im- 
portant as New-Orleans wa«, should 
have been thus jeopardized ? Can Gen. 
Jackson — can any man, give a plausi- 
ble reason why more than three thou- 
sand men, some of them the best troops 
111 the United States' service, and Cfjual 
to any in the world, sliould Ik- station- 
ed at a place so insignificant as Mobile 
iheii was, when New-Orleans (some ol 
the ware-houses of which contained 
more moveable wealth than the whole 
town o{ Mobile, and all its dependen- 
cies) was left destitute. F know that 
Gen. Jackson's biographer, who b) 
most impartial persons is considered as 
the General's mouth-piece, or amanu- 
ensis, has said that the General was 
grea'ly concerned for the safety of Mo- 
bile, and the settlements on the .Vlalia- 
bama and Tombigbee rivers. But who 
will yHow tliis to lie a snfljcient reason 



GCN'EKAL JACKSOSi-^ ItJU-tlTARY PKKTE!VS10JiS. 



A^ 



why three or four thousand troops j Mobile, and at Saiuly-creek,* in order 

to pi-cvent iNcw Orleans lalling into the 
hands of an invading eiiemy? Leave 
the capital, the emporium defenceless, 
in order to protect some of its depen- 
di'nries, when it was known the capi- 
tal, il not the entire, was the ullimato 
ohject; ami wlien tli.it capital, left de- 
A'liceless, was as assailaiile as any of 
tliose dependencies — cover the liinbs 
with mail, and leave tlie heart exposed. 
How ahsiird, how nugatory such lears 
andsuclianaiigenionts — a fear of tiieil- 
landing ill the province of Texas, aiid 
thence Kai'ihig command of ti)e Missis- 
sippi, would have been much better 
founded. Whoever will take tlio trou- 
ble to look at a map, and observe the 
bearing and distance of these different 



should be allotted for its preservation, 
and a place of a hundred times its value 
li-'ft defenceless. 

What would now Iiave been said of 
Gen. Jackson's talents, had New-0 
Teans havefillen in conseijuence of this 
iniu(liciou> distribution of the forces un- 
der liis command. And it was mere 
accident ttiat it did not; for had the 
British landed any day previous to the 
evening of the 19th, there would have 
been none to defend it, except the 
town militia, in whose patriotism, it 
has been argued, tlic General had no 
confidence, and six or seven hundred 
undisci|)Iined soldiers. iMorcover, the 
General's biographer in defending him 
against the ciiarge of having tyranni- 



cally continued martia! law, after not a | pk'ices, will see that the idea suggested 
shadow of necessity for such a measure , '•>' this biograplior, was almost as chi- 
existed, defended hiin by alleging that merical as to iiave imagined tlic Brit- 



the British were still upon the coast, 
ar,d that a few hours might bring them 
to t!ie shore. If he meant liiat in a 
few hours they might land, and again 
attack New Orleans, in their then dis- 
ronifited and greatly reduced condition, 
if was untrue. But when thev first ar- 
rived upon the coast, thev might have 
landed in a few days, almost without 
opposition; for Jackson had neglect- 
ed, strangely and culpably neglected, 
to concentrate his forces to oppose 
them. 

As for Coffee's hrig.ade, it would 
atem that Jackson had entirely forgot- 
fen he had such a body of men at his 
<7Dmmand; for it was not until the fifth 
day after he knew the British squadron 
was upon the coast, that he sent for 
them. His biographer has indeed 
made some remarks which may per- 
haps have been intended as an excuse 
ibr this egregious blunder, or neglect; 
he says the Goncr.il apprehended that 
the British might capture '^Mobile, the 
left bank of the Mississippi be gained, 
all communication with tlie western 
states be cut off, and New-Orlean? be 
Chus unavoidably reduced." 

I cannot find language to convey m\ 
idea of the futility of such an appre- 
hension, and ot' the means apparenth 
taken to prevent the occurrci'ce. — 
Wh^t, a general station his iorrc? at 



oils had turned dragons, would take 
v.insi and aliglit, not at New-Orleans, 
but somewhere in the interior. 

Some will excuse themselves from 
passing judgment upon these proceed- 
ings of Gen. Jackson, upon the ground 
that they arc not military moe, and 
tlie re fore cannot presume to judge oT 
the propriety, or impropriet) , of mili- 
tary operations; but every man knows 
(hat to effect any purpose whatever, it 
is necessary to have the means within 
his reach, and that it is culpable remiss- 
ness to omit colloctii'.g (hose means^ 
when they are attainable, and when 
great disaster and molestiition, may cn'- 
5ue from sucii neglect. 

On the evening of the 18th, I receiv- 
ed orders from Gen. Jackson to pro- 
ceed up the rivi;r, with tlie stcam-boa(. 
to meet Gen. Carrol, for the purpose 
of taking as many of his men on board, 
as the boat would contain, and ining- 
ing them direct to New-Orleans. On 
(he morning of the 19th, I met Uim. 
about twenty miles above Ne>»-Or- 
leans; he having by great and praise- 
worthy exertions, retarded as he wa? 
by wind and weather, di^-cended (he 
river much further (h-'n could iiave 
been expected. T!'C weather, when 
I met him, having become fine he de- 



'-innHy-ore'k rmpties into the Mi^aissjpp'i 
twrnty.*V7n miles nbove Baton Rmi;c 



M 



GENKRVl, JACKSON'S .TMIiTAIiV I'ilETKShiOXS. 



jcliiicd letting anv of his men leave the 1 tiiis hatt.-ilion, posted where it iiad 
flat boat?, ami thalaflenioon ho landed l hcen. wmild have hccn in a roiidilion 
with his command at Ncv.-Oileans. — | *oniev,!;at similar to tiic Dutch teii 
The following; da^ Gen. Coiiio, by ex- [ raj>tair., who.'wiien lie i:ct upon a for 
ertions and (hliguo sullkient lo pros-|Cign coast. i"ouii<l he had left his an- 
tiate l)Olh man and beast, arrived at j chors at home. Now I w ill i:ol ["rofess 
New-Orlcatis with twelve hundred ofi (o ..row much of iiifatitry esercis^e. or 
hi-^ bri^jade. having marched over ex-' wlietliCr Gen. Jaclisoti is jusliy criisui- 
cessively muddy roads, more (iian one , able for (his lack of prcpai-ation; bu^ 1 
hundred and forty miles, in less than' liave seen officers, and 1 believe gencr- 
threc days. al oincers, when reviewing (heir mei^ 

At tliis lime Uie American forces at! require each lo raise the cover oi his 
Ncw-Or!eai!s, consisted of Carrol's bri- , cartridge-box, so as to enaltle tbo ofti- 
gade, whicii I utidcrsfood at the timecerto sec whether it was fille! wilij 
contained 2,900 men, but tlie wrilcr of ! cartridges or not: and further I knov,- 
Jackson's life rates it at 2,500, there- j (Iiat Com. Barron was suspended Irurrt 
fore, tliat mu'^t he considered liic nuni- 1 service, five years, for goii'g out of porl 
ber; by the same writer Coflle's bri-i in the frigate Chesapeake, unprepared 
gade IS rated a! no more than 1,200; | for action, during a time of peace, 
the town milil'.a amounted to ai)i.u'. ^ when too, captain Gordon was on 
1,000: tlic rcguliis of (he 7(h and'boaid, with the rr'i'aisite number o( 
4'Ub, 700: the marines and sailors un- j lie;iunaiils. 

derCom. Patterson, 160-, making a to- The GciiCral,in his Idler lo (he Set- 
tal of 5,000 nici!. I re'.ary, giving an account of the actio.i 

The knowledge tliat the British liadiofthc cvcningof the 2.3d, says, "I ar- 
reacbed Uie bank of the Mississippi, at ; rived near (he enemy's encampmml 
Villere's pliuitation, war conveyed to >about seven, and immediately made my 
town at about 1 o'clock in the after- ' disposition for attack. His lorce;, 
noon ofthn 23d. A( fn-:' it was gen- [antouiiling at liiat time on land to about, 
rtraliy tiiought th.t; not more than a 1 three tlioiisand men, extended about 
thousand men had latidcd at this point.; iialf a mile on that river, and in tiie 
and that tliero Avould Ue a .^imiiltancou? i rear nearly to the wood. Gen. Coffee 
attack from some oilier j.>oiiil. That ; was ordered to turn their right, while 
this was (lie o])inion giiei; lo Gen. | willi Ihe residue of the force, 1 attacV-' 



Jackson, and tliat he coincided willi it, 
I am induced to lielievc from tlie cir- 
cumstance of his taking no more than 
2,1 C7 men with him to attack ii;r»( 



ed hi'- stro'igcst position on the lel't, 
neai- the river. Com. ratterson iiav- 
ing dropped down (he river, in llu,- 
schooner Caroline, was direc(ed to 



Body of (he Bri(is!), and leaving the open a fire or. their camp; which In- 
residue in the town and its precincts, ejcecutod about half alUT seven, (hi; 

1 will here relate an incident v. hich | l>ci;^g the signal ofailack." 
pcriiaps by some, may be liionglit wor-l Now let il lie rt marked, tliat Gcner- 
thy of notice, and a malter from wliich I al Jack<)n, by ibis statement intended 
an inferciicc may he drnwn. Major j (hat it should be iiiltrred that Conimo- 
Plaurhe's battalion, of .-ibout 400 men,] dore I'atterron was under his command, 
who had been encamped several days | This I can u'.V.csitatingly say is not 
on the bayou St. John, and who had] true. Commodore i a(tei¥on, like all 
now started logo with Gen. Jackson (o other na\al ofticers. would have dis- 
the attack, were under (he necessity of dained to obey the orders of General 
being halted, until a sujii'lv o( carl- j Jackson, or anv oth'^r Gener:il. Pat- 
ridges coulrt be obtained fioni tiie forl;;terson would not have delivered a car- 
the men not liiivingiii Ihcir cartridge-; trid^e of powder lo the order of Jack- 
boxes more tluui from four (o seven j son; (his I know, whether (he General 
cartridges each. IIkJ the British ap- knows il or not, and could iclalean oc- 
proached New-Orleans liy (he wa\ oficurrence that goes lo prove it. but it is 



lak;" Poncfi.irtrai!., the diicclic.:' lu ' unuece-sarv 
vhii.ii (hey were cxjiecled lo approacli. ' 



(^aplain H-nlry, under Patterson, 



(JENEitAL JACKSON* MILITAUY PREl'E^fSIO^S'. 



6{* 



commanded the Caroline tliat evening; j his fame, to be considered as the com- 
a:ul Oil hoard the steam-boat in tom-lmander, not only of the soldiery, thu 
pany wiili myself and several others, militia, .md the jndieiary, but of the 



he rclalod the occurrences of the oven- 
■inj; nearly as follows. l> jt let it be 
jpremiscd, that at that time the river 
was not more than a foot or eighteen 
jntiics below the level of its banks; 
and the bai;ka and coiuitry arc almost 
as level as the water itself. '-'rhe 
Biitish," s;iid Captain Henley, "were 
encamped aleni; the hank of ih.e river, 
and were standing and sitting, iii grou[)s 
aromid the tires, cooking. I diopped 
down, and came to anchor abreast of 
them, about one hundred yards from 
the shore. At lii-si the British appear- 
ed to take us for a (rieiidi) vessel, for 
several came to the walei's edge and 
hailed, '•schooner ahoy, wliat have you 
got to sell," I made no reply, but got 
every thing snug. As soon as 1 had 
got all ready, I fired a broadside of 
grape and cannister shot among them, 
and there never was a finer lime for 
.Idlii'ig men. Immediately I heard the 
orders of, "out tires ; l)ring tiie rockets."' 
Some of the rockets they threw at us 
without any effect; our fire on them 
was as brisk as possible; they fled from 
(h(; shore, and soon after that the firing 
(intlie land commenced. Shortly after 
lhi> 1 found the Americans were beyoiid 
the British troops, and between them 
aiKl the wood, and thoug'it tiiai my fire 
would be as likely to kill (he Ameri- 
cans as the Britisii, 1 therefore ceased 
firing." 

r think Captain Henley remarked, 
that he thought liie hre of the Carolii;c, 
killed and wounded as ntanv of the ene- 
mv. as the whole of the land forces, 
nnder General Jackson did; if he did 
not make this remark, m.any otliers 
were of th.at opinion ; and the account 
of the action, given by a British ofKeer 
whose hot k has been reviewed iii one 
of tiie late numbers of tlie Edinburg 
Review, confirms this opinion. 

.lackson and Patterson had an agree- 
ment, no doubt, a? naval and land offi- 
cers ought to do, upon the manner of at- 
tacking tiie enemy ; but I feel safe in 
assertirg that Jackson no more com- 
manded Patterson, than Patterson com- 
manded him. The General appears 
tp have thought, that it would add to 



r.ava! lorces also. 

The General, in many instance?, 
shows his fi)ndness for telling a good 
story; not a mere dull matter ol' fact 
tale; but oise that has pilli and nerve' 
in it. This disposition i-* evinced in 
another part of his statement respect- 
ing the events of tiie 2:3d. Of the New- 
Orleans rifle company he says, "tliey 
liaviiig penetrated into the midst ol'iho 
enemy's camp, were snrrounded, and 
fouglit their way out with the greatest 
her;'isni; bringing with them a numbei 
of prisoners.'' Now one of this company 
was mv brother, and 1 am well satisfied 
that neither he, nor any of the rest, in- 
te!)tio!jally, penetrated into the midst 
of tiie enemy's camp, armed as they 
were with rifles and knives, although 
there were as brave men in the com- 
pany as any in the field. The facts of 
this incident are nearly these. In the 
darkness and general confusion that 
prevailed, this comiiany got divided, 
and separated into two nearly equal 
parts; one part, twenty-five 1 think in 
numlier, seeing a body of men standing, 
took them to he Americans, and march- 
ed up to tnem; when very close, some 
of them cried out "iiuzza for Tennes- 
see;'' t!ie British soldiers, tor such tiiey 
proved to be.onlcrcii them to lay down 
liicirarms: lliis they immediately obey- 
ed, ai'.d surrendered, for resistance 
would have been vain. The otlier 
part of the company took a different 
direction, and got to the main body of 
the Americans,aiid on their way picked 
up seveial stragglers ofthe enemy. 

Perha])s no action which ever took 
place in this country, has been more 
misrepresented, ar.d whicli the people 
of Ih.e United States are more in error 
upon, than on this: no one can. or ever 
could,! conclude.givc a true detailed ac- 
count of it. I have seen many state- 
ments in print respecting it. some of 
v.liich were so iiidatcd and bombastic, 
indeed so ridiculously falac, that 1 sup- 
pose no man in his sober senses, would 
for a moment believe them. Even 
Gei;eral Jackson's statement is not to 
he ielicd upoi ; 1 even think that when 
ho mad" it he did not give it to the bcrf 



M 



GE.VRKAL JACKSON-'S MrLriAKV FRl:i ENSIONS. 



of his information. From ail tlie infoi-[ flown and miery ground, in tlie wood- 
mation wiiicii I havf l)pcn able to salli- This idea, Irom statements 1 tiiink to be 
er, of tiie manner in wiiicli it proceed- relied upon, oiiginated witii, and tiie 
ed, I i)elieve itcommejiced with very work was commenced by some of tlie 
fittleconcert, and ended in total confu-: privates of the militia. The nesl 
sion. "I arrived," says the General,! morning, pursuant to ordere from Gcn- 
''near the enemy's encampment, ahout eral Jackson, a great number of spade? 
seven, and imnndiately made uiy dis-i were collected in town, for the purpose 
position for attack. His forces, a- j of e'ffectitig the uork. and it was con- 
moiiritinf; at that time on land to about I secjuently executed, but in a very uu- 
3,000, extended about half a mile on j skilful manner, which will be perceived 
that river, and in the rear nearly to the I by a description of the manner in 
wood. General Coffee was ordered to I which il was construc'ed. It will be 
turn their right, while with the residue understood that the earth which had 
of the force I attacked his strongest po- 1 l>cen thrown out of the canal, in diggii;g 
sition, on the left near the river." lit. had raised a ridge upon its side. 

This Il)elicve is correct as respects 'The object now was, to elevate thi? 
Coffee's brigade; but Phiuche's baltal- ridge to the height of a man's head, 
lion, owing to its detention, waiting fori To effect this object, earth was taken 
cartridges, had not yet got up. In his i from the upper side, and thrown upon 
advance he was met by an officer ofone the ridge; thus the level and smooth 
of the regular regiments, and ordered 1 surface was broken, where the men had 



to n'j)iiir to a certain point; b»it the 
officer was evidently so much intoxica- 
ted, that his orders were not obeyed. 
and, as I have been informed, and be- 
lieve, Plauchc took a different direc- 
tion, and was fortunate in arriving at a 
place just in tim" to meet, and to batlle 
the riglit wiiigof the British; and pro- 
babh, hv his uinxpcctrd appearance, 



afterwards to stand. Tl>e surface wa^ 
taken off from six to ten imhes deep* 
ar:d to the extent back from tiic breast 
work, oflrom twenty to tbrty feet; thus 
in many places making reservoirs for 
rain water, which were soon converted 
into slough- of mud. It will be judged 
wtiethei-this rude piece of military en- 
giiier.' did not greatly contribute to 



impressed them with n;i idea that the ' the sickness which afterwards so extcn- 
American force was niudi greater than j sively prevailed amongst the men. — 
it really was. and thus prevented a total I Had a new ditch been formed, immedi- 
route of our forces. The General ad- ately above the old one, of twelve or 
mits there was some cont'nsion, and the fourteen feel wide, the earth from it 
British officer who has written upon would have been sufficient to raise the 
the subject, says it was total confusion, i desired breastwork: and thus an aJdi- 
I presume he meant on both sides. | tional harrier would have been opposed 

Towards morning, after a consulta-' while t'le defenders would have had a 
tion of tlic officers. General Jackson smooth surface to stand upon, and a 



concluded to fall back, ahout a mile 
and a halt", toward town, and post him- 
selfon the bank of ai\ old saw-mill race, 
through which, wiien the river was 
full, as it was al this tune, tlic water 
ran in considerable quanlitv.nnd spread 
in the swamp, or annually inuinlated 
woodland, which every where borders 
the Mississippi river. To this jilace 
the Tennessee militia, or Caroll's brig- 
ade, who had been left in and about 
town, were colh-cted in the moniit'g. 
During the day (the 24th) tlie idea be- 
came general of erecting a breastwork 
on the upper hank of this s,a\v-mill canal 
to'o"Xlcnd from the vi^cr tn^he ovct- 



much more healthy, and in every res 
pect eligible sittiation; and all this, 
with the men that were there, could 
have been ellected in six hours. 

The side;- of the breastwork, owing 
to the adhesiveness of the earth, could 
be formed almost as perpendicular as a 
brick wall. This wall of earth, situated 
immediately upon the bank of a ditch 
nearlv hlled with mud and water, was 
almost a p<rlcct security to the men be- 
hind il. 

While the breastwork was in pro- 
gress, cannon were brought dowa iVoiTi 
town, and were mounted alo g with 
it ^<^d rnjbrasures formed. Thu's {Hf 



GENERAL JACKSON'S MILITARY PRETENSIONS. 



89 



ttfied, the defenders had an immense jcould to render tliem fit for service, 
;idv;inta^e over the assailants. The /Two of the eighteen pounders which 
ejicmy could not advance upon it ii, 1 ranged down the road to the point 
an_v direciion, but directly in front; whence the enemy must come, if he ad- 
foratone end, the river rolled wide,ivancod upon the town, were in a shame- 
deep, and rapid: at the other, trees, fui condition; they were both kxided, 
mire, and wafer, prevented all access;' and fresh primed, with match-stocks 
one tiMiusand men in the defence- were j and lighted matches standing by them; 
e<]ual to four, if not five thousand in ma- they were mounted on ship carriages, 
Ring an attack. with iron trucks, or wheels; the trucks 

Jackson's hi'torian «ays, General of one of the guns !iad settled up to the 
.lackson left Mobile on the !22d of No- axle-trees, through tlieplatlbrm, it being 



rotton, on v.liieh the gun stood, the low- 
er part of the gun, near the muzzle, 
rested on the embrasure insucli a man- 
ner as to give it an elevation of ten or 
twelve degrees; or, in other words, to 



vember, and went direct to New-Or- 
feans, to prepare for the expected in- 
vasion. That shortly after his arrival 
fhere, he visited Fort St. Philip, situ- 
ated seventy miles below New-Orleans. 

That afterwards he visited the works point it so much in the air, that at the 
j^'fortifications 1 presume he meant) upon I distance of fourteen feet from it, the ball 
tlic lakes, in order to ascertain tlieir i would have passed over a man's head, 
condition. In these visits of the Gen- The other of the two guns abovemen- 
oral we may safely conclude he visited tioned, was in a somewhat similar con- 
ll'ort St. Charles, mounting about four- | dition, though not so bad. These gun? 
tten pieces of artillery, :<omc of them ofj I afterwards raised, and placed tempor 
farge calibre, situated a few hundred; rary platforms, of new three Inch plank, 
yards below the city, in order to ascer-| under them. Before this was donej 
tain its condition, and the degree of pro- they could not be brought to bearupon 
fcction it could afford. On this subject any object that stood upon the ground 
1 will state a fact, which came under my at a greater distance than live yatdg 
fiwn ol)servatio)!, from which tl'.e pub-' from them, and were of course entirely 
fie, or tl-.osc who have any knowkdgel useless; and liad the enem> advanced 
in the art of gunnery, may judge what! upon the town, firing them would have 
degree of knowledge the general pos-j liad no other effect than that of making 
sessed >ipoM the subject of artillery, and; a noise. Had Gen. Jackson been a^ 
to what extent the public service was- well skilled in the use and management 
probably benefited by these visits. I of cannon as from all accounts he is i^i 
Early on the morning succeeding the! the art of gaffing, trimming and pre- 
cvciiing on which the British landed, I! paiing cocks for battle, he never coul4 
took the crew of (he steam-hoat, went' have pn.ssed those guns, without seeing 
down to the Fort St. Charles. a!id olfer-, they were in a condition that made it 
ed my services to captain Humplirey,' impracticable to use them to any effect, 
who had been in command of liie fort.! 1 have several times adverted to state- 
He told mf lie had received orders, andj ments made by Jackson's biographer; 
was then preparing to go down with: that in many instances they were made 
his light artillery, to join General Jack-! k'*' ^'^^ Generars dictation is probable, 
son; heref<-iied me to Major Nis, of: considering the relation in which they 
the infantry, who from an accidental i stood to each other, but that they were 
wound, was unable to join his regiment, j made by his uppr..hation, no one can 
■jnd was in consequence placed in com- , doubt ; i caniiot refrain from referring 
mand of the fort. The Major immedi- j lo another of tliaae statements. It is 
atcly accepted of my proffered service,} written by this friend of the Generars, 
and captain Humphrey then went with j that the vigilance in Jackson's tamp to 
me round the fori, to shew me thecondi- i prevent ni;y siippiies. or intelligence, be- 
tion of the guns. He made some re- |ing carried from New-Orleans to the 
nuiiks explanatory of the reasons why j enemy, was so gfetit, that a log could 
some of the guns were in tlieir ruinous j scarcely passdomi the river uuobserv- 
-t.-rtc, and whslied me (e d<9 what I'ed; a? an eviH(*nc t he savs (.page .323.) 



«a 



GE-VERAL JACKSON'S amJTAIl\ PRirr£N'SlO.\& 



»Two flat bottomed boats in a dark 
night, were turned adrift above, to as- 
■certaiuil" vigilanrc were pn-scrvcd. and 
wi.etiier tiiere would be any chance of 
passing safely to the Briti«ii liin??: the 
light boats discovered them on their 
passage, and on the alamj being given, 
they were opened upon b\ the Louisi- 
ana sloop. and the b.ilteries on tl>e shore ; 
and in a few tainutos were >unk."' Wliat 
9 notable expedient ; who but Gen. 
Jackson would have fliought of one so 
■excellent; who but him would have 
•chought of tun.ing two flat boats adrift , 
at the same time, in order to ascenain , 
■whether in (>eamen"> phrase) his senti- i 
nels were on tiie look out. Ttjose who 
have not seen this ki:id of l»oais. ivill 
from ade^triptior. of their form at-d di- 
mensions, be able <o form some idea of 
the sagacity of the exivdient. and the , 
argus eyed vigilance, wliicli it required 
in the sentinels to discover them as ' 
they {lassed. Tiie tlat boats which , 
hr'ws produce from the upper country ' 
to New-Orlean-. are from fifty to scv- ' 
enty feet long, from twelve to eighteen ■ 
■feet wide, and from five to eight high, ' 
square bow and stem, planked up at 
the sides, and roofed over, a man t!iat [ 
could not see oae of them, could ' 
scarcelv see a ship: spies and traitor? 
have generally travelled in ?mallvr| 
vehicles, and more clandcsUr.eh". 

However well planned such a de- 
¥ice might have been, there is one 
strong objection to the story, thecir-, 
eumstancc never took place as related 
by the General's friend, at least no one 
ever saw it but the Gener;'.!. ar.d he 
only as he has seen and lieard ii«:iy . 
other things — in imaginafi-yn or infir- 
fncc. Something like it, however, did ' 
occur towijrds the last of the scige; — a ■ 
jlat boat, lliat had been in use at the 
iter.m iKjat, was during a squall at ' 
ci?ht, blown adrift, a:id went down the 
river: when she got abreast of. the, 
'Cnmp, several shot were tired upon her, 
and a skift' went ofl' a!id ascertained 
that she was empty and unmanued ; but 
although in the latter nan of tlic scige, 
there was so much vis. ilancu kept, that 
a flat boat, or perh-ips a keel I'.oat, 
•ould not pass the ••ncampmcat in a 
oloar night unnoticed, tliis was by no 
m**ans tha rnsc. in th c early part of the 



siege. I will give !ny reasons for thi-- 
assertiO'i; 1 have stated shat the dar 
after the Briiisli la:;ded. I bad engaged 
in fort St. CSiarles. I remaiiied in the 
fort duri. g tiie night of the 24th, but 
the weather bei:;g cold, and having !io 
place in the fort but the floor to sleep 
upon, and t'le steam boat being not fai 
off. I afterwards !i>dged on board. 

On I'.ie eve'iif.g of the i?7th, be- 
tween 9 and 10 o'clock. Mr. Charles 
Harrod, deputy i|>iarter master, ci'me 
to me, and told me, that he had jast 
received orders from heid quarters, to 
send down immediately, a quantirv of 
thick plank ;u'd scan Jings, which were 
it) a saw inill yard, above town; that 
he could hiiv no'jody. and there was 
no way of getting it down, unless T 
would, with the crew of the steam beat 
take it down: of course I could not re- 
fuse, or even hesitate. I received from 
Mr. Harrod, written authority, to take 
aiiy I'oat that I could find at the levee, 
of suitable size; I soon found one. 
manned her, a;^d went up, and got the 
timber en bo.-ird, ai>d proceeded down 
t!>e river; when from the distance f 
had descended. Ihad as I supposed, ap^ 
proached near the American camp. ! 
sheared in to^vnrds the land, and kep! 
along .ibout fiftv yards from tl>e shore, 
expecting to be hailed bv i!-.e tir?t sen- 
tinel that I came to, no? douliling but 
at that time of night, it being between 
one and two o'clock in the morriirg, & 
vigilant watch would be kept; when 
hailed, I intended, after satisfving the 
sentinel who I was. to enquire where 
the timber was to be landed: tiic night 
was not dark, but there was a little 
bank of log resting upon the margin of 
the river; I soon heard men talking 
upon the shore, and had no doubt, but 
wlicn i got abreast of them. I should bo 
hailed, a".d ordorod to give an account 
of myself, but although making a noise 
with the oars that might be lieanl a 
mile. I pas-ed them without being no- 
ticed: 1 began io thir;k of hailing the 
siiore myself; but, thought I, what hail 
a military tamp? I shall be considered 
a real fmmpkin, I certainly shall be 
liailed when I get low enough. I kept 
on, under tSiis impression, passing sev- 
eral sjroupcs of men witliout being no- 
ticed, until not a voic.e was to be hear^ 



«E!(£RAL iACKSOS* MlhlTARY PRETE5W05*. 



*» 



»n either direction. I then cooclodrti The Bntish encampment was about a 
it would be imprcdent to proceed far- mile and a half lower down the river: 
ther withoai kwjwirig more of mj ^itu- thev had at IbU time no breastwork, 
■ation: I mljcht 1 ihoudit. get down to bat relied solely upon their arms for 
Hi':: British camp, in which case 1 liad ^-fetr, their bofiness, was to attack, 
-not a doubt but 1 shoald be imittd to not to keep under caver and deiead 
^re an account of my=elt 1 accord- ibcmielvei. In making the attack, 
ingl V taracd the boat to the shore, and upon the Americans, they had to march 
Jinding nobody upon the bank, was at up over a plain so level, that from the 
first in do-jbt,' whether the men whom fir?t step in advance, thej were expo*- 
/ had paM*tl were not loiterers, and ed to the American's caimon, and to 
whether 1 had vet descended low the uninterrupted fire of the musketry 
*:nough to reach the camp, but I re- and riflemeo. wiien they had arrived 
solved to go back and enquire- 1 there-' near eooo^ for such aniK to take cf- 
fore rowed up by the shore, and soon feet; when arrived at the ditch, ther 
with a good deal of anger, discovered had it to wade before they could chaise 
men about the breastwork: and did the Americans; its opposite bank to 
not fail to taunt and reproach them for climb, and then to inoant the breast- 
fheir seemir:g ignorance of duty. I work, both muddy, in doing which, 
forthwith went to !iead quarters, to re- their hands would unavoidably become 
port mvself, and related to the Geror- so besmeared with mad, that they 
hI's volunteer aids^e-camp- this most could not use a musket or any other 
unsoldierlike negligence of the senii- weapon to any eflect, and all this time 
iieJs: or unmilitarv police of the camp, the Americans had noth'mg to do. bat 
The people of the United States raise their beads above the breaitwort 
have beard so much of the Hero of to point their guns down upon them. 
New-Orieans, and of the glorious and dmot them — it is proper to remark 
fjghth of January, so much esaggera- that the river bank, and after a ^wri 
rion, and misstatement respecting it. distance from it, perhaps an hucdrcd 
that thev have learned to consider the yards along the breastwork, the ditch. 
repulse of the British, on that day. as owing t>3 the falling of the river gnoe 
.1 brilliant victory, and an evidence of the 23d of December, had become 
-uperior gecerahhip and valour in the nearly dry. so that here the obstacle* 
■ omnvirjder: but this opinion never above mentioned, to the success of tlie 
would have prevailed, ha-] they have enemy, or their close eccouoter with 
had a true knowledge of the situation the Americans, was not so great as is 
of the two armies- Had Gen. Jack- other parts- 

'on and his army met the enemy upoa The cumbers of the Briti^ have by 
.-quai groand. harid to hand, arnl foot some of the biuy newspaper " slang 
:o foot, as Gen. Brown did at Chippe- whangers" been greatly exaggerated, 
•^-T- and at Bridgewater, and h?.d the and the number of the Americans a« 
British in such a contc-sl. been defeated much extenuated. J have seen a 
•ind destroved, as tliey were at New- chronological table printed at Boston. 
Orleans: then might die General have in which tfie number of the British tnx^ 
l>cen lauded with proprietv. But let on the Sth of January, was set down 
us for a moment consider wLat the real at thirleen thousand : and the number 
-ifuation of the two armies at ?»ew-Of- of Americans at considerable less than 
fcans was: and from it draw conclu- four thousand: but why rate the force 
rioas what degree of generalship was of the British at only thirteen thoasand 
Jisplaved. Their p<»itions were near- — if the object is to make a marvelous 
Jv as follows: tlic American?, as I have j tale, why not give the roar>d number of 
before stated, were on the upper side twenty thousand, or forty thousand, but 
of a high wall, made of adhesive and if truth should prevail, the supenority 
-lipperyer.rth: Wvond tliis wall at its of numbers will be found much to pre- 
itase, was a ditch twelve or fourteen ponderate on the American sidf, for 
icet wide, from three to four feet deep. irr>m the best sources of infonmtion 
MVtn-lv fillf^ w'fh mud and water. — re?pecRng tfi** nomber? •f ibe Bri'>*^* 



•0.0 



CENKR.VL JACKSON'S SOLITARY PRETEN'srOSS. 



and ill k-ed liie oidy sources tlial are I tlic hiiiiJijii saiiors and iiiuiiiies, nude 
entillcd to credit, which i? Gen. Jack- his attack. 

son's own account, and that of the If Gen. Jackson had no more thau 
British officer hcforc alluded to, there 4,600 men at the breastwork, it must 
worceight rP£;imcntsof the Briliih.and 'have been because more could not be 
from six Inmdred to nine hundred mari- engaged at it to any advantage. In- 
nes and s;iilors. Admitting all the i deed conside g the length of the 
regiments to liavo been full, when they j i)rea=two-rk, w'iik h certainly did not ex- 
landed, a circumstance totally improli- j cccdtwehohundred yards; and further, 
able, they amounted to eight tliouiand, I taking into view that mew cannot ac' 
and the marines and sailors, eight in battle in a less space than three 
hundred, tl>e whole force which was feet, it is probal.de there was not more 
eight thousa'id eiglit hundred; it must | than that number immediately at the 
betaken ii-.to account however, tluit i breastwork; for if each man occupied 

Erevious to the eii;l)t!! of Jaiuiar)', there- 1 a space of three feet, or one vard, 
ad been several co'.cfiicts, and accord-] twelve hundred men, sii gle file, would 
\ng to :dl accou'its their efficient force,] have occupied the whole length of the 
had Iicen reduced about eight hundred. I breastwork, and 3,600 would have tilled 
te.iving seven ihousaid two hundred ' it three deep, which is as many 1 think, 
reL;u!ars; this number, however, did not I as could be advantageously engaged. 



all .idvauce upon the American lines. 
Colonel Mullen, refused to lead his 
regi/nent to the attack; the force, there- 
fore, that did advance to the attack on 



The General had more than twice 3,600 
men on that side of the rixer, hut where 
posted, or what their coudilion for bat- 
tle was, I do not know, at least I did 



the left bank of tlie river on the eighth I not see; I was that morning employed 
of Tinunrv, did not exceed six thousaiid i in Fort St. Charles. 
th:-' t liu'idred men. Gen. Jackson I If Gen. Jackson could not empio} 
rate.s hi? own force at the breastwork, more than 3,600 men to advantage at 
at three thousand six hundred men; and i the breasfwdrk. how can if he inia^in- 
savs notliii'g of tlie thousands which lie | cd the British General could attack to 
had in the rear. There arc public advantage with a greater nunjber, when 
documents and other proofs to siiow, he had no greafer space lo act upon 
that Jackson had at his command on ' than CJen. Jackson had. The Britisii 
that day at New-Orleans, more llian I troops could not fire while they wen- 
nine thousand men; the following list •>dvancing, except the front (ilc, and 
w-ill be fon.d very near correct, orj'beybut once without stopjiing to r<- 



rather a low estimate. 

Jfi'K-Orlonns militia nnd voliintorrs, 
7tli ami 41(1) rr:;imi-iit;i of rocnlars, 
Loui^iiinn and Mi^siisippi mi.itiii and 

volunteer-, at Ipiist 
Com. Patterson'^ s lilors and marines, 
CotTie's Hrii;.ulo Triiiir-sce ri.'lfnien, 
Carrol's I>rii,'!ulo IViiiit«-i<f niililia, 
Tliomaa' Brigade Keutuckj militia. 



load tiieir pieces: and if they cotdd 
have (ircd, it wouhl have been niert- 
accident if they bad hit any of the 
Vmericans, for there was nothing ol 



tooo 

71)0 
1. 100 f 

|,j^^!luads and shoulders, and tlicse only 
23(H> "'hen thev rose up to lire. As I lia\e 

'2-200 ■ " 



tlu-m to be seen by the British but their 



9200 



before remarked. />ne thousand m-n. 
situated as (he Americans were, wc.uKl 
be equal '^ ("ur. if not live thousand. 
Beside, it is but reasonable to sup- 1 situated as the Brirish soldiers were. 
piNp, that some, if not all the 350 men \ And where, Iwould a-k, was there anv 
ot Co lice's brigade, who were left at genoralshipdispla\ed bv our commatuj- 
Sandy Creek, knd ere this followeiland jer? ^Vhcre was th.-re'an opportui;il\ 
joined the army. Palterson's sailors to display miliUirv skill? There was no 
.■<nd marines, were r.ut indeed under marching: no pressing or charging up- 
Jac!;Non's command, but thev acted in on the enem^ : no bringing up of corps 
conrer(,_it must bo understood. t!i:il-,of reserve tostrenglhen anv weak part, 
■about (iPeen hundred of the above enii-'orto counteritct anv evolution of the 
met-.. fed m^n, were on the* right hanklenemv; there was not even a-,vchang- 
«f tlje rivar, where Col. Thornton, with ' ing of position. Any of the tirsl settler^ 



CIENEHAL JAeKSOJV'S MILITARY PRETENSIONS. 



91 



of Iveiilucky, or Tennessee, would in i answer my [)urpose, 1 concluded lo re- 
their little forts have arranged lliem- turn irnmediaicly to town, and inform 
selves in this maimer, to repel an attack the aid-de-cam|), and make arrangc- 
of the Indians, or any other assailants, mcnts that evening, to go early in the 
Gen. Jackson undouhtcdiy has one morning, to some otiier place, where 
of the fjualilies of a good General; he better wood might he procured; on 
has intrepidity — but lias he strength of I the way down it became exceeding 
muscle? strength of eye? hardiliood of I dark and fuggy, =0 thai nothinii could 



constitution? and above all, where has 
he ever given any evidence of superior 
genius, either in this profession, or any 
otiier? He has nevcrmet the troops of 
any civilized natidn in the open lield, 
and without a cover.excei)l on the nigiit 
of the 23d Uccomber, a' d liicn it was 
under circumstaiices thai neither com- 
mander knew scarce any thing of the 
other's force or position. 

I am, and always have been, aspiuch 



arms, as any man thai lives between the 
Sabine and the P;;ssama(juoddy. But 
I have always I'cll a little disgust, a lil- 



)e seen but Ihe faint glimn)er of iigiils 
on shore. I thouglit, however, that 1 
could get to my usual landing plate, 
by the aid of two lamps that stood be- 
tbrc the custom house. I was so unfor- 
tunate, however, as to mistake lights 
which stood a few hundred yards a- 
bove the custom house, for the cu-tom 
house lights; 1 had a sailor constantly 
heaving ihe lead, but ihe bank of tlic 
flat, which is called the batture, was 



delighledat thesuccess and glory of our so bold, that although the engine vi'a 

stopped the moment soundings were 
obtained, the boat forged ahead so 
much as to slick upon the bar; after 



tie asiiamed, when I have heard the I trying to force her back by the engine, 
felaugliter at New-Orleans spoken of as 1 without elfect, 1 sent out a kedge upon 



an evidence of military prowess, and 
genius. It always seemed to me, loo 
much like boasting of cutting off men's 
heads when their hands were tied. The 
victory of Hull. ollVrry, of McDonougii, 
or almost any other of the naval victo- 
ries, and indeed Gen. Brown's successes 
on the land, were in a military point of 



the slaiboard quarter of the boat, 
which moved her considerably; but at 
the distance of fifty fathoms from the 
boat, the water was from fiAcen to 
twenty fathoms deep, and the cun-ent 
very rapid. I immediately tried a 
large anchor, but the bottom was so 
soft, the water so deep, and Ihe current 



view, and as examples of chivalrou'i so rapid, thai it was impossible to get 



warfare, worth fifty, ^ye a thousand 
such repulses as tliat of New-Orlp;ins. 

Gen. Jackson [wd on the 2Gl!i, or- 
dered the steam l)oat which I lom- 
nianded, to be prepared for receiving 
guns, to be used against the enemy; at 
the time the order was given, the Brit- 
ish had not used artillery, and it was 
rot known that they had landed any; 
the boat was ready lo receive the guns 
on or about the 2rid of January : late 
on that day, I got an order from Thom- 
as L. Butler, the General's aid-de-camp, 
who was stationed in town, to go up 
the river a few miles, to take wood on 
board. prc])uratory tofakingthe giinsou 
board, and to proceeding down to iht 
lines. I accordingly went up Ihe rive, 
to the point of destination; when Hirst 
arrived at the pile, 1 concluded to lie 
at the place all night, and take a large 
quantity of wood on board, but on ex- 



a .'■udicient scope of cable out, to ena- 
ble the anchor to hold; the ilat or bar 
was so soft, that it was impracticable 
to shove her olF. Another circum- 
stance transpired against me: the wind 
had for several days been blowing 
from the south, which had conside: a- 
bly raised the water; that evening it 
became calm and foggy, and the wind 
soon came from the norlh-west, which 
caused the v.-ater to fall very rapidly. 
Having worked all night, and ail the 
next day, with my utmost strengtii and 
action, suffering the keenest mortiticn- 
tion, and having tried every expedienl 
which I thouglit likely to succeed, with- 
out effecting my object, 1 was compel- 
led to yield to what I considered at 
that time, a great misfortune. 

The above st;itemenl respecting the 
grounding of the steam boat, may ap- 
pear to some quite superfluous; but in 



amining it, and tind'ng it would not (these^ ill-omened daj-s of strife and pre 



iS>2 



CBNEHAL JACKSON'S MILITARV PRETE\S10,VS. 



varication, to have omitted it would 'and that it was little short, of blasphe- 
hrfve appeared to man}-, that 1 was de- my to censure, or even etiquire into the 
sirous of hidiiig fact-:; and some, who, propriety of their conduct. General 
like the modern judf(e of Israel, think; Jackson had declared martial law 
that all is fair in politics, would eaf^erly ! wlien there was this justification for it: 
seize the opportunity of manufacturing . it was necessary that every man should 
a tissue of faUehood. I be a soldier. But it is very doul)t/iil 

On the niiiht of the 18th of January, I whether hy this violation of the coi;- 
the British force retreated; at which stitution tiity men, or even one man. 
time, owing to the loss which they sus- was brought ifito the riinks, who would 
taincd on the 8th, and the previous not by tiie existing laws, or their vol- 
conllicts, their whole number, regulars, \mtary will have placed themselves 
sailors, and marines, could not accord- there. It will be seen, by refer.ing t» 
ing to Gen. Jackson's estimate of their| the acts passed by the legislature or 
losses, have exceeded five thousand Louisiana, a few days previous to tiic 
men. Tlic joy of the citizens of New- 1 landing of the British, that that body 
Orleans was unbounded. The French of men, unpatriotic, or traitorous as 
people are said to be le"s phlegmatic, > Gen. Jackson would make it appear 
or in other words, more enthusiastic : they were, had taken the most zealou's 
. than the Americans, and now, in the . and energetic measures, to bring every 
overflowing of their joy, they wanted man that could he found into the de- 
to select some object, tangible object, fence of the country. Two of these- 
on which to bestow their benedictions, acts are contained in the appendix, anA 
They too, some at least of them, had in i there arc several others, passed in the 
their native country been accustomed ; same animated spirit. There was noth- 
to shows and pageants. The present ' ing in the conduct of these men, in 
they thought was an occasion which their legislative capacit}', that goes t» 
would justify such an exhibition ; they, sliow they were less earnest or desirous 
as well as the Americans, were in that | for the successful defence of New-Or- 
mood, in which they iiave raised up leans, than Gen. Jackson himself wis. 
and crowned an idol, or a man, whom Indeed they had as strong, or strorger 
they have called their king, or empc- incentives to protect the pl.ice Irom 
ror, and who soon became tlieir tyrant, the ravages of an enemy, than the 
Gen. Jackson was the man they select- Gen'l. had; they, many of them, had 
cd, on whom to bestow these insignia their fimilics, their lionour, and their 
of honor, or tokens of adidation, and , property to protect, while Jackson had 
b • it would appear, nothing loth, be- only military fame to acquire, 
came, as some would say. the pujjpet of But llie circumstances under which 
tliis most anti-repuMican spectacle. A (jen. Jackson had declared martial 
triumphal arch was erected in the pub- law, had long ceased to exist. When 
lie s<|uare, l)efore the church, avid Gen. [ he incarcerated a member of the leg- 
Jackson pompously marched under it, I islature, a national judge, a district at- 
wcnt into tl;ecathedral,an(l wascrown-l torney, and banished the consul of a 
ed by the bishop. "Freedom shriek- 1 foreign nation; when martial law was 
ed when Kosciusko fell," and Freedom ! declared, and invasion by British troops 
frowned a .d sighed, when Gen. Jack- [in great force was hourly expected, 
so:i was crowned. ! but a monti) belbre those high-liandeil 

It is a n'atter for speculation, wheth- nicasures were enforced, tiie Brili>li 
er the heiiar, and homage, tiiat ou the liad been discomtited, had lost nearly 
above named occasion was m so high a half their nundier, and had gladly eflcct- 
degrec p.iid to Gen. Jackson, was not ! 3.1 a retreat, or escape Irom the banks 
the cause of his acting in so tyrannical' of the Mississippi; and further, at this 
a manru'i- as he al'terwards did. Men; lime, our Ibrce was near or quite dou- 
o( muc'i more strength of mind thaii ble what it was when the British land- 
Gen. J.i-kson possesses, have by lion-.ed for in addition to the arrival of the 
orsaiui .iistinctions. been led to believe J Kentuck). the Louisiana, and the Mis- 
■ey Ijcld their power by divine right. I sissippi militia, the 3d regiment of the 



GENEKAI- JACKSO.V'S MIMTAKY I'RETKNSIDNS. 



Ha 



tJnited Stales' infantry, six hundred | the 3d, 7th and 44th regiments of roc;a- 
stronsi, had arrived from Mobile, and all hi IS, containing upwards of thirlt-cn 
were" eonipletcly equipped with the hundred troops; these men he kept in 
bestof arms, for, in addition to about 'garri^^on near his person; forwhat pur- 
one thousand stand of arms taken from 1 pose, I will scarce venture a conjecture, 
the British on the eiglith, a boat had J It is well known, however, for what 
rtrrivid from Pittsburgli on tlio 10th or 1 purpose tyrants have generally used 
lltli of January with 5000 new nuis- troops of this description. 
Icets; Gen. Jackson himself proves' by | The militia of the town, some of 
one of his oHicial dopatehes, that he them at least, were kept oil' at a dis- 
had no apprehension the British would jfance, stationed at disagreeable po'tsj 
lieturn, and if they had returned, itjit was this arrangement, and the Gon- 
wouldonlvhavebeento bcraptund, for eral's treatment of French Pul)je( tt', 
Jackson had more than double their j that Mr. Louaillier, a member of tlic 
numbers. The General writes as fol- ' Legislature com])lained of in a ne\vs> 
fows. "Whether it is the purpose of! paper; and for this complaint. Gen. 
the enemy to abandon the expedition | Jackson sent a t"de of these regulars, 
altogether, or renew his cHbrts at some and took him into custody. Mr. Lou- 



other point, I do not pretend to deter- 
mine with po^itivencss; in my own 
opinion, however, there is but little 
doulil that his last exertions have been 
made in this quarter, at any rate for 
the present season, and by the next, I 
hope we shall be fully prepared for 
them. In this belief, I am strengthened 
not only by the prodigious loss he has 
sustained at the position he had ju>t 



aillicr, by a friend,a])plied to the district' 
Judge for a writ of habeas corpus, the 
Judge granted it, but Jackson instead 
of obeying the writ, sent another tile of 
these regulars (or the body of the 
Judge, whom he kept in custody for;t 
week, and then banished fiom the town ; 
from these, and many other illustrations 
of character, and disposition in tlie 
General, I sliould,wcre I tohazard an o- 



quit, butby the failure of his fleet to pinion,conclude that ifhc had athisi nnv 



pass fort St. Philip. 

'•His loss on this ground, since the 
debarkation of his troops, as stated by 
the last prisoners and deserters, and 
confirmed by many additional circum- 
stances, must have exceeded four thous- 
and, and wac greater in the action of 
(he eighth, than estimated from th(! 
most correct data then in possession by 
the inspector general, whose report 
Las been forwarded to you." 

But although there was not a single 
♦•nemy on our shores within three hun- 
dred miles of New Orleans, and al- 
though not a pretext of necessity re- 
mained for military law, being contin- 
ued paramount to civil authority; 
yet Gejcral Jackson found that dic- 
tatorship was convenient and very 



mand an army of one hundred thousand 
of these rcgulars,undcr good discipiiae, 
and good pay, no man within these U- 
nitcd States, could with impunity, pub- 
licly spcak.or publicly write, any tliiag 
which the General in his w isdom, wc'idd 
deem an improper meddling; and i! he 
should be elected President, the very 
first year of his administration rt ould 
proI)ably involve us in a broil with some 
other nation, and the General would 
deem it expedient to raise an army; 
then what his friends now boastii-igly 
call his energetic character, would in- 
cite him to iiave an energetic or numer- 
ous army; and by the time this army 
was well drilled, he would (ind that 
martial law throughout the United 
States was necessarv; and then, if any 



pleasant. His brow too, still retained i man, in any p;irt of the nation should 
the exalting sensation which the crown | complain of his proceedings, he would 
had impressed upon it: he felt that he 1 find, as he did in the case of Louaillier, 
had the power, and that conscious- 1 that they had committed a dozen oll'en- 
ness gave him the disposition to over- ces against the rule> and articles olwar, 
come all opposition to his mandates, and [each of which, ought to be capitally 
to silence all public enquiry into the | punished; perhaps ho might merciluIN 
propriety of his arrangements. Jack- , mitigate their punishment, and only 
son at this time, had at N^'w• Orleans consing them to a d-ingcoTi, 



34 GEN. JACKSON'S 3IIUTARYPRETESSIOVS..~~THEOFPO.SlTlO.\. 



But (say his .idvocates) after peace 
took pl.K e, he surrendered himself lo 
the judicial autliority of this same judge, 
a^'d tliu-; proved his respect forthi- l;nv>. 
and for the civil autliority. I would 
ask these advocates, what could he 



that tile diameter of the person fixeS 
upon as r.; ;. I demagogue possessed suf- 
tii-ient bi i!Ii:ii;<.y"to <lazzle the uiider- 
sta.'idiitgs •)(' the ccmmunilV'to such a 
decree th<-. '■•■ . " ■• but his eleva- 
tion would b' -d by ihem. — 



have done else, could he have taken any ' But this has been found to be a misUike. 
other course without open rebellion to The people, althoutrh easily iiiflueticed 
the govert.ment of the United States, for a time livshow of prctciision, have 
And could he have rebelled success- still a habit of reflecting, after the inti- 
fullv; none 1 presume will believe he mediate impulse is past. Tliis habit 
could; then I ask, where was t!ie evi- 1 constitutes the most formid^.''k- diffi- 
dence of his meekness — because a man] culty to be overcome by the oppo.^iiion. 
yields with apparent readiness to au-land it is one which for a lonu lime 
thority which he knows he cannot re- they totally overlooked. But liavi;:g 
sist, is it ah evidence that he respects | at length perceived it to be neces-ar)- 
or honors that authoritv ? or is it not] to pay some attention to it, they found 
more an evidence that he yields with , ed tliemselves in a verv awkward di- 
rt good grace to that which he knows; lemma: for having; fixed their aticn- 
he cannot successfully resist, and must Uion solely upon the ol)ject to be ob- 
finally yield to?' tained, they neak'cled to observe the 

elFect produced l)y tlie steps tliey were 
_t;^^c= — taking to obtain it. Tiie inconsistency 

of preteiidi ig that the elevation of a 
THE OPPOSITION. particular individual would cause the 

It has been somewhat amusing to oh-' adoption of a course of policy to -uil 
serve the efforts that have been made. , different parti of the country in which 
by the opposi' ion to the present admin-; the view? and wishes of t!ic people 
fetration, to effect an amalgamation of' were in direct opposition, was disro- 
the discordant and heterogeneous ma-|jrarded until it was feartd th.at to nc- 
Icrials of which their party is compos- 1 gleet appearances entirely, would jeojj- 
cd. The object of all the leaders is , .-^rdizo titcir plans. It was discovered 
the same, viz: to obtain place and | that the people were not sufficiently 
power for themselves, and this object vereed in the opposition doctrines ol 
has united in a common cause a great ' political economy to understand that a 
number of political mendicants from as 1 desire for oflice and an utter reckless- 
many diffttrent parties as existed pre- 1 ncss respecting the means by which it 
vious to the last Presidential election, is to be obtained, are sufficient qualifi- 
But it is not considered prudent to i cations for their puldic servants. The 
avow the rcul motive whicli governs prompt and perfect refutation of the 
them: somelliing that shall have the various slanders which had bc^n dc 



appearance of political princi|)le is 
thought necessary to justify, to the pub- 
lic, tlic extraordinary efforts they are 
making to obtain their ends. To ask 
the ptH)ple directly and openly to dis- 
miss tried and faithful servants merely 
tor the |)urpose of giving their places 
to thiwi; whose chief recommendations 
arc their impudence and ambition, is 
not sui>i)osed to be the course most 
iikeU to insure success 



vised as substitutes for sound doctrine 
and patriotic principle, was a misfor- 
tune which they found it difficu.t to 
remedv. In this emergency it seemed 
expedient to avow some political doc- 
trine that should be common to the 
wiiole party throu£;iiout the United 
States. And as has usually happened 
in such cases, the southern politicians 
have been able to dictate the doctrines 
that arc to be supported by the party. 



But to discover any thing which ! In former times, according to i\Ir. John 
should serve as a common bond of uni- Randolph, the southern members were 
on, and have at the same time any | aide to //u;/ as many »doup;h faces' a- ihej 
(icmblance of principle, has been a dif- ireiiuired to carry any particular meas- 
fkuM tasL At Grst it was supposed 'ure, But on the pres"::t occa-ion^ it 



/«U.. 



THE OPPOSITIOPT. 



95 



does not appear (hut they have incur-] but they did not possess the tale'.ts of 
reii any pecuniary expense. An oppo 



sition to the American system seems 
now to be the bond that unites the dem- 
agogues ot'tlie soutii and west.ahiiongh 
itls well Icnown that in nothing have the 
people of the west ever been so unani- 
mous as ill the opinion that the adop 



'the ediior of the Tiller, and therefore 
failed.* Not satisfied, however, with 
these two taslcs, our great man in hii 
course is accomplishing a tliird, viz; 
the destruction of the English lan- 
guage, and substituting ore in its 
stead, entirely i;idcpendent of rules 



tion of that system is indispcnsiblc to I of grammar or any such like restraints 
the prosperity of tiie country; and it j upon his genius. In this latter work 
must have been a very grievous affair I he goes on prosperously, and by the 



for our opposition members to be oblig- 
ed to adopt it without receiving any 
pay in advance. But in truth, it would 
have been asking too nun ii of them to 
require that t!iey should withstand the 
dictation of the valiant "hero of lute- 



time the people are enlightened 
enough to understand what he writes, 
the other two tasks will uudoul)tedly 
be accomplished. To tliese powerfiri 
supporters of the opposition in Ohio, 
another has been lately added, pcihaji!: 



string and Cologne,'' backed by the re- j somewhat inferior in talents but 
doutable champion of Roanoke, who , equally useful: we mean the Cques- 
mifht'-nail them to the coun'er like ajtrian statue lately erected by Mr. 
pie'ce of bad money," if they refused | Letton at his museum. This last 
to believe that the constitution is a | would have been more efficacious if 
-fai>faroaade of abstractions,"' or "blow! Mr. L. had attended to the advice of a. 
them sky high,"' if they refused to a-' friend, and exhibited the six militia 



bandon the interests of their constitu 
cnts at hisbiddlng. 

But how are the people of the west 



mer, with their general. These would 
have given more character to the ex- 
hibition. The mere representation of 



fo be made to adopt docrines contrary | one man on horseback, dressed in re- 
to those they have so long cherished?! gimentals, is rather too much like our 
fn this Congressional district, indeed, I every day exhibitions of dressed up- 
the powerful talent, of ouf represen- j officers, and the latter possess one 
tative will do much, and if ^e should ! advantage over the former, — they arc 
not be entireiv equal to the task, our able to parade the streets. As to 
late representative will aid him. Of their comparative real utility, there 
these distinguished characters it is dif- will be, doubtless, mucii dilfcronce of 
I'lcult to decide which is the greatest opinion. 

man: either of them would in ordinary The importance of the task of sup- 
times, be sufficient for one stale, but porting Gen. Jackson for the Presi- 
theold remark, that when great events, ,|cncy, is surelv manifest f:om the im- 
are to be achieved, great men are rais-i portance of the characters we have re- 
ed up to accomplish them, 's doubtless ferred to, who, with many others of a 
the best method of accounting for their j similar stamp, in. other parts of the U*. 
appearance in the same age and coup- j States, have assumed it. And the labors 
try. It will unquestionably require and sacrifices requirca of all his parti- 
the exercise of talents of the highest or- j z^ns attest it no less .-Urongly. In spcak- 
der to induce our people to relinquisli i Jn^ of the sacrifices required, we do not 
their most lavouritc doctrines, merely | refer to that of consistency, which was 



made by most of the leaders, nor to 
those of an external regard for trutli 
fcid decencv. These seem to .have 



because the people of the south require 
it. One of our great men, indeed, 
seems to possess the proud conscious- 
ness of being more than equal to this 
task, and he therelore devotes some of [~7 
his surplus talents to the additioral 
modest one, of overturning the chris- 
tian religion. In this attempt Hume, 

Gibbon, Voltaire and many others. ^ g,.n„c,„an of good education, good morals 
were very zealous. Ilio' unsuccessful :' ivnd goo'l «pnsp. 



nre informed tli-it the Tillftr Ins l.itely 
passed into other h.nila and will in fntnre bo 
conducted with deceni;y. Of course llie ahove 
remarks will not be 5U.iipo?i-d to be nppliciible 
to llie present editor, -ivlio we are infortaed is 



ao 



THE OV POSITION. 



been made witliout any effort. But to I Aost deep and ingenious intrigues in 
be o'oligod to adopt such sentiments and i liis power. They would never know 
sjjrii language as Joiin Randolph, Gov. any tiling more of his peculiar talent 
Gil;-, Duir Green, and McDuflie are . than his countrvmen do of his political 
•in tiic liabit of retailing — to he forced principles. How tlieri can such men he 
•lo adopt these, as the sentiments and j expected tocountenance manufacturing 
/ccliiigs of the party, is really tasking 'and the mechanic arts. No power less 
iiuman endurance to the uttermost. — than that of an Emperor could create 
The pi>or Egyptians who were forced 1 rcw ards sutricient to satisfy such nu-n. 
to acknowledge as Gods, the most loath- If industry should be cherished and 
some and unclean animals in nature, j protected, where should we be able to 
furnish the onlv instance we recollect rtind men to gaze at the pageants gol 
of such a hardship. And if the merit I up in honor of the Hero? Whert- 
of any work is to be measured by its j would be the "greasy knaves to throw 
disgusting nature, the followers of such [ up their caps" and cry "hurrah fur 
men may fairlv assume a high degree, j Jackson."' And if liabitsof attention to 
But will all the olliccs and all Ih-! business should become universal, 
treasures of the nation i)e sufficient to whi^c should we find suitable materi- 
reward so many men for such sacriticcs? als for the distinguished leaders abovr- 
Truly, we fear not. A Republic m'jst ! referred to, to operate upon, and wha' 
alwaysbe toopoortosatisfysu<hclaims. , would prevent their talents from be- 
Tiiey would recjuire an Emperor who j ing lost to their country? The Ameri- 
could make Dukes and Princes of the ! can Ssytem tliereforc cannot be ex- 
leadcrs, aiul wI)o could cstabli'^h a ' pectcd to lind favor with such nK;n; 
iegion of honor to reward the subordi-.and its supporters must endure the 
nates: an Emi>eror who, if the treasures dreadful apprehension that the powcr- 
of his own country wore not suflicient, ful states of S. Carolina and Georgia, 
could rob his neighbors to enrich his>vill withdraw their support from 
follower-. : the Union if they do not abandon 

To I'o-ler ar,d ciicri-h manufactures it. The secession of these states, 
and encourage indu>try. would enrich would leave the rest of tlic union 
the nalio'i, but would the riches thus as weak and feeble as an oak il 
gainedgointo the pockets of the leaders the support of an ivy should br 
of the opposition? If they would not, taken from it. But this is not all, 
ran they be expected to do otherwise there are the New- York and Boston 
tlian oppose these interests? Could merchants, who are opposed to the 
mv lord John of Roanoakc be expected An»erican System, and the latter have 
to' descend so low as e\ en to touch , already published a memorial, ponder- 
w ealth gained bv a manuHictory ? U'hy ; ous enouu'li to overpower the senses ol 
the very idea would be a* horrible as J a wlxde arm>, and if need be. the 
that of his coachmaivs giving a vote at • New-Yorkers can import another from 
h\ election, and t!uH neutralizing that ' England ecpially weighty, and equally 
of his mailer. And can it he supposed correct, both as to facts and inferences, 
that Lord 1\1< Dull' could use cologne i They have long had it in their po«- 
walerofthe m inufarlurc of //i/x coun- er lo check any particular branch o! 
try? Why bo would tiiink it a decoction American niaimfucture^ by glutting 
of oakbark And the sublime Cover- the market with importations from 
i>or of Virginia, what would become of; England, and thus preventing the A- 
all his ideas, if he were once to see a merican fabrics from becoming knowu 
manufaftory in operation? Would not,) and preferred, and they are cndeax- 
the whirlingoflliewheelsand the noise, louring in the same way to preveni 
and the incNplicable varieties ofmolions. our own doctrines of political econ- 
eoinnli'lrlv aiinihilatethem? AndMr. !omy from being adopted, hi InUh 
yan Ihiivii, w hat can he do in the way case< they are in the habit of •sending 
of his vocation with a parcel of facto- to this country inferior article-, such 
ries? 'J'hrir wheels will always keep as have for their chief recon«nenda- 
whirling the same way in spite of the tion cheapness and eitcrnul poli>b; 



iilK OPPOSITION. 



9^ 



of such as are ver>' little used in G. i cm planters with tlie Eastern mer- 
Briiain. I chants. These two Imdies have liith- 

If by this course, — by tlius lending | eito been more regularly and constant 



t'lemselves to l)ecome tools ot the 
British maiiuiUcturers, the merchants 
secured to themselves the advantage 
of even being the Inat to be devoured, 
their conduct would not appear so ex- 
traordinarv, but as tiiev are among 



Iv in op|i(),-ition, than any oth.cr, and it 
would be very pleasant to see thcni at 
lengtli united, it'it were not for the cir- 
cumstance that tlicy have united to 
oppose what their own interests, as 
well as those of tlic country, should 



the lirst to be ruined by those charges j have caused them to unite to suj)|)0! t. 



The planters, however, are not so ex- 
clusivelv governed by interest, as their 
new associates. They possess a great 
deal of j)ride and much magnanimity. 
But to carry the latter quality so far 
as -to restore, voluntarily, to G.Brit- 
ain, all the beneiits she cither derive? 
or .asks from colonies, viz: those of 
taking all their raw materials, and 
supplyiiig all their manufactures, is re- 
ally carrying this good (piality a iitilc 
too far. It has been supposed by some, 
that where slavery exists, a state of 
colonial subjection in the mristers, i? 
t'lcir only proper political condition. 
We hope our Southern brethren arr 
not anxious to prove the troth of this 
maxim. Con-ideving that the slavery 
whicli now exists among them, is not 
their fault but their misfortune; those 
of us who know from experience, the 
many excellent and amiable traits ol 
character they possess, would willing- 
ly believe that this misfortune canrot 
so obscure and cloud their me: tal fac- 
ulties, as to carry them such lengths as 
tliis. AVe all know that the blird en- 
t'.msiasm, which, among the ignorant, 
supplies tiie plare of political knowl- 
edge, does not, in the case of General 
.J. exist in the South. Too n^any of 
his pcct'.llar traits of character, have 
been exhibited there to admit of this 
belief. Perhaps if they could he 
'-xclusive benefit of existing manufac- 1 brought to forgive Mr. Adams for hav 
tnrcrs. — That every citizen can, and j ing been born north of the Poion.ar. 
a goodly number always will, embark | they might yet be induced to refust 
in any pur-uit that they observe to be! their assistance toward elevating to 
profitable ; and the wealth acquired by 1 t!ie Presidency a man. whom they 
successful occupation, is as likely to he l«urely cannot love very heartily, .and 
generally dilTuscd among the people.! whose success can hardly afford nfuch 
if that occupation be mechanical, as if! gratification to their pride, 
it be mercantile. I If Gen. . I. should be elected Pro|i- 

Among the strange associations which ! dent, the task of pulling the wires will 
the nomin.ation of Gcu. Jackson for the not occupy a suiricient number, to 
Presidjcncy, h."^ caused, none appears I quiet all the restless spirits that are 
■^lore sinsiilar, than that of the South-) expecting to he ergaged in the bus; 



wliich are occasioned by an extraor- 
dinary glut of liie market at one time, 
and a forced scarcity at another, their 
combiiiiijg with the enemies of the 
American oystcm is a course of policy 
trul>' unaccountable. As long as they 
pursue this course successfully, they 
can calculate upon what they have 
hitlierto experienced, viz: at periods 
of five to seven years, regularly, a num- 
ber of bankruptcies sufficient in the 
course of an ordinary life, to include 
nearly all the members of the mer- 
cantile .commu:iity. A suitable en- 
couragement of manufacturing indus- 
tr}", by diverting some of the compe- 
tition, would reader commerce more 
secure and safe for those who choose 
to pursue it; and would offer to those 
who choose to emi)ark in other pur- 
suits, opportunities of safe and profit- 
able investment of capital. 

It seems somewhat singular, that 
no one has yet undertaken to inform 
the eastern merchants and southern 
planters of a fact, which from the rea- 
sonings of their remonstrances, reso- 
lutions of Ch.ambers of Commerce, &c. 
thcv seem to be profoundly ignorant 
of, viz: that the manufacturers of the 
United States are not a distinct and 
separate chiss irito which no one else 
can enter, and that the protection that 
mav be granted to them, is not for the 



9» 



TTIE OPPOSITTOX "TnE BAHGAIN." 



ncjs, ai.tl t'.e.M what will ijeioinc- oiieDiiu t?. Li. stroy thece, ai.d tojilii- 
those u: fortunate wretches that must |sit>n and anarchy must inevitaljly en- 
be crowded outol'the places they have jsuc; and all our free instiiuiio.is turn- 
set tieir heart- upon orctipying? It is oie ii.io ruin. The importance, there- 



rcally melancholy to think what a num 
ber of men are disqualifying^ t^'f-m- 
selve- for engi^ing in any laud- bl" 



fore, of keeping up a correct and prop- 
er uiidcrsUiiidi g huiween those who 
^rnrit, and those who exercise clHcia! 



pursuit by endeavouring to qualify I power, must -fjc obvious to all; — in or- 
thc.nsclve- for this. To a majority of 'der to do this, it is equally obvious, 
the supporters of the General we i that both parties are hou d by every 
believe a more dreadful di.-appoint- jcoisideratio;. of palrioti.-m and hoijC«ty, 
ment would be caused by his success, to be candid and just. Tiieir recipro- 
than his failure, a>id it would be real- cal intercourse should be charactcr- 
ly piaiseworthy to save them from this I ized by mulu;il act- of kindness a:.d 
shuck. They would certainly feel cr nlidence. As on ihe one lianii, wll 



much less chagrin in being defeated 
Ly their enemie-;, than in being shaken 
off" by their pretersded friends. We 
have many of t'lese unfortunate beings 
in the wrs!,and what is (o be done with 
them afler the election, is a subject 
whicii ought to occupv tiic attention of 
the humane and cliaritalile. We have 
many charitable societies, hut we have 
not yet established one for the relief of 
disap])ointed oflicf-seekers. As this is 
almost t!ie only one that is really need- 
ed in tiic west, il is time (!iat our lead- 
ing p'lilanthropisls should take il into 
consideration; and we hope it will not 
be neglected. It might, if properly or- 
ganized and directed, be the mca's of 
reforming many young m"n, whose 
brains liave been turned by poliiital 
ambition; and of restorit^g tiuin to- 
usefulr.ess. and in time to a correct es- 
tim;ile of their own talents. The pat- 
rons of such an institutio-i, would re- 
ceive the blessings of a comniM.iiiy 
whii-h would l)y tlieir means be deliv- 
ered from a conslantlv increasinr; evil; 
aiid the portion of peace a-d quiet 
%vhich would iie restored (o the publii . 
niple remuneraUo ■ for 
X. Y. 



would br an 
t^ie expense. 



In repuHrn*- there is no pnlilical re- 
lation so intorcsting, and so sacred, 
as tliat which exists between the peo- 
ple and their representatives. TFfl- 
connexion i? the result of that specie- 
of confidenci' and trust, wliicli are 
alone the support of all elective gov- 



pride a; d consequence of otlicial sta- 
tion, should be avoided ; so on the oth- 
er, every mean prejudice aid unfound- 
ed suspicion should be discarded. — 
There should exist a harmiiiuous coin- 
cidence of feeling, a co; firmed habit 
both on the part of (he governors and 
the governed, to promote tne happiness 
and prosperity oi'the country. T:ie man 
wl;o has spent his life ai^d taler.ts iii 
the seiTiceof the puldlc, has a right to 
expect, and receive from the people, 
the reward of their co; tidence and ap- 
proba'iiof. A confrarv treatmcn'.. is 
not only aa attack upon him, but upon 
the very spirit and essence of the 
elective fraiicliise. Has not allhis- 
iory, proved liie irnt!. of this re- 
mark? Hiiw often did t!ie citizens of 
(jrcecea d Rome weaken the lorco of 
their free instiiutions by unjustly as- 
sailing and condemning their public 
men? The reputation, theref"re, of 
magistrates a.-.d rul.^rs beli);!^:- 'o the 
countrv. It should be treated as a 
pearl of great price; and '.v'len sullied 
by doubts and suspicions, the accu-ed 
slionld be heard with the utmost can- 
dou*-. Is not tliis dot trine correct ? If 
public men are amenable to tl-iC people 
— if a reliance on iheir fidelity is the 
foundation of the elec(i^■e svstem, it is 
our iiilrrrst. 'osay nothing of Jiislicc, to 
hear and ajipreciafe thrir defence, 
when accused? Not to hear a man 
who has been falsely assailed is a dere- 
liction of the plainest principles of 
equity. Not to awartl him a verdict 
of acciuittal. when proved to be isnio- 
cent. is unnianK and cruel. To per- 
sist after all this, in a repetition of 
false and exploded flunders is worse than 



*» THE BARGAIN." 



9» 



open and <iirert assar.sination! If n 
spirit of (his kind could I.e stopped 
Willi the tlestruction of a single vic- 
tim, it mio;'it l)e lamciiicdaiid endured. 
But wlieiie\er manifested in a repub- 
lic, ive may be sure ii is A'd a d iiour- 
islicd i)v a morbid cxcilcnienl, which, 
as it is without reason, ha« no limits. 
It is connected with the ambition of 
pohtical aspirants, who iiave poisoned 
the pu!)lic mind, and iis deadly mardi 
bears down every tliins; l)el'ore it. It 
is Idind to r'very coiisidi'ration of rea- 
soi: and justice, inflames li.e worst pas- 
sio;>s of t!ie lieart, and has ol'ten, in 
other countries, led to the most terrific 
scenes of" idood and carnage." 

With' the above introductory re- 
marks. I pass to the consideration ofi 
the aliet;-;d '•Bargain'.'' between Mr. i 



censured. I will not say he wm jnsli- 
firr/, bat I ti(Y/ sm/. that lie obeyed the 
impulse of an honest but indi(;nanl 
spirit, betrayed into an indiscreet ex- 
pression 113' the wantonness and iirutal- 
ily of lliechai'f^e. Tiie accuscr.George 
Kremer, of Pennsylvania, who acted 
as has been since proved, as the pion- 
eer of a more detestable and abandon- 
ed corps of slanderers, was soon unveil- 
ed and brought to an open coii(e-sion 
of the fad, <ni ilie floor of Congrc-s. — 
At the solicitation of Mv. Clay, a com- 
mit ec of investigaiion was appoiiled. 
It consisted of Messrs Barbour, Wcb- 
-ter, McLane, Taylor. Forsythe, San- 
ders, and Rankii . They organized, 
and notitied the IlunoraUr prosecutor 
that thev were ready to hear his testi- 
mony or any comnumication he bad to 



Adams and Mi - Clay. The latter gen- [ mak.<. II (.-, SI 1 R U.\ K FROM THE 
leniap. it is known, lias been chartred 
with pr.'sliluting himself to the ambi- 
tion of she f rmer, and of receiving as 
a reward of bis infidelity, the office 
whicii lie now holds. A more wicked 
.nnd !n Ib'.mded accusation was never 



INVESTIGATION ! ! Here it is prop- 
er to remark, that when Mr. Clay 
called for the appointment of the com- 
mittee, and stated tiie charges which 
he conceived to be prefered againet 
'.im in the Columl)iaii Observer, Mr. 



made. It has not. and never has had. 1 Krerncr respoiided to thi issue ivhich 



n single well authenticated or plausi 
ble fact to support it. And no'.with- 
standitig it lias been refuted by testi- 
mony as strong and as irrefragililc as 
holy writ, there are found those in 
our country, calling themselves just 
men and repuiilicaris. who will not on- 
ly 7)0/ publish the rrfutation, but con- 
tinue witli greedy appetites to swallow 
and to circulate tiie slander. 

Having tilled for twenty odd years 
some of the most useful and responsi- 
i)le stations under the government — 
having discharged tiiem to tiie satisfac- 
tion of the people — and having been 
invited without solicitation to become 



u-ns tmilnrrl, and avowed his readiness 
and aiiility to prove it. But in a day 
or two he recoiled, denied the author- 
ity of I lie committee, and refused to ap- 
pear before it! 

Willi liie result of tiie KrcmcrafTiiir, 
the community is aire ad v acquainted. 
All parties at the tim?, were astonish- 
ed at l!ie man's alternate boldness and 
imiiecility. Until his principals, to 
whose unhallowed purposes he had 
lent himsell' a willing liut detestable 
instrument, had pro\ided and puldish- 
ed a lame ajKilogy for his condu<t, he 
was universally despised — he was re- 
garded in the light of a detected and 



a member of a cabinet, strong at the 1 degraded slanderer! Of him I shall 
time, and since honored for its wisdom have nothing further to say, in the pre- 
.".nd energy, Mr. Clay could not but sent paper, except incidentally. I have 
view this v.anton attack u[)on his repu-| only noliced him atall. in order tc ccme 
ta'Ion, with fi'eiings of the liigiiest ii 
rliiination. Conscious of the purilv of 
his motives, he met the charge at tin 
Ihreshhold and declared with pardon- 
able warmlli of feelings that the accu- 



ser, whoever he miglit he, was an "?H-Hhe resolution wliich he submitted, an 



famous ralumnitilor, n rlnstnrd, and 



more perlineiitiv to the point, whicli 
li«? been more nii-ircjircsentcd ;tnd mis- 
undirstood, tlianaiu otiier matter con- 
nected with tills sabii 



ct. I allude I.) 
the proceedings of 3ft. McDrmc and 



t 



Ihorizing the committee of enquiry to 



/inr.'' For this expression of excited ; "call for rsnioxs ,\xd papers." The 
leoling, Mr. Clay has hcon frequeotly i opponents of.Mr. Clay, and more par- 



ivo 



"TMK BAKUAIX." 



ticiil;;rly thf Jackson editors, from ouel then pending. I repeat that this rcso- 
end of ihe United States to the other, ! lution was not for the purpo>e of con- 
seized upon this species of fimxse., iuuijvicting .Mr. Clay, hut to keep the ball 
have spared neither labour nor pains i of >lander still rolling and to show that 
to turn it to their account, ixot one I Arf mf r had really heard certain things 
word, liowever, of the resolution, norl" hinted, rcporlal and iiittnuited;"' but 
the rcLii purpose for which it was in- [whether true or faUe, was no part of 
troduced, his been candidly a'id fiirly .Mr. McDulKe's intention. He express- 
represented. Nay, it iias been mo>t Iv stated his object, which Ishall:ioice 
grossly perverted. From the Jackson presently, to liavc no reference to Mr. 
presses, every thinj; in relaiion to it, Clay's trial, l)ut to Kremer's. But 
lias been distortion, falsehood and de-j here is the resolution: 
ceplion. Because Mr. Clay's friends | '•^Resolvc'l, T liat the said committee 
in Congress, o/jpfw/ the resolution, his, be instructed to enquire whctiicr the 
enemies have declared tliat be slirnnk| friends of Mr. Clay have hinle.l tiiey 
from the invcrligation! Tliev have would light for those who would paj 
had the grri-s dupLciiy to publi-h this! best, tc. ; and whether overtures were: 
statement, without tiie candour to give [.wr/ to have been m>dc by tlu- frioids 
at the same time, Mr. McDuffie's oion of .Adam> to t!ie frie 'ds of Clay, otrii- 
ientiments and vie^vs upon the subject. — ing him the appointment ofScreiary, 
Had they have done so, the public '&c.; and whether the friends of Clay 
would have understood his object, gave this information to the friends of 
Thev would have seen that the trial Jackson, and /i(»ip/ that, if the frierids 
of Mr. Clav was abandoned — tliat all of Jacksbn. would otler the same price 
hope of proving the charges against thev would close with them, iic; and 
him was given up, and that the only wiietber it was said or believed that in 
intention was to provide some plausil)le consideration of tiiis ahandoJiment of 
retreat of the accuser. If there be yet duty to his constituents, Mr. Clay was 
lef! in the Jackson ranks a single desire ; to be appointed Secretary of State, 
fori ruth, or a spark of honest investi- ;&c.; and that said committee be au- 
gation, thev shall be correctly informed thorized to send for persons and pa- 
o'l t'iis subiect. I will ^tate the casclpersi!" 

fairly, and appeal to their most intelli- 1 Now what is tiie purport of this 
gent men for its truth, j resolution, and what bearing had it up- 

f>et it be remembered that wiien ion the question bclbre the house? Mr. 
Mr. t^lny marie his application for (he Clav had bren wantonly assailed in a 
th ■appointmoitoflhecommittee,heput public newspaper, by a fellow member 
enquiry upon the broadrsl i{rinind.s, and I of Congress. Insinuations and charges 
chdlenged the mo.-t rigid and severe | of the blackest character had been 
investigation. Mr. Kremer rose and j publicly circulated against him. Every 
with a great show ofconfidcnce, accept- i bod V at ^Vashington <-ity, had"/»eor(f" 
ed the issue. Tiie committee as al- them! True, they were couched in 
readv staled, wa< appointed — finding tiie language of slander; but until Kre- 



Mr. Kremer woulil not appear before 
them, tiiey reported that lacl. and add- 
ed, that ^^if thetj hnrw of invf reason 
for the investigation,, the}i would have aslc- 
cfl the horite to ciolhc them vilh llie ptm-cr 



mer appeared in the "Columbian Ob- 
srr.-cr,''' they had ai-sumed no tangible 
shape, and could be traced to notli- 
insi hut vague report. Mr. Clay appeal- 
ed to the House to have a coniniittce 



to send fir persons an"' papers.^'' It wits jjippointed to ixvESTioATK the truth or 
previous to this, and during the discus- !t»ik mattep. — to ascertain whether In- 
sion, in the house, of Mr; Clay's appli- wr.s •:^iiitti/ of the crimes with v.hich 
cation for Ihe enqniru thai Mr. JIcDuf-j these ^insinuations and reports'^ had 
fie f,.'eseein!X tiio event of the proceed- 1 cliargi'd him. But .Mr. .McDu|Vk'"> re- 
ings and wisliing (o save Kronir from a >olntion had no such ol>ject in \iew. — 
total prostralinn, both political and nior- It asked nothing of this kind. It pro- 
al. introduced the resolution referred to, I posed to invest the co:i;tnittee with 
as an amendni' It (o !hc one which was 'power to ascertain that which Mr 



*' THE B.VRGAIN.' 



1 01 



Clay and his fn "nds admitted, viz: that 
certain ca/umntmis slateincnls had heen 
" made, hinted, reported, said, and believ- 
ed.'''' It was not an investigation of this 
sort that IMr. Clay sought. If it had 
been proved by a thousand witnesses 
that such hintf, i>isiiui(!lio)is and reports, 
were in circulation, the question would 
still return, arc they true? This was 
the point, and the only point, he made 
in his appeal to the house. He had 
heard enough of reports aitd insimititiom 
and was determined to bring the mat- 
ter to a close, by an honest and open 
investigation. He challenged these re- 
porters of hints and nods to come to the 
test. His promptness alarmed them 
and interrupted their schemes. The 
scape ^ont of the party, assumed at first 
a bold frort, hut was obliged to yield 
at last to the fate of all slanderers — the 
contempt and indignation of all good 
men. Mr. Clay's friends saw the oh- ^ 
jcct of Mr. McDuffie's resolution and fthe ocfwyfr had heard them »• INTIMA- 



real object of this investigation) the pom 
risht u-hich belongs to ezery individual 
irhcn he is to be tried P'' Here then we 
have a developement of the whole mat- 
ter. Mr. Kremer, and 7iot Mi-. Clay, 
was to be tried! Pray what was Mr. 
Kremer to be tried for? Wli^', truly, to 
ascertain whether he had not hcurd 
certain slanders '■^hinted, reported and 
«((VZ" against Mr. Clay — not whether 
these tilings were true, but whether he 
had not /iforrf them! ! Now was there 
ever any thing more ridiculous, and 
foreign to the real subject which was 
in hand ! In the name of common sense, 
what light would this kind of proceed- 
ing have thrown upon the subject? — 
Appoint a committee; — for what pur- 
pose ! to try the truth of the charges 
against Mr. Clay. Give them power 
to send for persons and papers: — for 
what purpose? Why really not to 
prove the CHARGES, but to prove that 



opposed it. It amounted to a mere 
nullity, and was very properly and 
honestly rejected, by a large majority 
of the house. Now to make this mat- 
ter perfectly plain, suppose the com- 
mitte had been invested with the pow- 
er desired. It is clear, they would 



TED and REPORTED !!!•' Now, this 
is the real state of the case. It was so 
reported at the time, in the proceed- 
ings of Congress; and yet it is said, 
that 71//-. Clay shrunk from the investi- 
gation! It is a base and malicious 
slander, propogatcd by political knaves. 



have been bound to pursue the pro- to gull the weak and the simple. The 
visions and instruction of the reso/M/i'oH. I truth is, 3Ir. McDufiic found Kremer 
In that case, they would have proceed- 1 in a difficulty. He had been impru- 
ed to enquire whether this celebrated j dent in declaring, that he was ready to 
charsje of "inrg-«m" had not been \pro-je what was not true, and what was 
'^hinted, said, reported and believed !'' I never intended to be circulated, ex- 
To this extent they would have gone, ' cept in '•^hints, reports and insinuations T 
and no further. Supposing all this had , The efforts of the party were there- 
been proved, that is, that it had been i fore exerted to relieve him. For this 
HINTED, SAID, REPORTED and purpose they e/";Hg'f'///ieg-/-oi<,K/ o/.Vr. 
BELIEVED, th;it a bargain had lieen Clay's application — made Kremer the 
made ? Would this have reached the [)arty to be tried, and vainly hoped to 



case proposed by IMr. Clay? Certainly 
not. As I have already remarked, all 
these ^^hinls and reports'^ were conceded 
to be in circulation. It was to PROVE 
THEIR TRUTH, and to bring the 
vile retailers of such slanders to tlie 
hook, that Mr. Clay made his appeal. — 



succeed, by showing before the com- 
mittee, that the poor wretch had pub- 
lished nothing more in the -OnsF.RVKR,' 
than what he had hcurd " hinted, re- 
ported and said!!"' 

I should not have dwelt so long up- 
on this part of my subject, but for the 



Neither he or his friend* would accept constant misrepresentation liy the Jack 



of the contemptible (luibblc offered to 
screen the accuser. But hear what 
Mr. McDufhe further savs upon the 
subject: "The oiiject of mv resolu- 
tion," said he, is to accord to Mr. Kke- 
.«ER, (who, and iv:t Mr. Clay, !s the 



son party, of the nature and object oi 
Mr. MrDuffie's resolution. Thousands 
have believed that'.Mr. Clay recoiled 
from the investigation. Thousands 
have reported it, who knew to the con. 
trarv, I have now slated tijo matter 



102 



' THE BARCVI.N." 



fairlv. and piil it (o every honest man 1 have boon promptly disproved, both 
to determine for him?elf, whether the 'by Mr. Burhaiiai and Mi. Mirklcy. 
assertion is founded in truth? Even | Hi; fricuL-; however, it is ba.d. liist 
Gen. JACKSON, in liis letler to tlie tampered with Mr. Adams, a;id ilien 
public, has lent himseU" to this mi^er-;with Gen. .lackson, ai:d tiidiiig ihc 
ai)le and contemiJlible misrepresenta-j latter would make no terms, /Aoh Mr. 
tion! He says that Mr. Clay is " re- 1 Clay closed with the former, and re- 
joice/ that a specific accusation, bya|Ceived as the reward of liis vote and 
responsible accuser has at lensxth a[)-i influence, tlie office of Secretary of 
pcared."' Then referring to the reso- 1 stale." I think 1 iiave stated the 
lution, he says: ^ ilcovercfl more sromifll charge fully and fairly: — now Ictus 
than his communicalion to Brzerlry!" — examine it. 

Again: '-More than two years ago, an| In the first place, if this vile talc be 
ncai^er respectable, and an occ«,w/?'o« correct more than /a-cn/y gentlcmeti of 
snro'/ic. were both before him'."' Thus Congress have prrjimd themselves', 
he goes on through two or three para- For in order to make the charge at all 
"raphs, allc'ging in substance, that plausible, it is alleged, that Mr. Clay"? 
IVIr. Clay and his friends avoided the frirnils and coUcapies were iniluenced 
investigation! Yet General Jackson by him to vote for Mr. Adams'. A 
is represented by his supporters as a -great maiorit\ of these nave unequivo- 
man of f/iscfJ HWic;!/, integrity, and hon- cally and soicmidy staled, that tlicy 
our! After the exposition given of the 'were nol thus iiifluc .ced,and ib.at tiicy 
resolution, comment upon the Gener- knew nothing of (he matter. Now what 
al's assertions is unnecessary. They a stra'ige and improbable case is here 
betray great ignorance and stupidity, presented? Certainlv Mr. Clay n/onc, 
or a want of candour in every way de- could not have elected Mr. Adams! — 
rogatory to the character of a gen- He might have given his vote in any 
tleman. i manner he chose, & still it would have 

The failure so pr.ive the '-ioririi'i," been the vote of a single man. How 
and tlie nioitificaiion which attended then is the pretended bargain made 
it, |irovoked the op|)onent5 of Mr. Clay out? Would .Mr. Adam~ intrigue with 
to many a< ts of hostility, which at pre- Mr. Clay and promise him the second 
sent, I shall forbear to notice. I pass oflice in tlie government merely for one 
therefore to his late address to the pub- voiel Surely not. To get on with the 
lie, and to some documents accompa- 'charge then, Mr. Clay"s/n'f/i'/« must of 
nying it, which have also been tiie necessity be brought into the account, 
subject of much misrepresentation. — But these have declared that he said not 
The eilrnt and nnturr of the charge a word to them about it, and many of 
against Mr. Clay, I believe is well un- them did not know how he intended to 
derstood. The slander has been so of- vote himself. Are they all foresworn? 
ten repeated by the Jacksonians, so Has it come to thi-, that twenty or 
widely extended and circulated, that thirty men, members of Congress. cFk»- 
cvcvy inhabit.int, even in the most oh- 1 sen from the bosom of the people, and 
secure parts of tlie union, must have noted heretofore for their talents and 
heard it over and over again. But for integrity, will perjure themselves? For 
the purpose of comment, I will here re- , what purpose? Setting aside all mor- 
pcat it. I al considerations, what had they to 

In substance the charge is tliis: — ^nin? 1 appeal now to honest, consid- 
■•That Mr. Clay went to Washington jerate men; not to the Simpsons, the 
( itv, and after learning that he would ' Greens, and the Dawsons of the day. 
not be one of the tiiree highest candi- j liiit tohonestnien, what had these pcr- 
dates returned to the liouge."/jc/'/ /(/m- 1 sons to yain? Did they seek ollice? 
arlfin ri:<mi" in order to make Uie best No. Have they rei eived office ? No: 
arrnigemint he could for himself. It is! not a single man of them! What then, 
not alleged he said or did any thing j I repeat, had they to gain? Surely 
pr.rsonalli/ in the business, except by! nothing. If these men, therefore, have 
Oeneral' Jackson, and his assertions spoken tlie truth, and v.cr? not indu- 



'• Tin; BAn<JAIN." 



H»3* 



eiicfcd by Mr. Cliiv, llie "bargain" falls ( furtlier. 1 will only ndd, that such is 
to tl-.e grouiiil ; for his single votcltiicir rfputation at homo and abroad, 
wo'ild have been of no avail. On the tliat no hoiicsl man dare <)iiestiori tiii-ir 
conlrarv, if thev mere inllueiiced by him, veracity. For all the pur|)oscs of truth, 



tliey have all .piijured themselves, 
and thi; too, wiJiuiU mo'ive or re- 
ward! Men do : ot act in this way. — 



I niiiiht here ro^l the arjiumcnt; for, if 
Mr. Cia\ had detenuintd to \[>te for 
Mr. Adams, there could cerlainiv be 



None but kuavcs and fool> will citlier i no reason for the supposed bargain. 



circulate,, or believe, that tiiey do. 
Review the subject. Mr. Clay made 
n "corrupt bargain" with Mr. Adams, 



But 1 proceed still lurlher. 

General Lafayette, a man whom we 
all prize for his exalted character, and 



for a thing lie had hecn olFered, but j especially for.liis services to our toun- 
would i.ot take, before, and which he try, is a witness on this occas-ion. If 
and al! liis frici.ds, and even many of his ; the Ja< ksonians will not believe liim, 
ENEMIES k.'iew ai.d granted lie mii,'ht they would not believe, though one rose 
veceive, if he would^ wiihout a si:>gle from ttic dead! He says, in answer to 
effort! VViiy then should he bargain i Mr. Clay's letter to him, in substance 
for it? But furtlier, twenty or thirty as follows: "In the latter end of De- 
of his friends, elected from ditrere!it|ccml)er, you being out of the Prosiden- 
parts ofllie -country, of ditlcrent views tial candidature, I allowed myself to 
in polities and religio:', accountable to put toyou a simple,unqualilied(iueslioii 
God and their (ountrv, for the ho lest i respecting vour ehctioieering f^ntcs^ 
and faithful discharge of their duties, i and YOUR INTENDED VDTE.— 
.\LL roxsriRE i\ I'ROiriTUTiNO ANU PER- j Your an? wer was, t!;at in \our o|)iiiion, 
3URING themselves! a:'d for what pur- j the actual state of health of Mr. Craw- 
pose? Why,really, to ort.mn for Mr. ford had limited the contest to a choice 
Clay an office he could have had ; between Mr. Adams and Gen. Jackson; 
WITHOUT THEIR AssisTAN'CK ! ! Can any '• that a claim fouivkd on military achitve- 
nian, in his senses, believe a tale so ut- 1 meiit did not meet your prrfi-rencc, and 
lerlv destitute of all human reason ' Mr// YOU HAD CONCLUDED TO 
to support it? I have thus far pro- j VOTE FOR MR. ADA.MS"! This 
i-eeded upon the grounds as assumed conversation took place between Gen. 
bv Mr. Clay's opponents: I will now Lafayette and Mr. Chiy wliile the Ge- 
attend to other matters. [ nerai was in tliis country in 1 824. Now, 

The ciiarge alleges that Mr. Clay what are we to make of it! Has the 
held himself "in reserve — th.ai through good Lafayette lent himself to the'"6f/r- 
the medium of his friends, he bartered gun"? Has he also perjured himself? 
v.iih both parties," &,c. &,c. Now, it | For 1 coiisider cvvry man as morally 
it can be shown, that he had deter- [ gu'lty of perjury, who will tell an un- 
niiucd to vote for Mr. Adams in pre- i truth upon any serious and important 
ferencc to Jackson ichik he himself. v-as I occasion. Mr. Clay, then, had formed 
a candidate, and before, and after, he ; and expressed his determination to vote 
went on to AVashington, the whole ! lor Mr. Adams long before the election 
charge must fall to the ground. For ' took pl;>ce, or all these witnesses, in- 
this purpose, let facts be submitted. — i eluding Lafayette, are guilty of the 
As early as November, 1024, it is tea- ; most wanton and unpardonable false- 
tified by a number of respectable gen- 1 hoods! Will any man believe a con- 
tlemcn, and among th m Dr. Drake ' elusion so monstrous, and derogatory 
and John J. Crittenden, Esq., that Mr. I to human nature? Where, then, is 
Clav declared, that in a contest be- the "/wrn-sm".'' where the •'cornyj/Zon".-' 
tween Adams and Jackson, he should i where the '• i-«f;-r,'' or holding back 
unhesitatingly vote for the former — to see '■'ivho 7C0iiid pay best"? The 
nav, he declared that he could not ro/c' charge and the proof ca:. not lioth stand 
for Gcn.Jaclcson under any circumstances J iof^cUier. One or the other must be 
The communications of these gentle- ' given up. and I submit it to tlie public 
men arc before the public, and it isjto determine the matter for lhrn\- 
unnecessary at present to notice them' selvei. But one word further. 



lui 



• TJIE BABGAIN. 



■ JACKSO.VS <IV1L QUALIFICATIONS. 



Col. Thomas H. Benton, a politic.-il j 
enemy of i\Ir. Clay, and a warm sup- 
porter ofGcn. Jackson, in a letter da- : 
ted at Washington city, the 7tliof last 
December, says: "/ iras infonnfd by 
Mr. Clay irx the fore pari of December, 
1824, THAT HE INTENDED TO 
VOTE FOR MR. ADAMS-".! 1 
would pul)Hsh tlic whole letter, hut it 
would swell this communication which 
is already longer than I intended. — 
But in another place Mr. Benton, 
says'. — ^"Since that period and e>pe- 
ciallv during the last summer, I have [ 
on several occasions, and sometimes in '■ 
the presence of political opponents,: 
when the course of conversation led , 
me to it, mentioned Tchal f kiicu- of .Mr.'. 
Clay^s early intention to vote fur Mr. i 
Adams.'^ I will not remark upon Mr. 
Benton's long and unaccountable si- 
lence npon a subject so itUcresting to 
Mr. Clay and upon account of which 
ho was daily recieving the most unpar- 
alleled and wanton abuse. But I ask 
the Jacksonians,ifthcy will not believe 
the witnesses produced by Mr. Clay,' 
to believe their own. This they are [ 
bound to do bv every principle of hon j 
or and of justice. VViiat then can they , 
make of it? Connect it with the tes- 1 
timony of those already mentioned, and j 
what does it prove? Does it prove, 
that Mr. Clay was guilty of the '•'bar-' 
^ain"} No. Does it prove that he 
held himself in '-rfscnc'' till just l)efore| 
the election? No. Does it sulistan-j 
tiate the statement made by General ' 
.Fackson in reference to his suppositions ; 
in the case? No. It prov-cs directly' 
the reverse. It shows that Mr. Clay, 
though he did not publis'.i it in the' 
Ncwspa[)ers, nor j)roclaim it in th(»^ 
Capitol, had determined to \ote for Mr. | 
Adams, and that he had so declared ; 
himself to a great numberof his friends, j 
At the time of tliese declarations he 
liadncllher motive nor opportunity to; 
bargain with Mr. Adams. He wasj 
himself a candidate and spoke of his i 
intention as predicated upon liie rela- 
tive characters and fitness of the two 
men between whom a choice was to bei 
made. The story fif ''bargain and sale; 
is but a nev.' version of the old charge 
of corrupt coalition" priorto the elec- j 
Mon of the college--. T!ie crv then' 



was, that Mr. Clay and Mr. Crarrfonl 
were intriguing together. The Jack- 
son prints were full of plots aud < ounter- 
plots, in all which Mr. Clay was 
tlie chief manager. At last the day 
arrived, and all ti.eir schemes wcre'ex- 
}doded,as in that case so in the present, 
the mig'iiiness of truth must prevail! 

In conclusion I have a word to say 
to the Jackson Editors. Why have 
they not pu!)lished the letter of Col. 
Benton and Ge.eral Lafayette? I have 
no recollectio ■ of seeing either of them 
in a single Jackson paper in the U''ion! 
Ouuht not this circumstance to puttlie 
people on their guard? Siialla promi- 
lient citizen of the United States, be ac- 
cused of the basest corruption and 
then be denied the privilege of defence? 
Aiid what better is it, than a denial. 
when the Press through which the 
slander wao circulated refuses to pub- 
lish the refutation? What is there in 
these two letters that makes it neces^ 
sary to witlihold them from the Jack- 
son coninmnitv? I answer, they con- 
fain a tiiumphant vindication of Mr. 
Clay, .ind show him to liave been an 
injured and persecuted man. I ask 
therefore, the people to read and ex- 
amine for themselves — they have no 
interest in being deceived, and I am 
confiderit tiiat investigation will lead 
them to the truth. 

JACKSON'S 

cnni QUAx^xF catzons. 

The ha|'pv government under which 
we live, is singnlarl} unique in its cha- 
racter, prolbund in its general provi- 
sions, complicated in its details. It 
was established in an age extraordinary 
for its moral and political ca>t, and by 
a class of men, distinijuished for tlicir 
virtue, their wi.-dom, and the sternness 
of their patriotism. Designed to em- 
brace several provinces, this form ol 
gnvernmenf was necessarily the result 
of compromise, in order that these pro- 
vinces might he induced to unite in a 
general confederacy. Tlie.<c different 
provinces, or states .i-s they wore subse- 
<|uenth called, lying in dilfercnt lati- 
tudes, v.itli separate, and in many in- 



JACKSON'S ClVn. QUALlFICATIOJtS. 



les 



stances, opposite interests, could only 
be brought together by a surrender of 
some, and a partial modification of ma- 
ny of the various interests and opinions 
by which they were severally distm- 
guished. It is, moreover, a government 
of checks and balances. To preserve 
the integrity of the proposed union, it 
became necessary to clothe the general 
government with power. To secure 
the independence of tlie state sovereign- 
ties, it was necessary to limit that pow- 
er. Within certain boundaries, eacli 
is independent; beyond these, neither 
can exercise any control without a vio- 
lation of those fundamental principles 
upon which the union was established. 
'• VVliatsocver is of domestic concern- 
ment, unconnected with other mem- 
bers of the union, or with foreign lands, 
belongs exclusively to the administra- 
tion of the state governments. AVhat- 
soever directly involves the rights of 
the federative fraternity, or of foreign 
powers, is the resort of this general 
government. The duties of both arc 
obvious in the general principle, though 
sometimes perplexed with difficulties 
in the detail." 

Our government is one, deriving its 
very existence from, and upheld by, the 
will of the people. It is not a govern- 
ment of power, where the sword and 
the purse are relied upon to ensure it~ 
permanency at home, or among the 
nations of the world. Based as it is, 
upon the will of the people, and depen- 
dent for its perpetuity upon their virtue 
and intelligence, not less than the in- 
tegrity and ability with which it is con- 
ducted, the difficulties altciidant upon 
its administration are numerous and 
complicated. 

To preserve our amicable relations 
■witii other powers, and thus secure to 
the citizens of the United States, not 
only the blessings of peace, I)Ut the ad- 
vantages of commercial intercourse, is 
a matter of the highest moment, and 
can only be accomplished by placing 
the executive functions in tlve hands of 
those, who po>'sess a profound know- 
ledge of the policy and intricate rela- 
tions of those powers. It is true, that 
all treaties made bv the i" resident, mnst 
be ratified by the Senate; but in this 
vr.ry circumstance thi^rc is a powerful 



reason why the Executive should be 
possessed of (he proper qualitications 
for forming such treaties as will meet 
the wisdom of tlie Senate; inasmuch 
as tlie national character and tlie na- 
tional interests may often be seriously 
impaired iiy the disappointment and 
delay attending the rejection of a t reaty 
by that body. Whether viewed as it 
regards the condition of the state go- 
vernments, the exercise of the powers 
delegated in relation to commerce, re- 
venue, internal improvement and the 
protection of home industry, or w!ie- 
ther contemplated in its extended and 
multifarious foreign relations, it is e- 
qually obvious, that a successful ad- 
ministration of the government of the 
United States requires great political 
experience, talents and wisdom. It 
may indeed be questioned, whether 
any station can be pointed out, requi- 
ring in the performance of the duties 
incident to it, a greater exercise of the 
moral and intellectual eneri^ies of a 
public officer, than is necessary in dis- 
charging the functions appertaininf; to 
the Presidency of the United States. 

Talents of the highest grade, deve- 
loped by a long course of stud\. — fm- 
bracing within its range civil polity, 
the law of nations, and particularly the 
svstem whicli has grown out of the 
federation of the United States, ;i;id the 
republics of the South, conjoiiied with 
prudence, moral intrepidity and deci- 
sion of character, comprise a portion of 
tlie requisites in a Chief Magistrate of 
this country. An individual may be 
qualified in an eminent degree for tiic 
performance of the duty of a Secretary 
at War, but it would by no means follow 
that he is prepared for that of the Pre- 
sidency. He may be intimately ac- 
quainted with the general arrange- 
ments and minute details of tlie navy, 
or he may be an able financier, and pre- 
side with dignity to himself and honor 
to the nation over the Treasury depart- 
ment, and yet be found unqualified for 
the discharge of the duties belonging 
to the executive chair. These are pro- 
position":, which may be so readily com- 
prehended, that they need not be en- 
forced by argument or illustration. It 
is useless, therefore, to dwelt longer on 
this part of Ibr' subiect-. 
O 



lOfi 



JACKSOS'S CIVIL (iUALIFICATlONS. 



When a candidate for the hi?h office 
of Prfsidetit is presented to the com- 
munity, cither by himself or a portion 
of hi? fellow citizen;, it becomes ar) im- 
perative duty tiuit tlic people of the 
United States should institute an in- 
<|uiry of the mo*t rigid kind into liis 
claims and qualilications to the ollvce, 
and having divested tiieuisohes of both 
prejudice and prepossession, to decide 
Avith a single referetice to the giK)d of 
the country. It is a question in which 
no feeling of personal consideration, nor 
pas-ion, nor gratitude, unless for ci\il 
services, should ever be suffered to min- 
§](.; Sti rn patriotism should bring the 
claims of the asjiirant to the proper 
standard, and love of country should 
be the only principle of decision. In 
the present canvas? for a Chief Magis- 
trate two candidates a-e before the 
people. They are from different sec- 
tions of the Union, possess different 
qualitications, and are respectively sup- 
ported from different feelings and with 
opposite views. Without embarking 
at present in the question of the quali- 
fications of the one who is now the in- 
cum'jent of the Presidential chair, it is 
my purpose to bring those of his com- 
petitor to the test, and endeavor to as- 
certain whether they arc of that kind 
wliich entitle the possessor to a prefer- 
ence over 3Ir. Adams, and whether, in- 
deed, the former lias under any circum- 
stances a legitimate claim to the office. 
If it can be demonstrated that he has 
not, it becomes a sacred duty to oppose 
his elevation by all honorable means. 

Throughout the whole of the pro- 
tracted eiri)rt to secure the elevation of 
General Jackson to the Presidency, 
notwith?la;iding the warm and infuria- 
ted zeal of a large part of his support- 
ers, 1 have never yet, met with an 
indi\i(hial who would so far hazard 
his character for candouras to say, that 
/'(id Gfitcn:! Jnfk.tdit unt foiij^hl ihc but- 
tle ofjVr.i) Orleans, or had fu- been iiri- 
swccasfitl in that e))i:;(ii;cmenl, he eper 
ivonld luive been thoii£;lil of, mueh less se- 
riously urged upon tlu: jlmcriean people, 
(IS a candidate for the Presidency. 1 
wish to be di>tinctlv understood on 
this point : it is an important one, and 
1 design to urge witli some considerable 
'arne-lncss Ibe ded'Jctions wliicli mav 



be drawn from it. I then ask, whether 
it will be seriously urged, that if Gen. 
Jackson had been defeated on the plains 
of New r,rleans he would now be a 
candidate for the Prcsidenc}. 1 do 
not hesitate to make the assertion thai 
no one of his followers who values the 
character ofa landid, sensible man. « ill 
risk his reputation by an affirmative 
answer. It then resolves itself into tliif, 
tliat a single successful battle, is suffi- 
cient toqual'fy a man for the high civil 
duties inseparably connected with the 
office of the Chief magistracy of the 
Union. This is a simple deduction 
from (he premises and one from which 
the (bllowers of General Jackson can- 
not escape. It does but little credit it 
is true to theirjudgment, but it neces- 
sarily fastens upon them, and I feel no 
hesitancy in making the application. 

Now admitting for the sake of argu- 
ment, and it is oidy for that purpose 
that I am willing to make that admis- 
sion, that in gaining the battle of New- 
Orleaii", General Jackson displayed all 
the requisites of a great and skillful 
rommander; — that his generaUhip on 
tluit memoraiile dav entitles him. to a 
rank among the distinguished warriors 
of aiicient and modern times, and that 
it had not been for him, defeat would 
have ensued, and the city have fallen 
into the hands of the enemy, and what 
docs it avail his followers? By what 
system of logic will they seek to provi 
his civil qualihcations from the <act that 
he has led his countr\-men to victory ' 
Now it is contended that a man may be 
eminently qualified for the camp, that 
'i he mav possess bravery, coolness and 
l'()rtitu<le, that he may be gifted with 
the |)owor of winning the love of his 
soldiers, prove himsellanabic tactician, 
and be possessed of that energy of 
character which prepares him Ibrevery 
emergencv, and notwithstanding all 
these exalted endowments he may bo 
wholh unprepared to comprehend the 
ci\il polity of his country, much less to 
take cliarge of the helm of State, which 
is to guide it to ruin or glory. So. on 
the contrarv, a wise and accomplished 
civilia;i might entirely fail in makinir a 
successful military commander. One 
could lose an arniv, the other destroy 
!iiscount'"v. 



JACKSON'S CIVIL QUALIFICATIOXS. 



10) 



But it is said liy some of the sup- 
portei-s of (ten. Jackson, that althougli 
ho is only tolerably qualified as a ci- 
vilian, yet such have Keen his military 
services, that from a feeling of grulitude, 
we are hounti io support his claims to 
the Presidency. Has it then come to 
this? Is gratitude for a successful 
campaign to confer on a mere soldier, 
the highest civil otlice in the gift of the 
people? Heaven forbid. When that 
period arrives, the funeral pyre of the 
liberties of our country will be lighted 
up, and the shout of applause announc- 
ing the elevation of a Military Chieftain 
to itie executive chair of this republic, 
will be the knell of its freedom. If 
there be yet an uncancelled debt of 
gratitude for the military services of 
Gen. Jackson, let it be liquidated. I 
only oppose its being paid by his elec- 
tion to a civil otfice, the duties of which, 
I believe him unable to discliarge. If 
the General still have claims upon his 
country, let a golden statue be erected 
to him at the Capitol, — let the national 
cotTers be laid open to his grasp, and let 
tliose whose breasts are heaving with 
these violent emotions of gratitude, 
harness themselves to the car of the 
Hero, and drag him in triumph through 
the land; but spare, oh spare, the tem- 
ple of liberty, from the reckless violence 
of a Military Chieftain. 

It has been remarked, that if Gen. 
Jackson had not fought tlie battle of 
New-Orleans, he would not have been 
a candidate for the Presidency. Let 
us recur to this subject and test the 
truth of the proposition. Gen. Jack- 
son has been placed under such cir- 
cumstances, during a large portion of 
his lile, that he has possessed every 
opportunity for a display of genius and 
attainments. Such indeed have been 
the stations filled by him, that it is the 
fairest of all possible deductions, to be- 
lieve that his greatest etforts have been 
made, and lii.s most masterly di^plays of 
learning and greatness called tbrlh. 

The Profession of the Law in this 
country, is more than any other, the 
road to civil preferment, and the best 
school for the attainments necessary to 
'"onstitutc an eminent civilian. Gen. 
Jackson is a lawyer, but without that 
distinction as one, which elevates him 



above mediocrity. I cannot, therefore 
Iromhis legal career, draw any conclu- 
sions favorable to his fitness for the' 
Presidency. 

Gen. Jackson was a member of the 
Convention which formed the Constitu- 
tion of Tennessee, but I am unable to 
ascertain that his fame is connected 
with that instrument, or that his parti- 
cipation in its formation affords the 
smallest evidence of his talenfs, nor 
even of his republican feelings. 

Gen Jackson has been twice a Sena- 
tor in Congress, a station affording a 
fine theatre for the display of tliose 
qualifications more particularly requis- 
ite in the discharge of the duties of the 
office to which he now aspires; but I 
have sought in vain for any thing more 
than a silent vote, while a member of 
that august assembly. 

Upon the bench of the Supreme 
Court there was ample opportunity for 
the exercise of juridical learning and 
talents; but I am not apprised that his 
decisions are ever referred to, nor is 
the name of Jackson to be found in con- 
nection with any of the judicial authori- 
ties that are daily cited in our courts 
of justice. 

Am I referred to his acts while Gov- 
ernor of Florida for evidences of his 
qualifications in civil atTairs? I re- 
member, among other things connected 
with the exercise of the functions ap- 
pertaining to that office, that Con- 
gress passed a law, to relieve the in- 
habitants of Florida from some of the 
oppressive ordinances under which he 
left them groaning. 

These are some of the offices which 
Gen. Jackson has successively filled. 
They were all speedily resigned. His 
biographer and bosom friend, gives 
us the impressive fact, that Gen. Jack- 
son assigned as a reason for his resig- 
nation of several of these offices, that 
he felt his own incompetency for the 
discharge of the duties incident to 
them. And yet we are gravely told 
that Gen. Jackson is qualified for the 
Presidency! 

But, say the advocates of Gen, Jack- 
son, if he be elected, he will call to his 
Cabinet the best talents of the nation. 
This is a pre?umption contradicted by 
the whole history of hi- life. No man 



lOA 



JACKSON'S CIVIL QrALIFICATIONS. 



perhaps, is more under the influence] relerencc to the secretaries tliat tlii* 
of -trong pa-sions than Gei). Jackson,; duty was to be performed? The same 
and :ione more accu>tomed to form is required in regard to the various com- 
etri.ge associations with individuals munications from our ministers at for- 
tiian tiimself. It would hence be a i eign courts and from the resident min- 
siuzular course of induction, to con-jisters of other powers at our court, 
elude that in filling offices he would i With a weak executive, having duties 
lav aside all prepossessions for and to perform, such as have been fechly 
against his friends and his enemies. i pointed out, what would he the result? 
He may, or lie may not; tiie weight of 1 1 ask if the objections to General Jack- 
evidence is certaiidv against his doing] son's want of qualifications is sufficient- 
so: but for ihe sake of argument let il ily answered in the fact of his havi'ig 
be gra'it'.^d, that, if elected. Gen. Jack- 1 around some able Secretaries? To 
SO' v/iU rail to iiis aid the best taleiits'my plain understandin.; it is not. On 
of I le country. Wiiat will the admis itiie contrary I should infer, that wiih- 
si avail iii the present argument? ou* an able Executive, there might be 
I V' 11 examine this matter, and evdea- something to appreheid from having 
V'nto give a simple illustration of it. men of very di-linguished abilities con- 

T')e members of the cabinet may be nectcd with the Cabinet, 
sa d to perform, in regard to the Prcsi- I am not laboring for the purpose of 
d< .i.whut the senses ofthe body perform I meeting the declamation of dema- 
for t le brain. . Tlie sense of touch niav ! gogues, nor is autjlit expected but con- 
be acute, the eye, the ear, and the I lumeU from those supporter- of Gener- 
ta?te, may all be good and exercise al Jackson, whose only argument in fa- 
their various functions in the most per- Ivor of his election, consi-ts in shouting, 
fe t ma.iner, Imt unless the capacity of hurra for the hero of New-Orleans. 1 
the head be such as to enable the brain I would address myself to the sober and 
to arrange and combine tlie impres-tliinking portion of his advocates, those 
giohs carried to it, it matters tiol iiow , who are searching for the truth, and 



well these se:ises may have performed 
the duties assigned them in the econo- 
my of human life. It is not o'lly neces- 
sary that t'lere should exist the inteUi 
gei'ce for deciding upon the accuracy 
oi'tlie rt^port made by otie of the sen- 
ses, but upo I the correctness of all of 
tli'-m. Nor is this all. There must 
ai-o be the capacity of combining tliem: 
Doticiencie- inu>i he supplii'd, redun- 
da' cies lopped oflT, ai.d such modifica- 
tions made as will promote the union, 
harmony, and integrity of all the parts. 



arc willing to be guided by it. If tlie 
positions and conclusions here enforced 
be incorrect, I ask from tliis class their 
refu ation. If the duties appertai'ing 
to the office of President, or the talents 
required for the performance of them, 
be overdrawn, it mav be easih poi ted 
out. If the civil qualitications of Gen. 
Jackson are such as to enable him to 
discharge those duties with credit to 
Himself, and advantage to the countrV;, 
the proofs of it are urgently demanded. 
It is believed that no man can live to 



Siich are the iTidi'-tructible relations j the age of .-ixiv vears, and successively 
between the ditfirent members of the ! fill the civil offices which have been 
Cabinet and the President. He must 1 conferred on Gen. Jackson, if he be 
h ive i'lielliiiCDce to enable him to pre- truly a t;reat man, without leaving be- 
side.overall the departments of his ca- hind him tlie wav-maiksof iiis towering 
biiu't, — to keep each within its proper tnhnts. of his uncommon attainments, 
sphere, — to pass, if necessary, upon tlie i In vain may the vestiges of (he Gen- 
de'fiilsof each in all itsmuliipllid ram- ieral's greatness he soiisiht for, — having 
ilii alioi.s. — and fi.nally to adju^t the re- 1 no existence, thev will never be foufid. 



por:-- troni eacii, in fiich a manner as 
■whili; it accords wiili the spirit of our 
Constitution! and tlie genius of tlicGin- 
crnmcnt, will most eU'eclually promote 
tlie happinex- of the people and the 
-glory of the nation. W as it alone in 



If General Jackson would ha\ebeen 
taken up for the pre.-idency, were his 
name not associated with the battle of 
New Orleans, it is certainly susceptible 
of some species of d"n1on^t^atioll, and 
au important benefit will be cojifcrrcd 



JjlCKSON'S ClVlt QUAMPICATTONS. 



14)9 



ypon the public by having the proofs ; lithe violent and nne;overiiable tem" 
('xliibited. This nc-cd not be expected,! per, which has marked his whole life» 
for no such proofs are iii existence. 1 was called up, -hurra lor (he Hero of 
deny thai tlie wliole ranks of his sup two wars,"' has been shouted in re- 
portei-s can furnisii a solitary individu- 1 ply. 

al with the hardiiiood to venture the If GencralJnckson's disregard of the 
declaratioM, that he tiad contemplated constitution and the laws of his coun- 
GeiiCral Jackson before the battle of try, which has characterised most of 
l^ew Orleans, as destined to preside the public ads of his life, was adduced 
over the councih of the nation at an> as an o!>jection (o his elevation, it has 



future time. 1 deny that from tiic pe- 
riod of the battle which conferred dis- 
tinction upon the General, down to the 
present time, any thing has occurred in 
his career, calculated to make him a 
prominent man for the office to which 
hi? inordinate ambition now prompts 
him to aspire. 

I appeal to the candour of every man 
ofboth parties to say, what were his 
impressions when he first heard of the 
nominations of Gen. Jackson for the 
Pi\ sidoncy which were made in one 
oi the Western counties of Peim- 
sylvani;i and in Tennessee. Where is 
tile individual who did not consider 
those nominaliotjs as importing notliing 
more than a compliment to the Gener- 
al's military services? And why were 
these impressions univessal. Simply 



beei> met by pointing signilicantly to 
"the plains of Is'ew Orleans." 

If tiiosc wlio "cannot look upon blood 
and carnage with composure,"' have 
raised their voices against a military 
Chieftain, who both in public and in 
private has manifested a carelesssicss 
of human life, and has rather sought 
tlian avoided tlu; blood of his fellow 
ciiizcns, their ears have been astound- 
ed by the shout of "gratitude to the de- 
fender of the booty and beauty of New- 
Orleans." 

If the question be here asked why 
should we elect Gen. Jackson? we are 
met by tlie resistless argument, "he is 
the Saviour of his country, because he 
saved New Orleans" ! ! 

Those persons who are determined 
to put down the administration right or 



because no man entertained the belief! wrong, the opponents of internal im- 
that the qualifications of General Jack- ! provement and the protection of domes- 
son were such as to qualify him for the ' tic industry, the disappointed otficc 



hunters and noisy demagogues of the 
nation, have arra} ed themselves under 
tiie banner of the " Hero of two 
and shouted hosannahs to his 



Presidency. These tirst impressions 
were the correct ones, and must still be 
entertained by candid, reflecting minds. 
Other nominations followed those re- 
ferred to. Some of the partizans of | name, until a feeling of enthusaism has 
the other candidates, in order to favor seized upon all those wl\ose capacities 
their respective leaders.promoted these enable them to comprehend the mean- 
demonstrations, by dwelling upon the ing of the word /jf////c; and has also borne 



wars," 



military renown of the General, a mat- 
ter which addresses itself more direct- 
ly to the passions of the great mass of 
mankind than any other; and thus was 
commenced the tide of popular clamor 
in his favor. 

If the superior claims of his compel 



down the discretion and good sense of 
a large number of worthy and respecta- 
ble citizens. Where it will carry the 
nation and when it will subside cannot 
be predicted. It is a flame the pro- 
gress of whicli it is not easy to resist, 
sets at defiance l)oth reason and 



gress 
for it 



itors were mentioned, it was imme- . judgment, and appeals directly to the 
diately met by the reply that "the passions; it spreads like the wild fire 
General is a second Washington, he i which occasionally overruns our forests 
has saved his country." ]an"d savannas, and like that must run. 

If his want of civil qualifications was ' perhaps, its course in defiance of hu- 
urged against liis election, the unan-j man agency. Its duration cannot he 
swerable replv was tjiven "Gen. Jack- 1 long, but in its progress, it may scathe 
son whipped the British at New Or- 1 tl»e noblest institutions which freedom 
leans." 'has ever erected^ and consume in its>, 



110 



" EXTERMINATION.' 



desolnting inarch, those who, like the 
huntfTs of the pniirie, have wantonly 
applied the torch. Manlius. 



" E^TERJWINATION." 

"■This morning xve killed sixteen."' 

If General Jackson is a man of cor- 
rect and honorable feelings, is it not 
remarkable that his offici il as well as 
private life should he conne( ted with 
so many acts of inhumanity and vio- 
lence? Is he charged improperly? if 
so, he is one of the most unfortunate 
men in existence. For there is hardly 
a transaction m which he was ever en- 
gaged, that does not present sometiiing 
of questionable policy, if not of direct 
and barbarous outrage. Were I here 
to enumerate them, they would present 
a catalogue of dark and bloodv deeds, 
shocking to humanity and sutlicient to 
appal the stoutest heart. But I shall 
refer to but a single instance, ^and to 
Gen. Jackson's own account of it. 

In 1814, the General proceeded a- 
gainst an Indian village situated at the 
hend of the Tallaponsie. It contained 
about a thousand Indians, and, in his 
own language, with their squnvs and 
children " running about among their 
huts."' In a letter, dated the 28th of 
March, 1814, to Gen. Pinckney, Gen. 
Jackson gives the Ibllowing account of 
his plans and operations: 

"DETERMINING TO EXTER- 
MINATE them, I detached General 
Coffee with the mounted men ai d near- 
ly the whole of tiic Indian force, early 
on the morning of yesterday, to cross 
the river aliout two miles below llie 
cncampment^and to surround the bend 
in such a mSliner as that none of them 
should escape hy attempting to cross 
the river."' He then says: •'■ Fiir huii 
drcrl and fiPi/-.-fn.Tn were left dead on 
the Penii;siila, and a great number of 
them 7ccrc killed In/ ihr liorsemrn in at- 
lempling to rroas the rivrr. until we wkre 

FREVENTED BY THi; NIGHt! WE CON 

TINUED TO DESTROY wonv of 
ihnn iiiho hail amrruled themselves imdrr 
the hrinks rf llie rivi r,\\u\\\ wo were iire- 
venfedbvUienicht. THIS MORNING 



WE KILLED SIXTEEN, WHICH 
HAD BEEN CONCEALED"!! 

Now this is Gen. Jackson's own ac- 
count of a transaction, which for cold- 
blooded cruelty is not exceeded in tiie 
annals of the most relentless and 5a\age 
warfare. •' Determimxg to extermi- 
nate"' them, he fell upon these poor 
deluded and half starved wretches with 
all the ferocity of the tiger; nor did he 
stay his hand, so long as a tremlding 
victim of his vengeance could be found. 
Do we carry on wars oi exierminulion? 
Do we butcher in cold blood? Will 
a Christian people sutTer a public agent 
to "exterminate."' without regard to 
age, sex or condition, even the misera- 
ble remnant of a tribe of native Ameri- 
cans? Did not the imperious Spaniard 
hunt with blood-hounds the fugitive 
Mexicans, and has not all posterity 
cursed liim for the inhuman and bloody 
deed? How much better are we? One 
would suppose it was a sufficient hard- 
ship for a humane man, to be obliged to 
destroy at one time five hundred hu- 
man beings! But this was not a suffi- 
cient olfering of blood. The wretciud 
fugitives from slaugiiter were pursued 
to the caves and bank«, were dragged 
from their hiding places, and were cut 
down the next day, like beasts of the 
forest. How many women and chil- 
dren were sacrificed in this fatal war of 
"extermination,"" heaven only knows; 
and I pray God, for the honor of the 
American name, it may never be known! 
Was this foul deed like Washington, 
like William Peiui, like Franklin, like 
the good Lal'ayette, or like any other 
great and good man? Had we not 
mingled in the poor Indians" cup of af- 
fliction enough of l)itterness and blood- 
shed? Was it reserved for Jarkson. 
after we had driven them from forest 
to forest, from river to ri\(r. iVom the 
Atlantic ;ilninst to the foot of the Rocky 
mountains, to commence upon their en- 
I'eebled tribes a war of " extermina- 
tion"? He. who can look with com- 
posure upon such blood and carnage, 
and avow the intention above quoted, 
is unlit for any civil station in a free 
ceunlry. I know the Indians are a 
snl)tle and a cruel foe; but they are 
men. and sliould be treated as men. 1 



A I)RA9IA. 



II] 



coiiolude with an oxlrcncl (Vom a Balti- 
more paper on tiie same subject. 

"We ask you to p;iuse iind reflect that tlie a- 
bove tragic narr:>tioii olcold-bloodod and luer- 
cilcss cruelty, i* tukcn froru an ollicial comimi- 
nicationniaiie by General Andrew Jackscni, — 
and that alter being the chief actor in this de 
testable butchery, and so fixing an indelible 
stain upon the character olourceuntry, lor hu- 
ina ity, he has the hardihood to ask those 
whom he thus dishonoii'ti, to lend themselves to 
his ambitious purposes, anti by their sanction oT 
hi- ronduct to adopt it as their own. We all 
recrdlect the sensation created tlmmghout this 
land when we heard thiit at the battle ot'tlie riv- 
er flasin, our countrymen h.d been murdered by 
the joio,'c allies of England, while Britons Inok 
ed on without raising an arm to rescue from the 
tomahawk and scalping-knife, those wlio had 
sprung from the same stock as themselves. We 
recollect that the vengeance of this nation was 
then invokeil against the British, fur <|uietly 
overlooking those horrid transactions, the reci- 
tal of which had filled every breast v/ith un- 
speakable sorrow andinilignation. If the Brit- 
ish were -o justly censured, ami that they were 
so, no one will attempt todeny, how much more 
so was GeneralJackson: — thry plead in exten- 
tiation of their crying sin, tiiat, the Indians 
being so much more numerous than their own 
troops, they cnuld not control them; not so can 
plead General Jackson — he has nothing to of- 
ler in palliation of hi* outrage upon hniuanity : 
nor does he attempt to conceal his monstrous de- 
termination "/oeiiTOTinaff" the miserable race 
exposed to his fury. His crime was commissive 
—that of the British emissive; they, perhaps, 
left undone what they ought to have done; but 
he absolutely did what he ought not to have 
done. 

l-.et us recapitulate: — The General, after 
sleeping (with what composure we cannot say) 
through the nitrht ensuing the tragedy we speak 
of, awoke in the morning, surrounded bw the 
corpses of " five hundred and seventy" Icllow 
creatures, to ciiiise by way of worthy afterpiece, 
sixteen others to be dragged from their conceal- 
ment, and put to death in cold blood. We can- 
not boast iif more than common sensibility, but 
wo must think, that to witness such an act would 
make ours a little cold also. What are the 
General's words? These: "this morning we 
killed sixteen which had been concealed,"' — and 
the man who acts and speaks thus: who has 
half as much blood upon his conscience, as he 
iias upon his hands, — be, forsooth, is to be 
called the peer and like of Washington the hap- 
py warrior. 



A dhama. 

TO TIIE EDITOns OF TRUTn's .^.DVOCATE. 

I have tlosigncd forwarding to you 
:Jomc extract.s from a dramatic piece 
called '•The Hero of Two Wars;" — 
thotigli it is not yet time for its exliihi- 
tioi) on the American statue. Vet when 
truth shall have triumphed over false- 
hood, and time shall have thrown a- 



round it the drapery of years, it may 
be esteemed at least for its historical 
accuracy, and serve to hand the Hero 
down to everlasting fame, like Eratos- 
tiatus of old. For while the annals of 
history retains the name of the incen- 
diary of the Ephefian temple, the iiv 
cendiary of [)olitical discord must also 
come in for iiis share of immortality. I. 
have ventured to suggest something in 
shape of what you may deem proper to 
appear as editorial, when revised by 
yourselves. W. 

n 

TIIE HERO OP TWO WARS, 

A DRAMA IN FIVE ACTS. 

Act \sl, scene \st — An Inn at the Cajnio! 

E^■TEIl Hero. 

Hero. Kremcr,importingchargcof vile intrigue, 
Corruption, nianogement, and base design 
Against the op|)osers of my great intent. 
Has laid the corner stone on which I '11 build 
The glorious edifice of future fame. 
Born in the tempest of tumultuous war, 
I relish not these "piping times of peace;" 
Hero must be foremost, or be nothin!r, 
Sink to oblivion, and be kuown no more, 
"Ormount the whirlwind and direct the storm.'" 
Propitious now the season to begin, 
I 'II fan the spark of Slander's fi^iry brand, 
L'ntil I 'II wrafi the nation in a flame. 
That shall consume my foes, though they wert 

pure 
As min'string angels from the r?alms of light. 
" Plots have I laid, inductions dangerous," 
By inuendoes, nods, and dark surmise. 
That if the nation be as credulous 
" As I am subtle, false and treacherous," 
Then shall my rival's triumph be but short. 
The disafl'ecled first I '11 conjure up — 
Miichief! how apt a counsellor art thou, 
Kor now thou dost remind me ol a wretch 
Whom once his couutry at her bar arraigned 
For deep conspiracy against the state: 
And though he 'scaped the meshes of the law. 
Yet dark suspicion fastened on his name. 
For which he bears that country deadly hate 
To him 1 '11 write the account of my defeat, 
-•Vnd leadliim to infer my rival did 
Do Wo:— which 1 '11 with emphasis declare 
I did not do. 

(ui-iles) ^Vo midni^ltl taptrbamt 
III/ mr — 710 secret eonrlaict held — 7i« planr 
A'l) cahah vnlnrtd into lo persuade 
Thr violation of inttrurlions ^irtn, 
•^iid proHrale all Vie fundameiitul rules 
Whieh shoutit maintain Vic high nipremaci/ 
Of the People's Kill. 

{folding Vie Utter) He wants no prompter 
But his strong revenge — no spur to action 
But his, a»<I kindred spirit-.' aggrandisemenl. 
Thus will I start the quarry, and the pack 
t)f hungry ofticc hunters will join in, 
.And raise the general clamor of the chase. 

On drunken prophecies did Richard climb. 
And seired the crown.of England'.* ^eacirt isle 



Vtlt 



LEGISLATIVE INSTRICTION, 



Caesar, ami Cromwell, by their martial lame 
Made cni|>ires bow to their supremacy. 
Now both these aids have I, examples stronj 
To marshal mc tlic way. 

We pa.ss over the remainder of this 
s'cene, in which the Hero meets his late 
rompetitor, and conijratulates him on 
his elevation with all the seeming can- 



Congress if they chose. They, tliem- 
selves were hut the mere agents of the 
people, and when they undertook to 
direct another agent of the same peo- 
ple, sent abroad for a different purpose, 
they neglected their proper bu»i.'iess, 
and travelled bevond the bounds of 
their autlioritv. To illustrate the souid- 



dor of an honorable and higli-minded ness of tliis position, .el us suppose 



opponent. We purpose giving m our 
next an extract from the scene at the 
Hermitage. 



LEGISLATIVE INSTRUCTIO\S 

A large portion of the opposition to 



for a moment, that, at the same time 
the Legislature requested Jlr. Clay to 
vote one way, his own proper contitu- 
ents instructed him to vote in anoilier. 
Which was he bound to obey ? Surely 
those who elected him, clothed liim 
with authoritv, and to whom he was 



the present administration is directed | accountable for his conduct. What 
to .Mr. Clav. It is said, but for him, | then becomes of the power, or right to 
Gc.i. .Iack>on would have been elected instruct, arrogated by the Legislature? 
President by the House of Represcnta- It vanishes at once, and shows the ut- 
tives. Although the General's party ter absurdity of its assumplioi). 
had no claims upon Mr. Clay, yet they But it is said, that .Mr. Clay had always 
atl'ect to be greatlv disappointed, that agreed to obey the voice of his consti- 



hc did not vote with them. He is 
charged with having '•' chcutid ihrm mit 
of tlicir chincc, and among other things, 
is accused of having '» violnle.d the in- 
slru(iio)isofhisconslitiicnls. This latter 
subject I propose to examine. I do so, 
because it has been a constant theme 
of wicked and wilful misrepresentation. 
Those who believe in the right of in- 



tuents, "in whatever manner indica- 
ted,"' and that the members of the 
Kentucky Legislature, knou-iitg their 
wishes on the subject, did but express 
THEIR will! They became the clian- 
nct of infonnation. This is the argu- 
ment; but how came they to know the 
will of Mr. Clay"? constituents better 
than he did himself? At, or about the 



struction, have been played upon and i same time he went to Congress, the 
deceived. I members elect from his district went 

Before I proceed, 1 admit with cheer- 1 to Frankfort. He had the same op- 
fulness, that Mr. Clav declared on a portunilies for information which tliey 



former occasion, that he fell hound to 
obey the voice of his constituents — that 



had. He had been recently elected; 
had lifed in the district more than half 



if he could /aw:c their ii'i/l, he cared not ^his life; knew almost every man in it: 
through what channel it was indicated, and vet these few persons at Frankfuri 



he would obey it. I admit also with 
the same )>lcrisure, that a majority of 
the Ki'ntuckv L'-^^islulurr ^'■reqiicflnr' 



undertook to inform him what were the 
wishes of his friends and neighbors! 
Becavi^e he considered he knew as. 



Mr. Clav and his colleagues in Con- ! much about the matter as these gen- 
gress to vole for Gen. Jackson. Hut I ' flemen. and chose not to obey their 
do not admit, that by disre^nrding this request, he lias been branded as an apos- 
request he violated his obligation to i tatc from his principles! I have pro^ 
his constituents. J ceeded thus far in this paragraph, ob 

In the first [)lace. the members of the; the ground that the members in the 
Legislature of Kentucky had no right Kentucky Legislature from .Mr. Clay's 
to instruct !\lr. Clay or anv oilier mem- district, voted " lo request" him to sup- 
ber of Con-ire^s in regard to the duties -port Gen. Jackson. Granting this to 
he had (o pcrfonn there. Tiii\y had j be the case, I have ^hown clearly that 
iio;jonrr to do it. Thev did not elect [the request was without force. It is 
hun; — (hey could not call him to an ac-' not allied to any>nown or ackrow- 
rount for neglect of. dulv. nor prevent leds-^d republican principle. It waf 
the pcojilo from a^nin returning him to predicated upon no additio:ial infor. 



lEGXSLATIVE iNSTnUCTIOV. 



U3 



mation or expression of the people's 
will; and could be rc^nrded by Mr. 
Clav as nothinsi more than the wislics 
of a few individuals. But I am well 
assured, that a inajoiitv of tlic Repre- 
sentatives from that district were op- 
posc'i to givinji Mr. Clav any instruc- 
tions on the subject; ancl 1 am equally 
•well assured, tliat those of the delega- 
tion, who voted for the re-olut'O'i, vio- 
lated the wishes of ikrir co'istituciits. 
I am justiftc.l in these assertio s, from 
the fact that tliose gentlemen ^t:!l lo- 
main the friends of iMr. Clay, and al.-o 
from the circumstance that a very re- 
spectable portion of his constituents 
signed and sent to him the following 
instructions: 

'' VVc, the unilcrsiTned votPrs in this Conjrr'- 
«ioi)nl ili<trict, Imvini vicHed thp iiisiruciion or 
request of the Legi-lat:ire of Keiitiicky on ttie 
•iihject ol' rhoosiiip .1 Prtisiilcnt iiui Vico-fre.M- 
(leiit of tiie Unitpil Stites with reiret, iiiid the 
said iiiftniction or reqiie t to our Re|ircseiita- 
lives ill Congress from this district, htinj with 
out our kiiowled^p or p.o'i*"rnt ; wc, for iiian> 
reason* connected with so rnomeniou? an occa- 
sion, hereby iniJruri onr lli:pre-ientative in Con- 
gress to Vote on this occasion ai;ree.ible to his 
own juilfirinent, and by tlie best huhis he may 
have on the subject, wi'h or without the consent 
•f the Legislature of Htnlucky." 

Tills was accomoanied with letters 
to Mr. Clay, inlbrmiiig him, that so far 
as an expression of public sentiment 
could be had, '• it contained the wishes 
of a majority of his constituents" ! But 
further, at the very next election to 
supply Mr. Clay's seat in Congress, 
Judge Clarke, a warm and decided 
friend of his, and a strong opponer of 
General Jackson, was elected. He was 
«ne of the very men who sub-cribed 
the document above quoted, and was 
open and decided in his approbation of 
Mr. Clay's vote. Where were the Jack- 
sonians at the time? Where were those 
who felt so nuach aggrieved at Mr. 
Clay's disobedience of instructions? — 
They existed not in the district, nor 
in th(5 state; but among those in other 
parts of the Union, whose uncommon 
solicitude for the^oor Kentuckians has 
led to an exposure and a just repro- 
bation of their motives. Tlie Honora- 
ble Mr. Kremer, in his address to the 
Pennsylvanians, was first and loudest 
in his lamentations. He was aiaaaing- 



ly distressed, that the people of Mr. 
Clay's district siiould havi.- been so 
clieated and abused! Tlie small frjj^ 
if smaller ca:i be found, joined iii the 
wailing, till the bowels of compassion 
of (ho whole Jackson party yearned iii 
symnafliy Jor this degraded and insuR- 
<."d people! But how have they repaid 
t!ie kindness? instead of permitting 
six or seveu men in the Legislature to 
control Mr. ' lay, (hey, to a mueii l;iri;c!' 
number, had the tem:M'iiy \.o ''■iiv^trucC 
him to do as he ihought best! W.ien 
■lis seat ill Congress was to be supphed, 
instead of electing a Jncksoninn, they 
chose, by a liirgc majority, 'one of his 
warmest supporters and friends, and a 
decided advocate of the Administra- 
tion! Wisat demonstration of enmitj 
and dis'^ust! How mu-;t tlir-se co isti- 
iueiits have h'athed aiul haled Mr. 
Clay for violalmg their instructions! 
and how graieful thej' must feel to- 
wards those out of the state, who have 
50 kindly interfered in their behalf! 

From the circumstances and facts ta 
wliicii 1 have reierred, I am warra'ited 
in ttie conclusion, ttiauio reasonable 
man has a right to sa;f that Mr. Clay 
violated the wisiiesol the people of his 
own district. Thev were pleased at 
liie time with his vote, and have since, 
b\ every possible demonstnition, m mi- 
fested tiicir approbation o( !us co;iduct. 
Who, then, has a right to complai.:? If 
ihrif were satisiied, 1 ask, who has » 
right to complain? 

I know the next point which is start- 
ed. It is said that " a mrijor.iti/ of ihrl 
pruple of K'nturky are for XvJfmn," a;id 
therefore Mr. Clay ouglit to have com 
plied with their wishes. Both of thesi 
positions I deny. The people of Ken- 
tucky were not known to be ibr the 
General, although the Legislature de- 
clared it. But granting iiivas so; still 
I maintain, that Mr. Cl-iriiad noiliing 
to do with the instructions of any peo- 
ple but those of his own district. If hr 
obeyed them, it was all that could be 
required of him. To illustrate niy as- 
sertion, let us suppose that iti the three ' 
electoral district* of Kentucky, at the 
last election foi' President, the vote fov 
the colleges stood thus: In the lirst ilis- 
trict, five Ibr Jactebq, chosen over ihc 
elector'^ f«r VdamB ^y a raajority o^- 



114 



LKGISLATIVE IKSTRUCTION.— A FRAUD ETPOSEX). 



twenty votes; in the second district,' can liave no force nor possible applica- 
also five for Jackson, chosen by (lie tion. If those ou( of the district liuve 



^amc majority; in the third district, 
four for Adams, clioscn over the Jaclc- 
son electors by a majority of two thou- 
sand. In tiiis case, there are Icn elec- 
tors for Jackson, and four for Adams, 
But if we take the majority of two 
thousand votes in the Adams district, 
and add them to tiic lar<;e Adams mi- 



a right to interfere, upon the same 
principle nery boily has a right to in- 
terfere. In such an event, the right 
of instruction would become a mere 
nullity. I need not illustrate this ar- 
gument further — every reasonable man 
must see its force. The Representa- 
tive is amenable to no other pcoplr, and 



speaks for ihcm, acts for them; and if 
Ihcij approve his conduct, no one elf 
has a right to complain. 



norities in the Jackson districts, there should obey none otiur, but those, who 
would be a handsome majority of the i created him and gave him the power 
people's votes in Keiitucky for Mr. Ad-|to act. He is empiiaticalh/Z/r/r agent, 
anis. This fact being known to the 
electors, when lliey arrive at Frankfurt, 
how ought they to vote? Should they 
obey the voice of their respective dis- 
tricts, or should they all vote for Mr. I 
Adams? No reasonable man will hesi- 
tate for a moment in what manner to' V I'nAin rxposED. 
answer the question. Notwithstand-I There, perliups, never ivas a grosser 
ing Kentucky as a state might be for|='"«'"M" -'^ pfhtical fraud and imposition 
Adams, sHll these ten electors „ouldl "!'""/''« '>°"«f' crc.luhty of a conli.linsr 
be bound to vole for General Jackson, i '',"°1''V """ '^'" '",",'""'' !^' '"'"I'r.*'* 

Thev were elected on that conditlon.l^,^." ' ''° "'It v".t '° "'^^''f 

V- 111 1 • ^ 1 ^ J 1 the impression in the Jsotliern and West- 

-and were pledged and instruct.-d to doj^^,, y^,,,^,^ „,. ^^■^ j^^.^,^^, attachment to 

^o. What, then, becomes ol the argu- 1 ,1,^ cause-of Intkrnal Improvement and 

mcnt, in refer^ce to Mr. Clay? Hisj d„„kstic Mamfactlrf.s. Nor is it at all 

case is precisely the same as tlie one Lingular, in a cause so desperate, sustain- 

supi)Or-od. He voted agreeably to the ed liy men so unpiiucipled, and requiring 

instructions of his district: and if l)ound j the aid of ;:n argument so indispensable 

to disregard this, and vote according to 1 to its success, that so base an attempt 

the alleged wisjies of the state, onthe ' should be resorted to and prosecuted with 

same principle the ten Jackson electors *"'■'> '"'tiring zeal, and such unblushing 

would have been bound to vote for Mr. 'mp"dence. 

Adams. In homciv phrase, we cannot , No man of commt^n penetration, can 

make flesh of one atld ti^h of another, ''^^"■'''*' '» "'°">^"' '° believe, that in the 



If il would be right for the ten electors 
to follow. the instructions of those who 
elected t/iem, and vote for Gen. Jack- 
son, it was equally right for Mr. Clay 
to vote agreeably to the wishes of those 
•who had elected him. They had each 
a single vote to give, and so had he. — 
Botli referred to the same subject, and 
should be governed by the same prin- 
ciples. 

In the above remarks I say nothing 
cither for or against the right of in- 
struction. I have, in a concise man- 
ner, di-^cussi'd till' subject as it was pre- 
sented to me, — that is, whether Mr. 
riav fli'l or ilifl not oliev the will of his 



states North of the Ohio and Potomac, 
the knoirn hostility of any Fiefiilential 
candidate to the policy of a Tariff Svs 
TF.M, with the express view to the pro- 
tection ol l)oMr.3iic Indcstrv, would, 
to a moral certainty, deprive such can- 
didate of every electoral vote which it 
belonged to those states to give. What, 
but his being the acknowledged tile le.nd- 
er — the able and indefatigable champion 
of the cause of Internal lni(irovement. 
gave to Mr. Calhoun that towering puliiical 
coiiseijuence in the >latP of Pennsylvania, 
wliicli, had she been decidedly seconded 
by any other state as powerlid as herself, 
woiih', four years ago. have | r .-red him 
upon (lie Union as the most proniir.ent 



ind the most deserving candidate fir (he 
constituents. 1 think I have placed presidency? And what, but the deep 
the matter upon its true grounds. Un- rooted conviction of Gen. Jackson's en 
less we (online (he power to instruct, (ire and derided fiiendlincss (o the .Anfri 
<• <he c/w/n'c/ of the l\cpre»entative, it ■ CAN Svstf.m, ftdmils of the strong hold 



A FRAUD EXPOSED. 



115 



which henow possesses in thai hoc! olher| 
Northern states, in rehition to his preten- 
sions to the Presidenr,)'? Is it tlien ii 
m^itter of surprise th:it the ulmust ellorts 
shouUl he exerteil to give the impression 
to the people of those stales, tliat Gen. 
Jackson is fiicnclly to that system? It 
eertaiuly is not; but such elVorls prop- 
erly belong to lh-\l system of electioneer- 
ing, which hMl/alseiiu id to I its beginning, 
falshuod for its career up to tlic present 
time, anil will have fahchood to crown 
the final termination of its labours, in dis- 
aster, degradation and defeat. 

But, vhilst the friends of Gen. Jack 
son in the Northern stales, are urging his 
pretensions there, by the strongest and 
most decisive references to his alleged at 
tachment to the American Svstf.m, his 
i'riends in the Southern Stales are almosi 
treasonably violent in their denunciations 
of that system, and urge the elevation 
of Jackson to tiie Presidency with his 
KNOWN HOSTILITY to it, as the only pres- 
ent means by which its purposes can be 
defeated, and the system itself destroyed. 

That there is a lie— a most base and 
abominable lie,— an imposition— a most 
o-ross and monstrous imposition, either in 
the NORTH or in the sotTii, in relation to 
Gen. Jackson's sentiments on this subject, 
no man of common reading and intelli 
■'ence can for a moment doubt. And 
whether the North or the South is to be 
made the dupe by which this impious lie 
shall send Geo. Jackson to the Pre.'ide'icy. 
can make no dilTerence, as the crirnin..lil} 
in eithir case must be equally the same. 
There would, however, seem but little 
dilficuity in delerniiniog that the jiour 
North is to be made the victim upon 
whose vitals this miserable dupery shall 
feed. Forilisa b'AC'l', home out by the 
clearest moral proof, that GKN JACK 
SON IS HOSTILE TOTIIEA.MEKICAN 
SV'STE.\l;and it is laid down as a propo- 
sition, equally su.sceptible of demonstra- 
tion, that Gen. Jackson is the wire man by 
which the politicians of the South, per- 
pose to accomplish its destruction. In 
reference to these points, the following 
SQcgestions arc submitted to the solemn 
detiberalion of a cantlid people. 

ll is universally understood and fdt by 
politicians in all the sections of the Union, 
that at the present day, the only rea. sub- 
stantial line of party distinction, is that 
between friendliness and hostility to leg- 
islative protection of Domestic Industry, 
and to the appropriation of national funds 
to purposes of Internal Improvement. It 



is equally well understood, that this line 
rests for the mo t part, upon a. geographi- 
cal, rather than an abstract basis: — that 
it is indebted for its existence nr.re, by 
far, to the suggestions of local interest, 
than to independent, national, and philo- 
sophical views of the real merits ol the 
controversy which it represents. In a 
word, it cannot be concealed, that the 
real ■' bone of contention"' is lietween a 
Northern and a S^u hern policy — between 
the peculiar views of the manufactniing 
and the non-manufacturing stales, respec- 
tively. 

In this great contest which has been 
carried on lor some years past, between 
the manufacturing and the non manufac- 
turing Kepre-entatives, on the Hoor of 
Congress, the superior strength of the 
(brmer has given a decided and ef- 
ficient predominance to the Nortliern or 
inanufucturing jiolicy; and S) complete- 
ly has that policy become identified with 
the essential administration ot'the Gener- 
al Governnient, that no hostile effort, 
however powerlul, operating rhroiigh ordi- 
nary tneans, can be rationally siipjio.-ed 
capable, of destroying or radically chang- 
ing it. Soutliein politician-- cannot fail to 
be aware of this. Oidinary modes of at- 
tack, therefore, u()on the established sys- 
tem, may be considered in effect, aban- 
doned in despair. But the inveterate 
purpose itseif of destroying that system, 
or of so embariassing its healthful opera- 
tions as to render it nugat'iy in its ef- 
tects, is not abandoned, nor will it be, as 
long as there remains an crpeditnt, how- 
ever extraordinary, daring, or indirect, 
that can alfird a solitary hope of a suc- 
cessiul iiitluence to accomplish it »• 

The first grand expedient, which has 

suggested ilsnlf to Soutbein policy, (and 

it is certainly one of no tiilling import) is 

a change in the party character of the 

Executive department ofthe Government, 

I by which they would substitute an Anti- 

'Pariff, for a Tariff President. The 

success of this expedient, although, to be 

sure, itivould be but one step towards the 

accomplishment of their linal object, 

' would certainly impart a moral power to 

j their hostility , which, by the skilful ap- 

! plication of ingenious subsidiary means, 

i would present to them a favourable iiro- 

I mise ofthe ultimate triumph of their pur- 

I pose. > 

I With the views thus suggested, we will 

I suppose the Southern politicians lookino- 

! around them for a Presidential Candidate. 

I Id making up their minds to the selection, 



lie 



A FHACD EXPOSED. 



werp tliev inlloedi-ed l>y no oth'-r ooii^i'le- 
rationslhan those ol tituessialhe iudividu- 
al. their holle^l preleieiice woulu doubllerfc 
fall ii|>on aorae entKietil citi/eii, tlistin 
gui^be'l lor exalte>i ahiliies riiiil long tiled 
services as a Statesman autl Civilian — a 
citizen, who, hni lor the single excepuon 
ot lii:j hostility to the Do.iieslic Svsleni. 
woui'l pjoperly unite the actUaiaUoiis ol 



•tcgrees belotv tluir standard of luiellectu* 
ul ajAUCialion. 

It ia, then, solemnly contended. that up- 
on every princi|.le of vatiniial in\Pf liga- 
tion, inde^iendent of the pOMiive innofs 
we have ol Gon. Jacks'in's- cqnivocaiiont 
jii the rarilT.-iibjecl. the iuiereuce of his 
iioa|ili(y lo the protecting system, diawn 



ihe whole union in his favour. Bui ihe i limi, die political chaiarter ol the le.iding 
most common obseivation must admouijli i -ii. ( •; ii.d men that unile in his support, 
them, that the same Northern strength i hiy conclusi* e For. when we 

ivhich for ye:irs bad suifes>l'iilly resisteil iie vast dissimilarities of mind, 

their attacks upon the Di'mestic System. ; iMi^.iif.-fiire and ta>te, already alluded to 
liy its Uepresentatives on the floor of Con- I between Gen Jackson and lie men » Ln 
gress, would, ai^aiii^t such a candidate. ; frm the phalanx of bis stiengtii on the 
meet tiiem iu the tield of the Presitieiitial 1 lioor ofCongri ss; when we consider the 
canva>s, and ta successfully achieve a ; univeisalty recognized IV. t ol" his entire 
conquest there. A candidate ot such a ' "ant of iMaim to pi.-emiiienl. oi even or- 
characler, would therefore, not subserve Idinary distinction, on the score ot inipor- 



iheir purpose 'I'liey must then tind one, 
who, to the same deteruiined oj. position 
to the Douit'stic J>ysttm, which they 
themselves maintain, unites the advan- 
tage of its cooceiiment from that portion 



tant Civil services !■ iidered to the slate; 
wi.en we copsider, that but tor the magic 
iiilluence of iiiilitaiy achi< vment. eniola- 
ironing his name in all the empty, but im- 
posing glories of chivalry, he would not 



of the people with whom that opposition ' iiave been known beyond the limits of 
would l>e regarded as an iiiyuperable ob- ; his own .-■;ate. nor cventheie hut as a very 



jectiou. — and one, in the gener.il estimate 
of whose pretensions a.iy paiyahle dfti- 
ciency oi <(uali^ications for tlie oliice. is 



oidiuary citizen; and when in connectiou 
with all (his, ne recollect that tne wis- 
dom, ihe intelligence, the profound and 



supplieil bv some peculiar and iinposinsr | peoetialing gfoius and civil abilities of 
([uaiilv of character, which, in its intlnence 1 the ablest of his supporters, must secretly 
to enlist the passions, assures a truce lo the ' unite in the lienuuciaiion of hi? claims, a* 
exercise of reason, and is thus made to I lomided upon thoseabstract considerations 
extort iVom the hone-'t conlidence of the I of fitness wliich every one acquainted h ith 
people, those suflVages. which a wary and the subject, must giant io be. at least 
jealous investigation, and a perfect knowl ■ theoretically, indispensable to the charac- 
edge ol' the subject would ucver sailer j ler of the executive head of our govero- 
thcin voluntarily to bestow. ment; I sa_\^ when we consider, or recol- 

lect all these things, it is impossible to 
Sucli a candidate, has fortune, inone of escape the conviction, that some other 
her blindest and most capricious moods. | powriful motive than that of mere refer- 
llir 'Wn across their path, in the person of ' ence lo the Illness of the individual, influ- 
GliN. ANDHLW J.ACKSO.N; a man ] encts the politicians of Ihe South, to the 
between whom. and themselves, there ex- ! support of Gen, Jackson for the Fresiden- 
isls no similaritv ot character, except in icy. And tvliat other motivecan there be 



the inveteiate biiterness with which they 
can proieoule a purpose, and in Ihe in 
dilleience with which they can bend Ihtir 
consciences in tlie choice of means for its 
acrc^mplislirnent : a mm between whom, 
and the iMcDulhes, Ihe liamiUons, the 
Ilavne.s and the Kandolphs, of the South. 



than that which idenlitie" Ihe elev.ilion 
of a particular man h ilh the trinmpii of a 
particular systeni? Ves, it is a tearful 
Irnth.and cinnoi be too boldly urged, nor 
too altcntivf ly considered, that the efforts 
lo establish the Anii Domestic or Foreign 
Svslem. in the ordinary mode ot Icsisla- 



^siinilarily of education has established no | rtoii, having worn out all the weapons of 



common sytn;)albies, and similarity of 
piiisiiit no common interests; a m.in in 
tine, who, but for his acciilenl,il lilncss to 
pla> liie Part of a pliant tool lo carry a 
great political purpose, would be very 
justly .!iscard(<il iVoui Ihe fainiliar inter 



parlian>enlary discussion, have driven its 
supporters to a liiial and desperate expe- 
dient of manufacturing a weapon of 
another and faclitiocs sort, without refer- 
ence to iis conipalihilily with the exist- 
ence of civil libcrlv. or lo its litncss to 



Qourse of those men, &3 being very many 'answer any other purpose but that great 



A FKAliD EXPOSED.— eCNEKA-Ii JACKSON'S 



m 



»da 



ulleriour one, at which all their effort.- 
aim. 

Such, then, is the man, such the candi- 
date, who, although but ?ix j/ears ago, the 
very mention of his name in roniicction 
witii the Presidency, t^avoured much of 
the ridiculous, is now selected by Soutlien. 
politicians, as the great engine by which 
they propofc to prostrate the manufactur- 
in"- eneru'ies of the Noith, and to punish 
tiie presumption, which, for the last ten 
years, has ^iiensuchan impulse to the 
INDUSTRY of the country, as that millions 
and tens of millions would not balance 
the account of blessings which its auspi- 
cious influences has showered upon our 
land . 

if the views hastily presenteil in this 
Jiaper, be well fuuiicied.if it be true that a 
host of able and iniluential men, enjoying 
elevatea confidence and distingiiisheil 
honors, are pei verting these powerful ad- 
vantages to the purposes of a grand par- 
ty enler[)rise. wliose maxim is, that -the 
f.nil Justifies the r/nans;" and that that end 
shall be accomplished, though desi.lation 
and ruin shall supervene, then it is time 
foi the American people to awake and 
re-assert the majesty of virtue. The 
KOKTH shall ari.-e from her lethargy, and 
turn upon the enemy that would stab her 
to her ver3' vitals. The south shall re- 
buke with honest indignation, the daring 
insolence that would falsely represent her 
as tfaitress to tb« genius of the Constitu- 
tion; and the whole UNION, struggling 
with the agonies of a poison, which, but 
for the timely discovery of her danger, 
would inevitably have wrought her disso- 
lution, shall exhibit from her deepest 
bosom, throughout all her territory , and 



IS appear to liavo- been equally silent 
But it lias been extensively read .a- 
nioiigst the people. A large edition of 
it, in patnplilet form, has been published 
and distributed. It begins to be prop- 
erly understood: and it will not muck 
longer avail the Jacksonians to de- 
nounce the discussion of this affair a* 
an ui.mauly and dishonorable act. — 
They have done niuch with this im- 
pudent fallacy but the moral sense 
of the community begins to assert its 
proper inlluence, and assign to seduc- 
tion and adultery their appropriate es- 
timation. 

The following communication is from 
a plain, unlettered gentleman, of un- 
questionable character, who is pcricct- 
ly conversant with the facts to which 
tiie interrogatories refer. The public 
may rely upon the correctness of the 
deductions to he drawn from the ques- 
tions put. They show the despicable 
character of Jackson's defence and the 
more despicable character of Overton 
his principal witness. The pretence 
that Mrs. Robards descended the river 
with Col. Starke's family turns out to 
be a journey with a family of slaves, no 
white female being in "company.'" — 
After this, what can the world think of 
the parties concerned in this defence, 
or of those for whom it was made? Let 
any honest man give the answer. 

TO THE EDITORS OF TRUTh's ADVOCATE. 

Jimuarjj, 1828. 
Gentlemen — Your first number hag 



overall her borders, the salutary cemon- just come to hand, and I have to ac- 
strations of a profound and intense alaim. knowledge witii astonishment the error 
The mischief not yet done, the means] into which we were going headlong, in 
'" "^ " placing a man in the chair of state, and 

a female as preceptress to the Ameri- 
can fair of this enlightened age, who 
had lived in violation of the laws of 
God and man, as appears from the 
showing of the Hon. .lohii Overton, 
from the winter of 1790 to .lanuary, 
1794; and that from July, 1 790. to Sep- 
tember, 179.5, this same female was the 
wife of another man (to wit, Lewis 
Robards.) Now, as you arc Truth's 
Advocates, I wish through you to hear 
the whole truth and nothing but the 
truth. And as all the testimony from 
Nasliville has been ex ptirle and inso- 



made use of for its consummation, shall 
then shrink from their unhalloued pur- 
pose, and carrying back their poison 
to the bosoms whence it sprung, shall wit- 
ness io the disgrace and degradation ol 
iheir authors, the majestic triumph of vir- 
tue, and the renovated vigour of the Con- 
slitutiOD. G. 



(;E?fERAT> JACKSON'S 
DOSaC! S VTC IUEI.ii.T'ONS. 

The article upon this subject, in our 
first number, has excited very consid- 
erable attention. The Jacksopians 
iiere very prudently forbore to no- 



rce it. And the administration press-Uicited, of course the cflusions of warm 



\\H 



DOMESTIC REI-AIIONS. 



feelings for a neighbor and friend, I 
•wish you, in your next number, to put 
the following interrogalories to the 
said John Overton, Chairman of the 
7D/iilc-7i:ri.ikitt^ Committee : 

1. What is the distance from Nash- 
ville to Mercer county, Kentucky, the 
respective places of residence of Gen. 
Jackson and Lewis Robards in 1790 to 
1794? 



here, because it serves to illustrate the 
true character of Gen. Jackson. Lnst 
sununer, when the pa!nj)hlet of the 
white washing committee was publish- 
ed, vinditaciifg tiie General ior tiie se- 
duction of Mi's. Robards, and vindica- 
ting also, the open and continued adul- 
tery of the General and his wife, a copy 
of tiiat pamphlet was forwarded from 
Nashville, to the editorof the National 



Do you not know there was much; Jounial at AVashington, upon a blank 



travelling on horseback and intercourse 
between Nashville and Mercer county, 
from 1790 to 1794, along the same road 
or path that you state in your letter to 
Robert C. Foster, of tlie" 3th of May, 
1827, you and Mrs. Itobards (now Mrs. 
Jackson) travelled in the summer of the turpitude of this scene LOOfiKS all its 



leaf of which, there is the subjunied 
note, in the hatid writing of General 
Jackson. 

To Uie Editors of the Wasiniiglon Jnurnal. 
When the midnight ASSASI^iS plunges hi; 
dajger into the heart and RIKKLF.S your goods, 



1790, when she went to see her mother, 
and you to commence the practice of 
the law at Nashville? 

3. Do yon not know and believe that 
Col. Stark had no white female family 

with him in descending the river from ' of the sentence, and the spelling would 
Nashville: and that he was not related all lead to the conclusion that it could 



horrors, when compared >yilh the SECRKTK 
ASSAMN.V FOIGNARO levelled against KE- 
MALcharEcter by the hired miuiuus of (io«er. 

The sentiments expressed in this-, 
morceau, the grammatical con.-lruetion 



to Mrs. Robards; and tliat it would 
have been rash in her to have descend- 
ed the river with Col. Stark and his 
negroes? 

4. Do you not know and believe that 
Starke and Jackson ocrupiMl two boats 
in descending the river; and do vou 
not believe, if Jackson and Mrs. Rob- 
ards had been married at or near Nat- 



iiot have come from Gen. Jackson. — 
The proof, however, is too strong for 
this presumption. No one accjuainted 
with the hand-writing of the General, 
and who has iu\y value for character, 
after seeing the copy, will assert that 
the General did not write it. 

A short time since this note was pub- 
lished in the National Journal. It crc- 



chez. they would long since have pro-,atcd a strong sensation at VVasliington, 



duccd some evidence to sujiport ihei 
own assertions, and that vou would 
have ])tiblished it to the world? 

b. Do you think it possible, that Mr. 
and Mrs. Jackson were ignorant of her 
being Robards' wife from the spring of 
1791 to the winter of 1794, the date, 
you sny,of their lawful marriage, after 
notice of Robards having obtained a 
divorce ? 

All these interrogatories present 
themselves to every impartial reader 
of your letter, and true answers are 



Mr. Senator White, and Mr. Represent- 
ative Polk, of Tennessee, called to see 
it. Mr. AVhitc asserted himself well 
acquainted with the hand-writing of 
the General. But after examining the 
writing, he refused to say whether it 
was or was not in the General's hand- 
writing. -Vnd its authenticity has not 
yet been publicly questioned. Tiiis 
fact leaves no room to doubt, that Mr. 
White considered it as genuine. 

It is thus demonstrated, that General 
Jackson, wiien out of the hands of his 



expected by all friends to the laws of keepers, can neither write nor spe 



God and man; for we are told in Holy 
\\'rit. that when the wicked rule, the 
<^arth mourns. 

\ rr.lEN'D TO TRUTH. 



There has a circumstance been d 
<losed recently, connected with this 
subject, which it is proper to notice 



with any regard to correctness. But 
this proof that he is grossly illiterate, is 
of little I importance when compared 
with other ficts involved in the compo- 
Jtotion of this note. It exhibits Gen. 
is-fjackson in the 'chanicter of an anony- 
mous libeller, distributing libels in 
inanuscript through the post office. 



EXTRACTS FROMlETTEnS TO THE EDITORS OF TRUTHS ADVOCATE. 110 



This is the very lowest grade of slan- 
derers, upon wliom noUiiiig but con- 
tempt and abhorcnce are visited by 
the universal consent of mankind. — 
And in this class Gen. Jackson has ar- 
ranged himself!! ^Vliat wonder tliat 
so many of his adherents follow the 
same course. 

This delectable note gives us a key 
to tiie conduct of those who have the 
General in their keeping. It holds the 
very language, breathes the very sen- 
timents expressed by them all, not cx- 
ceptiiig the indecent falsi'hood, that 
the investigation of the Gcncrars do- 
mestic relations, proceeded from men 
in ••pourr."' '• The hired minions" that 
surround and attend the General, and 
minister daily to his follies and his appe- 
tites, do well to keep him in this state of 
mind. He sliould always be stimulated 
to look out upon others, and siiould 
never be permitted to look in upon 
himself. 



EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS TO THE EDITORS OF 

TRirTII'S ADVOCATE. 

To those who arc labouring dism- 
ferestedly for the benefit of their fellow 
citizens, the best reward, next to the 
consciousness of a faithful discharge ol 
duty, is that of finding their efforts pro- 
perly appreciated and productive of 
good effect. The conductors of this 
work have been stimulated to their 
undertaking, by the dangers that threa- 
ten the dearest interests of our coun- 
try, from the cfTorte. of demagogues 
careless what they sacrifice, so that 
their own private aims are successful; 
and from the indifference with which 
such efforts are viewed by some, and 
the thoughtlessness with which they 
are aided by others. To awaken a 
more general investigation of the poli- 
tical and moral principles, to which the 
election of General Jackson will give 
the. sanction of the people of the Uni- 
ted States, has appeared to them a du- 
tywhich they owe tn their country 



The voice of warning needs not only 
to be raised, but to be repeated and 
re-echoed until it reaches the ears and 
excites tlie attention of every citizen. 
If it be disregarded, we sfiall prove 
ourselves unworthy the blessings wp 
enjoy, find we may rest assured that 
our continuance in the enjoyment of 
them will be brief and transitory. But 
we have better hopes; the cheering 
accounts, which we daily receive, of 
the zeal and co-operation of the en- 
lightened and patriotic in various parts 
of our country, convinces us tliat there 
is amoral influence excited, which will 
dissipate the illusion created i)y a I'alse 
estimate of military glory. 

The assurances of approbation,which 
we have received liom men eminent 
as well for their talents as tiieir pri- 
vate virtues, convinces us, that adulter} 
and violence in private life, and a dis- 
regard of the constitution and laws of 
our country in public, are not such ve- 
nial offences as may be passed over 
without censure.far less, rewarded with 
honours and office. Some of theec as- 
surances we give our readers, believ- 
ing that mutual encouragement among 
those who love their country is all that 
is required to save it from the dangers 
with which it is threatened. 



The following is an extract of a letter 
from a gentleman of Pennsylvania, 
who has long been eminent not only 
for his talents, but for a diligent and 
successful application of them to the 
promotion of the best interests of 
our country, more particularly in its 
agriculture: 

" Mr. Jones, of your city, has for- 
warded to me your first number, with 
your prospectus. I have yet met with 
nothing, arising out of the pending po- 
litical controversy, calculated to be so 
useful. Your association have indeed 
gotten hold of the spear of Ithuriel, 
and know how to wield it. Mr. Ham- . 
mond cannot be too much approbated *• 
, for the article to which he has aftixed 
for in the prevalence of such princi- his name. The prospectus is well 
pies they see the greatest danger to suited to the time and purpose to which 
our institutions, and the most fearful it is directed, and every article is able 
enemy of our republican form of gov- and well calculated to command pub- 
«*mmeiit. lie attention and a perusaJ. I lear» 



i 



120 EXTRACTS FROll LETTERS TO THE EDITORS OP TRUTH'S ADVOCATE, 



from tlic Massachusetts Journal, vour 
first edition is distributed, and a secoiid 
put to press. F hope you may tiird sale 
for as nia'iy editions ol' it as there have 
been o( the Pilgrim's Progress." 

From a Getithmnn in Kenaaay, Va. 
'•The Editors of the United States 
Telegraph, have announced their in- 
tention of issuing from their press, a 
weekly pul)lication, devoted entirelv 
(o ihe sul)jecl of the prcsidotitial elec- 
tion; and so cheap as to ])lace it in 
the power of the party to wcild it with 
elfect, by gratuitous circulation. If I 
have not much mistaken appearances, 
a large number of these have been or- \ 
dcrcd for distribu'ion, among the] 
honest yeomanry of Western Virginia. 
Should thi> l)e tlie case, it will be nc-j 
ccssary rnid proper to take measures to 
cou:iteract tlie whole scheme; and sol 
far as^py humble efforts can be avail- 
ing, I intend they shall not be wanting. 
Jf the Advocate is of the character 1 
have taken it to be, (for I have not! 
seen it) it will be of great use to the 
rause of civil liberty, and the more it 
is circulated the better.*' 



f true spirit of our benign Constitution 
I of gover.smcnt, as if an invadiiig for- 
: eign foe, was about entering tlie bor- 
j ders of our country. It is more preg- 
I nant witii alarm to the sober-mmded pa- 
j triot: a foreign enemy would meet 
j with a prompt repulse li-om the uhitcd 
' exertions of our citizens, « hil.-t the 
.present attempt to sap the fout.dation 
i of our political edifice, by placing it in 
I the care of an individual wliose claims 
are solely bottomed upon military dis- 
tinction, is of so insiduousacharactcr.a- 
to derive aid and support iVom the bes!: 
feelings of our nature, and is calcu- 
lated, before we arc jiware of it, to 
make us the slavish \ ..sj^/s of our svr- 
rp,?</"HV military men. Forbid it heaven! 
I say, and to prevent such a dreadful' 
rc-ult let every good citizen he at hi> 
post, and be engaged in using everi- 
fair and honorable means to avert the 
impending danger." 



From a Gentleman in jXashviUc, Tennessee. 

" Several persons in this place want 
copies of the work. I have read the 
first number, which was sent me, 
through the politeness of Mr. Jarvis 
Kibby, of your place. I 

"I sincerely hope. Sir, tlie friends of | 
the present administration there, and i 
elsewhere, will contribute to give ] 
"Truths Advocate" an extensive cir-1 
culation — jiarticularlv in those states 
^iViendly to the "American System" so 
called, and who espouse the cause of 
the Hero of tn-ozmrs! on the ground! 
(hat he is in favor of the Tariff, for the 
protection of American Manufactures,' 
and Internal Improvements. The fact I 
is. his views and opinions on those iia- ' 
tioi;a! subjects are not w<ll understood, 
nor can he be brought out to express' 
Ihem decidedly, cither for or against. ! 

From a gentleman in Indiana. i 

" I am determined, so far as my fee- 
ble etforts can be exercised, that noth- 
ing shall he omitted to sustain the f^oodf 
t-mmr. I conceive it to be as great a ' 
slrugglc to guard and maintain the 



CORRFOTION. 

Circltville, Feb. 29, I89S. 

Sin, — By mere accident, I saw last 
evening, your second number of a 
political [publication, in which you have 
fallen into a most egregious error. 
Vou say, in sul)stance. Governor Clin- 
ton induced Ethan A. Brown, to come 
to the Jackson field! 

Now the truth is. Governor Brown, 
by the help of Col. Mack, got on the 
fence, and being tlierc as is usual with 
him, he fell into a deep sleep, and final- 
ly, on the morninff of the 3th of Janua- 
ry last, he fell olf, unforlunatelv lor n~. 
into our field! Seveial old federalist - 
instantly took him up. i)rougbt him ii. 
to our Convention, and without aii\ 
autlioritv, made him a delegate anil 
plared him in '.he chair! 

^Vlien placed at the head of on ; 
ticket, he modestly put it to a vot** 
himself! whether" he should be a 
camiidale for an (^lectori!!! 

Respectfully. Uiough not polilicallv. 
yours, tc. 

CALEB ATWATER. 

' Ch.UII.F.S IlAilMOND, Esq. 

P. S. Please Sir, correct vou: 
error. 



ma — i ^T— i^iMBW 



TRUTH'S ADVOCATE 



AND 



MONTHLY ANTI-J iCKSOX EXPOSITOJ?. 



CINCINNATI, OIIIOjAPKIL, 1828. 



JOHN WOODS. 

The military execution of this mili- 
tia man, under the order of General 
Jaclvson, was adverted to in the second 
number of the Expositor. 

The account given by Major Eaton 
was republished, and contrasted with 
a statement of the otfcnce commiltcd 
by Woods, copied from a then recent 
publication in the Kentucky Reporter. 
This exposition has led to various pub- 
lications, which "o to show, in a strong 
]>oint of liglit, tlie desperate charac- 
ters of those who support Gen. Jack- 
son, and the desperate means they cm- 
ploy to sustain their idol. These can- 
not be more fully illustrated than by 
repnblis!)iii<; the dilFercnt statements, 
>vil!i proper explanations. 

The pui)lication in tlio Reporter, 
purported to be written by "A Te.\'- ] 
KESSEEAN," and contained several facts 
ript extracted into the Expositor. These 
related to the personal demeanor of 
Gen. Jackson towards Woods, and 
were of such a character as to appear 
somewliat doubtful in my estimation, 
thoun;h it now appears they were sol- 
emn truths, from the statements which 
shall be here published. Upon the 
appearance of this publication at Nash- 
ville, a certain colonel Joel Parish, 
made the following pui)lication: 

'• Sir — Vour paper of the 30th of Jnn . 
contained a puhhcation, in the sha[>e of a 
letter, aildies^ed to you as Editor, delail- 
jnp; the circumstances which were said to 
have occured in relation to the trial and 
execution of John Woods, a soldier in the 
Creek War, while under the command of 
Gen. Jackson. 

" Being one of tiie members composing- 
the Court-Mart al, which tried and con 
demned the unfortunate Woods at I'ort 
Slrollier, I am compelled to say that the 
whole publication over the signature of 
".4 Tiiinessreaii,"' is false; and I do not be- 
lieve that such as von have given publici- 
ty to, was in realitv ever written by a 
"Teunesseean,'''' but like tbo Ikmous Harris 
/'tier, }■< another shaft ol' iiiif/uiti/ sent 
forth to sully the reputation and fame of 
'he ertat tenefaelor nftln-mtrimii 



"If however. 1 should be mistaken, and 
such a letter as you have published did 
emanate from the state of Tennessee, J 
proniiunce the author of it to be a base 
anil insidious caliimnialor who kntvr 
uhat lie 9t;ited In be falst^.and who>e tread 
pollutes the soil on which he walks. 

JOEL PAUISH. 

About the same time, a person who 
calls himself Samuel H. Miller, a resi- 
dent of Greene County, Ohio, made ;i 
l)ul)lication also, in contradiction of the 
account jjublished in the Expositor, 
which is here inserted. 

"TO A CANDID rUBLIC. 

Perceiving a false statement from the 
Kentucky Reporter, (which has been ex 
traded into the columns of Truth's Advo- 
cate.) in relation to the execution of Jo!:n 
Woods, a militia man I deem it a duly ] 
owe to the public to ijive a (ru? stalemtnl 
of the facts connected with that transac- 
tion. 

The truth is as fdlows: John Woods 
deserted from his post, and started for 
home. On his way he was met by a com- 
pany of men on their march to join tlie 
army. Woods, on seeing Ihetn, hurried 
trim the path, and sought concealment 
in a cane brake, lie uas taken, howev- 
er, and brought bacic to camp, wliere hf 
was tried for desertion, found guilty aiid 
condemned to be shot. Foi' this oflence 
he was P.MIDO.NED by Gen. Jacksorj. 
and on promise of future subordination, lie 
was returned to his duty. In al)out two 
or three weeks al'terwards Woods was a 
ffain placed on cuard. On a certain morn- 
ing he stuck bis bayonet in the ground — 
bung his cartouch box on the butt of hi.s 
gun, and deserted bis post — on pretence 
of going to his tent for breakfast. \h 
passing the lines, be arrived at Majoi' 

's tent, (I fiiget the Major's name.) 

The Major a-'kcd Woods where he wat^ 
jToing. — Woods replied to get his break- 
fast. — The Major advised Woods ver_\ 
^trongly to return to his post — oltserving 
that he would soon be relieved — and o( 
fermg him some corn bread and meat, 
told him tliat i( he did not return to duty, 
he would certainly betaken; but Woods 
persisted in his determination aiul "o"-U 
not returns 



i-tti 



JOU.V WOODS. 



About this time the ofBcer of the da}- 
came up. and h.u-ing heard a part of the 
conversation, turned to the Hue's and en- 
quired who commanded tliat coiopany? 
'I'he Captain an^ivered " I do." The ol- 
riccr of the da}' then tohl him to send a 
guaid, and take John \Vood^ to the Pro- 
vost guard; where lie was tiic I hv a 
Court Martial and a second time linmd 
guilly and condemned to be shot When 
the d.iv arrived for the execulion of the 
eentence of (he Court Martial, Oeneral 
Jackson came to the phice of execulion 
,and delivered a disrnurse tvhich alfected 
fcvery heart, hut iliat of the hardened i 
■Wdods. By this lime di'^alfection pre- 
N'ailc'i amon;^ several of the niilitiameii I 
Woods in padicular was very turbulent.! 
General Jacks- n offered Woods his par- 
don a second lime, on condition ihat he' 
would serve hi- country like a true andi 
f.iilhfwl soldier; but Woods defied the 
General and Court Martial too; and swore; 
with Mil oath tliat tliey dare not execute 
the sentence of tlie Court Martisl. After 
many unavailing' efforts to persuade 
Woods to ciuiforni to suijordinalion, point- 
ing out to him llic consequences result- 
ing to the army (rom sucli conduct, and 
Woods still icmaining siutihorn and irre-' 
claimable — and sweajini; the Court M.ir-| 
tial dare not execute tlieir sentence — the] 
General turned Jiis horse and rode off; 
iind Woods was shot before my oun, and 
the ryes of the whole army. 

SAMUKL li. MILLF.R. 
Green covntij, Ohio, Feb. 21, I8C3. 

The i'cader will recollect that in Ma- 
jor Eaton's account of this transaction 
tlie particulars of Woods" olFc! cc are 
not slated. There was a publication 
111 tde on this subject in Tennessee in 
1S24, viiidiratms; the conduct of Gen. 
Jackson, which is in these words: 

'•With regard to the execution of John 
Woods, mentioned iu the -ame page, we 
Jiave only to remark that he was the se- 
cond soldier tried fo^r mutiny ami cleser 
tion. TitP first was pr.rdoned. and Woods 
roanemned by a regularly organized 
court martial, who did not recommend 
him to mercy. The example was author- 
ized liy the rules and articles of war, and 
was no doubt considereil by the court as 
indispens ible to preserve subordination, 
and indeed the very existence of the ar- 
my, by the suppression of mutiny and de- 
-citinn " 

]\ thus appears. Uiat neither Eaton, 



or Parish, or the writer last quoted, ha* 
ventured to give the facts that consti- 
tuted theoflence for which Woods suf- 
fered death! This omission is AilJ 
proof to my mind, that i-here was notb- 
hig in them of aggravated cliaracier. 

Parish says he was a member of the 
court martial. But he contents him- 
self with the round as~eilioii, that the 
account published by a '• A Te\.\es- 
SEEAx," is "fulif," adding a daub of 
praise to Gen. Jackson, ^' the great ben- 
(Jcilor of the nation," and concluding 
with a tissue of vulgar abuse in the 
true Jacksonian style of argument: ••/ 
pronounce the autlv r to be a base and in- 
sidious calumniator, scho Anar ztluil he 
slated to be fahe, and uhose tread pollutes 
the soil on which he a-n/fe." 

This reckless publication, induced 
the '•TEy.\EssEEAN'"to piocure and pub- 
lish the following documents, which 
the reader is requested to peruse with 
care and attention. 

St.\te ok Tennessee, Bedford Co. 

FeLruary 14, 1828. 
Being called upon to stale what I know 
of ihc crime and circum'lances. which 
led to the execulion of John Woods in ihe 
Creek Nation at Fort Slrother, while the 
Army lay there under the c-mmand of 
General Jackson; I hereby certify, that I 
was a private in tho s.ime company with 
Woods— that I occupied and messed in 
the second tent from him, distant ten or 
fifteen yards— that lateoric morning I was 
reposing in my lent, when my atlentioR 
was arrested by a \iolent and loud alter- 
cati n between some persons, which caus- 
ed me to go out, i^en I immedia'elv dis- 
covered that the dispute was between a 
man by the name of Camp, who I under 
stood belonged to the Quarter Master"? 
<lepartmenl, and Woods. I ihink WooiL« 
was m the act of ri.-ing from the sround 
I or picking up his gun when I (irsl saw 
I them — the oflicer was ordering Woods 
j very peiemplorily to do something, which 
Woods refused (o do. s.iying he was on 
I guard— the other cursed" him severely 
lor leaving his guard wiihoui an otlicer. 
and still commamiing him to do what he 
bad bid him— Woods also swore, and 
started to go lo his guard, statins; that he 
had obtained leave of his officer lor his 
absence. At this time the othcer appear- 
ed in a great passion and snatched up a 
gun that stood in the mouth of a tent .•\n<' 



JOHN WOODS. 



12» 



onlered Woods to surrender— Woods stdl 
refused, and exiimined Ins gun to see it il 
u;is primed, ot primed It Mliesli, I urn not 
certain whirh Tlie ollirer commanded 
those who were standintr around to assist 
in t=tkin<j hiai prisoner— but no person 
helped biin. Woods also swore that it 
(he officer or any other person attempted 
to lake him, he would shoot them, and 
then walked towards his guard tire. Af- 
ter he had started some distance. Gener- 
al Jackson came nut of his tent and hal- 
looed several times, shoot the damned 
rascal! The foregoing is the substance 
of what 1 know of my own knowledge — 
but I also heard, and it was a common 
talk in camp, that General Jackson had 
cautioned the Court Martial about findins 
him guilty, ^wearing by the Eternal God. 
if they did he would nut pardon him - 
Woods was found guilty and executed for 
the above crime as I understood; and if 
there was any other charge I do not re- 
collect to have heard it— 1 also believe the 
'General was petitioned by a number of 
persons to pardon Woods, among whom I 
understood were most if not all the mem- 
bers of the Court Mirtial— Doctor Fore 
from this county handed the petition a 
bout, and I think i sii,'ned it as one. wno 
aNo informed me that all the Court Mar- 
tial had signed it except one. — And I fur 
ther understood that a pardon was offered 
him if he would enlist in the regular ser 
vice; this was told me by Capt. William 
Walker of the regular service fiom East 
Tennessee. 

THOMAS COUCH, 



Bedford County, Tenn., Feb. 14, 1820. 

I have seen and examined the above 
str.teinent made by Thomas Couch — and 
being requested to sav what 1 know o( 
the m-Uter, have to state, that I belonged 
to the same company and messed wiih 
Couch — that 1 was standing present and 
near Woods who was eating his break- 
last in a skillet by himself, he having ju-^t 
come from his guard-lire, when an ollicer 
came along and onlered Woons to carrv 
.;ir some bones that were lying about 
there, when the altercation took place, 
wliich I believe is correctly detailed in 
the certificate of Mr Couch And as to 
the balance of what Mr. Couch says, I was 
under the same impression that he was. as 
It was the common talk in ramp, except 
that I do not recollect hearing Generai 
.Tarkson swear shoot the damn'd rascal — 
but I heard General Jackson myself sav. 
■hat if the Court Martial found Woods 



guilty he would not pardon him — but af- 
terwards gave him an opportunity of en- 
Ustinc: 111 the legular service to save Ills 
life, and this i also heard fn'tn Captain 
Walker of the regulars— .\nd I further 
say that I always blamed the Court Mar- 
tial more than f did C.cu. Jackson. 

ROBEilT FERGUSON. 



Slate of Tennessee, Bedford County, 
Fkcruarv IG, 1828. 
Being requested to state what J rcmem- 
bf:i of the circumstances attending the ar- 
rest and execution of Jidin Woods, a sol- 
dier under Gen. Jacks nat Fort Strolber, 
do hereby certify that the morning of the 
ar-est, Woods and myself were both on 
guard, and in my presence Woods re- 
quested Lirnt. Barret (who was the offi- 
cer of the gu:;r:l)to permit him to go to 
his tent and eat his breakfast, and get his 
blanket, as it was raining; the Lieut, told 
him he might go. a-; 'bf le was a Corporal 
ijust starting. Woods went, but had not 
lieen gone Jong belore 1 heard a consider- 
aljle noise near about the place where 
Woods messed, and turning my attention 
that way 1 saw Woods coming towards us 
and a Major Camp following him. 1 heard 
Camp demand his gun, but Woods wuld 
not give it up, and I thii.k had his hand 
upon the cock Camp called upon some 
person towards the fort, and told him to 
tell Gen. Jackson that there was a soldier 
who would not be taken prisoner. Gen. 
Jackson came out of the fort and hallooed 
out, '• Hy the eternal God blow ten lial's 
through the damned rascal'." When 
Woods came near the guard tire. Lieu!. 
Rarret and myse f pcisnaded Woods to 
give up his gun and surreno'er. Woods 
did so. and myself and another soldier 
were ordered to guard b.im to the I'oil; we 
did so. and were ihen oidered to take him 
into the blacksmith shop. While we 
were on this inarch the other soldier, wlio 
was a .Mr. Rainey, had a musket with 
bayonet fixed. Woods did not appear 
willing to walk fast, when M.ajor Camp, 
who was along, caiisht hold of the muz- 
7.\e of Rainey's gun and pushed the bay- 
onet a£aiiist Woods' back; Rainey pulled 
back the gun to kec[i the bayonet from 
-tickinsr in Shortly al'terwards a guard 
from the regulars came and took him ia 
custody. I Ictt camp the morning the. 
Court Martial was called for the trial, 
anrl before I started I hraid it repeated 
earnestly in camp, that Jackson had can 
tioned the Court Martial about rendering 



1^4 



JOH.\ WOODS. 



their venlict. for it they found him guilty | ly 1 (lid so. and requested that his trial 
he would not pardon him 



SA.MLEL UANNA. 



, should he brought on soon, as « e were as- 
I desirous, as be was h mere youth, thai he 



'■ miifht be placed among his friends again, 
! and if there waf to be any punishment, let 
', him receive it and return to duly. The 



State of Tinnetsee, Franklin Counlt/, 

Fkbklaky Io, 1828. 
I'.eing requested to state what I kn<^'.v Gen replied that the case was a serious 
of the circunislances attending the trial one, but he could have the r.ppoituciity of 
and execution of John Woods at Fort enlisting. I returned and consulted wilh 
Strollier, during the late war ill Ihe Creek , bis friends about it; and ti.ey all opposed 
Natiou. hereby certify that John Woods ' (he idea very strongly. .Afler some fur- 
joined (he army at Fayelteville, about the tlier delay I heard purl of a conversation 
';;2(i Jan., 1814, a^ a substitute in place ! between Gen. Jackson and an ollicer. who 
of Will: Roger, who was a volunteer; and j | believe was a Captain of the Hanger.', 
continued from that time until be was ar- (Capt Hannard.) iu whiih convereatioii 
re-ti'd lo mess willi me in the same tent. | ibe (Jen. told him ihil he must be in or- 
Woods was about eighteen years ol I at der on a certain day to set on the Court 
this time, and whs the youngest child of .Mailial of a felluw who had mutinied, and 
his aged parents, who were then, and bad ' who he expected would have lo be shot, 
been tor some time, living near neighbors The ollicer appeared very reluctant lo 
tome. I have seen an I examined the! act; neilher did he sit on the trial. Fiom 
oeililicates of Thomas Cnuch and Hoberl | hearing tins conversation I became very 
Fer^ruson relative lo this same mailer. I ' uneasy, and got leave of the oflicer of his 
was not present at ihe di-piite which took , guard to carry Woods his victuals, which 
place between .Major Camp and Woods, was generally cooked in our iiiessv while 
but immediately afterwards heard the ; ivilli Wo.ifls I persuaiied him to enlist as 1 
circumstances detailed by various persons \ was fearful of the event Irom what I had 
in Ihe same manner as stated by .Mr. j heard; the prisoner appeared to acqui- 
Couch and Mr. Ferguson. .At the time I esce and I left him; but when 1 told liis 
of Ihe quarrel I was in the f-'rt near the ] other friends what I had done. Ihey op- 
lent "f Gen. Jackson, and was present ' posed it violeutly, stating that Jackson 
when a runner came from M<j. Camp to I knew that he could not be hurt for what 
inform the Gen. that a man had mutinied: I he had done, and only wanted to scare 
the General imme<Ji,itrly rushed out ofthe I him to enlist, and gratify their spiti: in 
fort and I followed him; when out, he i that way. — From this time until his trial 
conmenced cursing and swearing, and ! took place nolhing particular transpired, 
'askeil which was the man; anil Woods ' and our greatest uneasiness was at his 
w.is pointed out to him, who was then long continement. I think it was on the 
Avalking in a' strait direction to his guard 12th day of March that I heard his trial 
lire ; Jackson still continued cursing and , was |)rogressing: i went to the spot, but 
repeatedly, and in a great rage, reitera- was not permitted to enter within the 
ted, shoot the damned rascal! shoot the . lines of the guard; the Court Martial was 
damned rascal!! Woods by this time was i in session between two tents, and Woods 
ap[)ri)aching near to his guard lire, when j was seated eight or len steps off on f^ome 
Jackson commanded the guard, still in a \ logs, without any friend or adviser or 
great rage, to blow ten balls through the 1 counsel to defend him. Col. John Wil- 
dainncd rascal! As soon as Woods ap- 1 liams of East Tennessee was acting as I 
prnacbcd the guard he gave up his eun I understood, as Judge Advocate against 
iiod -urrcndereil himself pri-oner. The \ him. as he was making a speech and rea- 
pener.il also bemeaned and nbiised the j iling passages from booivS; and I think 
officer of the guard tor not obeying his i Lieutenants Fariish, Davis and Ensign 
orders. Woods was immedi.itely put in ' Hall were the Court Martial; if there 
iron;, and conveyed li>. ami kfpt under were any witnesses called lo testily in his 
gii ird III the 30th licgiment, but was nnl , behalf I do not know it. neither ilo I he- 
ki-pt long ironed as I iinder-loi>d. .\fter , lieve il; after looking on awhile my heart 
some days the fnonds of Woods, among yearned for what I then considered was 
whom was his brolhcr. became uneasy at the jierilous silualinn of the boy, and I 
his delenlion in conlinemenl, but withoul turned away and left the place, and he;iid 
any apprehension of Ibc sad catastrophe nothing more of his fite. until next d.iy 
which WIS to follmv. j was requested to from ten to twelve o'clock, it was read in 
speak lo Geueral Jaciison, and according- general orders that Woods was lo be shoi 



JOHN WOOUS. 



ISA 



at 12 o'clock next (lay (14th.) Soon after | hood, did not know that they were 

»his I received inieiliijence thai Woods j ihfm.<elves falsifiers? 
wished mc lo go and stay wilh him, uutil The statement of Miller, the Green 
he left the world: but before 1 went, in county witness, is nailed on high, as one 
conjunction with Doctor Fore and other?, j of iiif^j^ojt profligate falsehoods, tliat 
I handed about a petition for a Portion i (action ever attempted to use, in an 
which was signed as I thnu<;ht and be- 1 j|^j^j,j„,,j^j ^^,^„^„„ij^._ He slai ds con- 
licved by most ol the othcers ol the army , ^.j^.^^j ^^ ^,^^ atrocitV of calumniating 
«na I understood also by parte the Court ;^j^^ j^,^^,^ ^^^^ J^^^ ,^^ never rc- 

Marfal; I was present -J"" ' '«; « ^ '- ' ,,!,,,} i„j„ ,o flatter the living, from 
tions were handed to the Oeneral. out i • -^ i i . i ;■ i 

whether they were handed by myself or ! ^\>">m, I'e no douht, hopes lor reward, 
some other person I do not recollect. Af- 1 io me he is unknown, ai.d wiih uch 
ler some general conversation on the sub j a wretch I have no wish ever to i.econir. 
ject, I approached the General and told | aciiuailited. His story, that General 
him thai the prisoner had requested me .Jackson came to the place of execu- 
to go and stay with hini until his death, lion and offered Woods a pardon, upon 
This the Gen. did not refuse; but before condition he would promise to conduct 
? started 1 made another ellort to obtain j himself with propiietv,and that Woods 
his paidon I begged the General to take | ^q, only refused lo do "so, hut cursed and 
into consideration hi3 extreme youth and defied 'him, is absolutely in. redihle. 
mexperience, that he had lelt behind him ^^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^,^^ 1,^^^^^.^ ^ ^^_ 

iwo aeei parents who depended upon him .■ a .- ,i i- » . 

. s \ . r . • ,1 1 r • ment s reflection upon the sub eet. can 
tor support and comloit in their dechuing: -i c? u a- u » 

years that such a de^h would c«u.=e,l ^flieve it. Such an offer could not 

have been made by Ocn. Jackson, 
without great impropriety; and n» 



them great sorrow and distress. The 

Genera! replied that be was sorry for his _ ... 

jjiirents. that there had been several ca-l man under sentence of death, could ex 
ses t>efore approaching to mutiny in the 
camps, that there was need ot an exam- 
ple, and said he by the Kternal God he 
must be the example, or he must die. 1 



pect pardon, upon otijer terms. The 
wickedness that could invent such a 
falsehood, and the folly that could give 
it currency, are lamentable evidci^es 



lelt him and went to the prisoner, w here i of the blindness of party zeal, and of 

1 staid until the guard came to take him j the intemperance of party passion. 

to his death. jj seems to me, that upon the certifi- 

wi!l further remark that at the request ^^^^ f,.^^^ Tenicssee, there can re- 
ot the prisoner, 1 wrote down a stalenient > i i . xi ^ n- i 

of his feelings, and his last farewell to h„ I mam no doubt, that Woods was a mere 
Father and .Mother, and sent them in a I you^'' of about eighteen years of age. 
letter to my wife, which was done m I "ho had been m service only about six 
rhyme and the public are at liberty to j weeks, when the alleged offence was 
see it. committed. Mr. Brock states, he was 

On the news of the death of her son, i mustered about the 2-.'d of .lanuarj. 
old Mrs. Woods (as I have been inlbrmed ! 1814, and he was executed on the 14th 
by my wit'e) fainted and appeared like i of March following. As some days 
dying all night, of this 1 feel certain that j intervened between the commission of 
she never recovered the shock, and in a the offence, and the time, it is evident 
few years laid her grey hairs with sorrow j]^p could not have been more than 
in the grave. PDnrir 1 about six weeks in service, aid daring 

GLUKGL A. bKOCK. j,^;^ short period there is no allegation 



The documents presenting both sides 
of the question, so far as any have been 
published, are here placed fully and 



of misbehaviour, on his pari, ( xcept in 
the case for which he siiff'red. AVhen 
I say there is no allegation of this na- 



fairly before the reader, without omit- ture, 1 lay the statement of Miller out 
ting any part of them. Every candid l.of the case, as wholly endeserving' of 
man is asked, to say for himself, whcth- 1 the slightest credit, for the reasons that 
er he does not believe that the Tennes- | have been already stated. Let us then 
SEE,*N gave a true account of the case | look at (he character of ^Voods, the 
of Woods? and whether those who ■ nature of his offence, the co;uliict of 
have attempted to brand him with fahe- ' the commanding General toward; hiiT; 



nc 



JOU.\ WOODS. 



and the cruel punishment inflicted up- 1 concerned, must have penaded the 
on him, and ask ourselves, honcsth, if | minds of all independent men. The 
there could well be a more wanton and |ljrst nii^tit operate upon the worthless 
barbarous execu ion perpetrated u..dcr coward: nothing but indignation and 
the forms of law? dciiance could enter the minds of the 

Major Eaton admits that the exccu- brave. h>ucli were, in fact, the conse- 
tion of Woods produced "great excite- \ quenccs, as stated bv Major Eaton him- 
wen<." He adds, it produced ** /Ac j self, in direct contradiction to his own 
■most salutary effects.''' Tne first allcga- 1 assertion, that ^ tlie cxeailion was pro- 
tion is true — 1 sliali show bye and bye, 1 iluctive of the. happiest effects.''' 
that tiic second IS not — Why did the | This assertion is to bdjlund on page 
execution of Woods produce "t''«o'f*x- 152, of Major Eato:r> botjk, and the 
cilanenlf'' Tliis is not usually produc- time relates to about the middle of 
ed in an army, ny the execution of one, March, 1811. Oidy two pases furliicr, 
who has committed a military of- on page 1.04, we are informed . that 
fence deserving death. The admis-1" every thing was moving in opposition 
sion of Major Eaton, [iroves conciu- to his [the Gcnerars] wishes. The 
sively t!iat tiiere was something uncom- east Tennessee brigade, under the 
mon and extraordinary in the case of command of Doherty, having been ic- 
Woods. And who that reads the facts, structed to halt, nnlil adcfjuatc supplies 
can say, there is not? should be received at head quarters. 

The ^•sacrifice," Major Eaton say <, ^ had ahead j manifested ?,i(7)i_y si^mploms 
was " essential to the preservation cf good of revolt, and rras ztilh diffuvtiy restrain- 
ori/cr.'^ The General said '■'■there was cd from abandoning the field, and rc- 
necd of an example.''^ W oods was made ' turning imnicuiatrly home.'' And again, 
this ^•sacrifice,"' this '' rxa/n/j/f." And upon the same page it is asserted, ~on 
Woods was a youth, almost a child, the morning that General Dohcrty was 
He was executed for the first otlencc; about to proceed to iicad quarters, he 
an olTcncc committed in camp, upon was astonished to hear the drums beat- 
sudden excitement, and under great i ing up for volunteers to abandon his 
provocation from an insolent sulialtcrn ramp and return hohie. J\'''jt:i'ith':tnnding 
superior. Surely there could be noth- 1 all his cforts to prevent this injurioiix 
ing salutary in such an example ! Com- 1 m/^nsurr, one hundred awl eighty deserlcl.'''' 
misscration and indignation were ncces-j Major Eaton's book is miserably de- 
-arily the predominant sentiments. — | fective in many particulars. tVith 
ilence the -'^reaf exaVf men/" spoken of j respect to dates, it is so remarkably 
by Major Eaton. I contused, that one may well doubt 

The conduct of the General, too, whcdier this confusion does not pro- 
was calculated to etlect any tiling; cecd from design rather than from any 
rather than a salutary example. He ; other cause. We have days in abun- 
acted like a savage partizan, — '■•SAi)9/! dance, but it i* oltcn impossible to find 
the damned rascal .' shoot the rfwrnncry ' by any reference to the preceding nar- 
rascal! put ten balls through the damned h'ni'ive, in what month tiie davs arc 
ras.'alP^ Three witnesses certify that i noted. It is so in this case. Tiie exc- 
the General used tlii^ language. — ! cution of Woods is placed '■'■ ahoiU the 
W'itntsses who live in Tennessee, and j »ii'/'//<'o/"/A'' ni>»//i."' What mouth wo 
cxpt>se themselves to all the vengeance' seek for in vain, in the !\Iajor"s book, 
of the General and his partizans. We It is connected, however, with the ad- 
cannot suppose that they would thus vance of Lhe troops under General 
expose lhem=elvcs, unless t'.iey felt all Doherty. The disposition to revolt, 
the consciousness of asserting truth, and the actual desertion of one hun- 
tliat makes an honest man rosjardh'ss of drcd .ind eiglitv are related as or- 
conser|tionces. What salutary exam- curringin Gen. Doherty 's command, as 
pie could be effected bv the execution' subsequent to the execution of Woods, 
of Woods? None other than that of; and prior to the battle of the Horse- 
fear and horror. If the first wa* ex I shoe, which was fought on the C^7th of 
ecutcd, .so a deep abhorrence oftiiose' Mircli, 181 I. Now let these ficts be 



JOHN WOODS.— SIX MILITIA MI.N. 



1 31 



connected, and we sce,at a £;lance,with I effect it. I trust there is a spirit, in the 

uhal easv nonchalance Major Eaton country, th:it will rise superior to thc^^e 



(Forts of falsehood and domination, 
and (hat, standing t'ortii ill t!ie majesty 
of truth, will, coTisign liie perpetrator 
oftlie wrong. ai:d his syco[)iiantic min- 
ions to the toritempt and ncjjlect tliey 
all deserve, verifying the maxim 
''that truth is mighlij cmd shall pmail.'' 



asserts the thing that is not. Wood 
was shot on tlic 1-Uh of Man h, lull. 
The Major tells us — "rkceicaUion u-tts 
productive uf the happiest rjfixts: order 
WAS PRODUCED, and tfiat opinion which 
had so lottg prevailed, that a jnililia man 
■u-as privileged, and for no offence liable 
to suffer death, icas from that moment 
td)andoncd and^ stricter obedience than 

HAD BEEN practised AFTERWARDS, 

tharacterised the army."' Two pages 
•• aftcni-ards" in the book, and between 
the 14th and 27th of tlic same month, 

we are intbrmod tiiat tlie east Tennes- jthc six" militia men, executed at 
<ee brigade >'ma«//c*/t'r/ 7«f/»_i/ «^"m^/om.s ' Mobile, in Feb. 1815, under orders 
iif revolt" — that "one hundred niul eighty \ from Gen. Jackson.art'. familiar to every 
deserted." And on page l.'>5, we are ^ political reader. Mucli has been said 
told that '•'instructions Inj Major Gen. and much written and pu!)lished cov.- 



SIX JiiLiTiA :.ii:.\. 

The general outlines of tlie case of 



Coc/ce, had been given, than in t)w. event 
any number of the troops should be marched 
back, he icould take upon himself to dis- 
charge them from all responsibility, on 
l-hcir return to Kaosville. 

All these acts ofinsubordination, and 
of actual desertion appear to have taken 
place immediately after the execution 
of.Iohn Woods. Yet Major Eaton has 
the assurance to allege that "the cxe- 



cerning it. There has been some con- 
fusion as to the true state of facts, anu 
some attempts on botii sides, to disguise 
if not misrepreseiit them. The docu- 
ments recently laid before Congress, 
connected with other facts embodied 
in history, enable every candid and fair 
man to take a full view of the whole 
ground. This view 1 have tjiken care- 
fully and attentively, with the fixed de- 



cution was productive of the ha[)piesl termination to' inibrni mvself rightly 
elTects." Surely never man wrote ' and make up a judgment, upon which 
biography with »uth ardent zeal to ex- 1 1 would be w iliing to rest my character 
alt his hero's reputation, and with so ' as alawy^jr, stkI a man of integrity. ;J 
little regard to his own. never have deliberately and linow- 

The facts I have collated, and the ingly attempted to pass any deception 
reflections I have made,' in my opinion, upon the public: and, in a case of such 
clearly demonstrate that the execution i high importance as this. 1 should deem 
of Woods, however it might be str-ctly j it highly criminal to make such, an at- 
legal, was a most cold i)looded and bar- \ tempt. My present purpose is to prc- 
barous aj^ It was not calculated to ; sent the whole subject, in the light in 
be u-efui%i an example, and it had no which it is impressed upon my 



such effect. It was a wanton sacrifice 
of life, in a case where every feeling 
of the human heart, every sentiment of 



mprcssea upon my ovrn 
mind. This 1 shall do with reference 
to its diffe ent l)earings upon the lecal 
rights of the individuals who suffered. 



the soldier, every motive of a sound and upon the considerations which niafl 
just policy called for mercy instead of i have operated w ith Gen. Jackson to 
severity. It shows how injudicious as j inflict tliat sutJeriiig, ai.d .i[;on the con- 
well as cruel.Gen. Jackson would act, sideration which ought to have induced 



and it plac -s beyond all reasonable 
doubt, his unfitness for the station of 
chief ruler, either in the camp or out 



a diflerent result. 

The mditary committee in Congres-. 
witli all those who support the Gener- 



ofit. The conduct of his vindicators, !ars course else^vhe^e, seem to think 
from Major Eaton to Samuel H. Mil- that if theiegality ofthe sentenceof the 



ler, demonstrates a determination to 
sustain their hero, no matter what sac- 
rifice of truth orofhonoris necessary to 



court martial is made out, they have 
made a complete defence for the Gen- 
eral. I entertain a very ditlerfnt oj)in- 



iM 



SIX MILITIA MEN. 



ion. Ill crises involnnij llic life ofaltained no limitation of the number of 



portunt, but it is not of the highest ira- 1 On the contrarv, it authorized tlie 
jjortancc, espetially to those who are ' President '■'lo mil furth such number of 
empowered to administer tlie Uiw^ltlie mililia of (/te stale or stales most cou- 
without strict regard to their letter. — | vcniait to the place of danger, or scene of 
Tiiis is the province of a commander- j oc/jo/i, as he may judge necessari/J'' 



in-chief, xvho»e duiy it is, as it should 
be always liis primary object,to temper 
justice « ith niL-rcy. Such an otlicer 
may be deeply reprehensible for per- 
mittiiii; the law to take its course. In- 



On the lOlh of April, 1812, Con- 
gress passed another law " to authorize 
a detnchmrnt frtrm the mitilia of the Unit- 
ed States.'" This latter law was of a 
different character entirely from that 



deed he may incur a more severe cen- j of Feb. 1795. It directed the President 

sure for an omission to moderate the u,o reijuire of the Executize <j ihe ,neral 

rigor of the law. in an extraordinary ! .s,a,„ 4. Territories, to taJ:e effectual tnea^ 

ca>;e, where full time was allowed to; ures to organise, arm It- equip acconling 10 

delibera'.e. tiian for the hastv exccu- ' /oti'. ami hoU in readiness to march, at a 

tion of an illegal sentence, under ptcu- 1 mom nts -xarning, ilieir itEsHEiTivK fbo 

liar circumstances. rvH-noM^^of one hundred llwusand militia. 

T"! TM-Vi. r^^ •.4i„ Ciu TJ„. „ , ofRcers includ il, to be *ppoi\tkd hv the 

The MilitaryCommittecol the House ^ ■ , , c.l ,t ■, , c-, , r ,11., 
-„ •■ . , . il ^ ,L 1- .' rrtsidenlof trie Lntted States tromtlte latest 

of Reprcsentatiyes state that the tirsti .... / . ,, r, ,•' , ^„. .. 
.r ,111 [mxUlia returns tn tlic JJciKirtmcnt of liar. 

question presented by tiie documents 

j(,. ' There is this marked distinction bc- 

, ,,., ,1 .1 /^ » err tween the two acls: Under the first thi- 

'• \\ hether the Governor of Tenncs- „ • i . 1 1 n ^ /• ,1 

, , ,, . I , .1 President could call '"from the. slot-- 

sec, had tiic power to order out the , • , , ,j. ; /• j 

> / L , /-.k vr c.l * f t mos conrrnnnt to the pi tier of dnnszer, 
detachmentsof the mihtia of that state,' , , /■ ,1 '■,,■ j^ 

,, . .• J , ri \^ such number of the mtlilia as he may 

for a SIX month tour 01 duty? . , v. n j .1 j i" 

„„ . •• ,, , ., Ijudscneeessan/. Under the second he 

1 hey nionnuare ail opinion that the y -^i , , " 'h r « „u 1 . •. 

-, • ' ,.^ !., ,, ■ could only call from each state, it< 

Governor ot Tei'nessce did possess tni> " •■ ,- 1 1 i .1 ► 

■ • i,i ^ 1 i'"HROPORrio\ ol one hundred thousano. 

power. This opinion they ground up- r, . , . ,. ^ ,, , 

' , ./ r •'," ,1 I Both laws remained in force. Ittlieex- 

on an aut lonly conferred upon the 1 . 11,1 ,1 n 1 

" ,. rr.-' 1 ,1 n ■ iigencv could not be met by a call under 

Governor ot Tennessee, by the PrcM- »,-'„„, ,-,^ ,,„ .-r,.^. „._ 



dent, dated January lltli, 1G14. I'. 



the law of 1 SIC. the law of I79j, was 



entertain 



directly the re- 



in force to enable the President to 



an opinion iiiiL:i,u> im,- il-- , n /• ai 1 r r *i 

,.,,,' 1 1 .I- r, make a call for the defence of the 

verse ol that advanced by the military ] , u . ,1 ,!„ a:- 

. 1- u I 1 II J.' country. But there was a wide di>- 

coininittee. (or which 1 siiall proceed to ^. ^. • . . .. ,. ^,1 r,„ 

■ ' tincfion in the situation of the militia 



state inj reasons. 

On the 28th of February, 1795. 



called into service under the dill'erent 
i acts. Under the first they could be 



Congress parsed a law -to provide for ^.^^^p^n^.j j^ serve only three months, 
calling forth the mililia. &:c."' This j^^j they were subject'lo be punished 
law authorized a general call of the ^^^ regular soldiers," even to the dogra- 
militia, according to the exigency of j.^j^^,, ^f whipping. The third see- 
the case, it contained the following ^1,,^ of the act of 1012, provided "//wf 
provision: I the said detachment should not be com- 

"No officer, nor commissioned onicer.i,(.//(;f/ /„ scr;r a lonser time than sir 
or private of the militia shall he com- < months after they arrived at the place of 
p.Ued to serve more than three montlis.' rfjirfe^roits". And the 5th, 6th. and 
ailer his arrival at the place of ren- 7th sections provided, that whipping 
(l(Zvous,in anyone year, nor more than should not be inflicted, and substituted 
in due rotation with every other able other punishment-. Thus stood the 
bodied ni.m, oi the same rank in the law when on the 11th January the 
battalion to wiiicli he belongs." I'rcsident conferred upon the Gover- 

Under this law no mililia man could ; nor of Tennessee, the power relied 
be re(iuired (o .serve more than three , upon to legjilize the draft for six montb» 
months. One thing must be remem-j in the case before us. 
bercd. Tlii« law was general and con- 



Srs MILITIA 3IEV. 



i5f 



unless sootier discharged by llie order 
of the Presidenl."' 

It is proper to remark here,that these 
dociimfiits sh9w (hat tlie Gojieral Go- 
ver'.mcnt and St.ilo Govcriimciils act- 
ed upon tlie coriHtruction of the acts of 
Coiigress, that tlin^e a>sunied to he thft 
correct one. The drafts were made 
for no specific period, being considered 
subject to " (W other liinilntion to their 
f^cnicc, thin snch asTvas provided /or by 
the acts of Congress." 

Ill this lottcV of Ihe 10th of Decem- 
ber. Governor Blount hpving stated the 
claims of the troops and the nature 
of the call, proceeds to explain the 
grounds upon which the claims "are 
made, in a manner favorable to the 
troop-;, a!:d asks the dcterniinalion of 
the President as to theirdischarge, and 
if dis'harged •' b:/ Tehose orkr, and how 
their phices are. to be supplied?'''' 

To this letter the Secretary of War 
wrote an answer, dated Januaiy 3d, 
1814, which in respect to tiio miliiia 
contaiiis this direction: 

"The militia may be considered as 
havii'g been calh^d out under the law 
of 1705, which I'mit-; the service to 
three months. The President is the 
lished, is dated December 10, 1313.— n^^re disponed to make this decision, as 
It states the nature and cliaracter oi ji,(. ^^^^^ j^^, provid. s that a period of 
the Tennessee troops called out to act | (hree months shall be d-cmed a tour 
agamst the hostile Creeks: and n Lfdutv. and as the spirit and patriot- 
states also the clanns th-y advanced to ,5^ ^p, kvxkssee leaves no doubt.that 
he discharged at particular period--.— , ^^ s„(,j,^ss,o^ op cori-s. roMPErf:fT to 
Ol the mihtia the G .verier says:"/] ^j,j. „Pj,f .j,^ op govern-ment, will be 
uji'/frs'/rni'/ [they] m-cofopuuon thu thc,r\ regularly furnished."' 
term ')f senice hhU expire at the end of -j-i,;^ ip^gj. contains noihing in an- 



To give a correct construction to 
titiis power we must consider, the laws 
in loice wiien it was given, and tlie 
particular facts and circumstances that 
gave rise to it. 

Tile au'.hority given by law to com- 
pel the service for three or six mont is, 
depetidi'd upon the nature of the call. 
{(■ called u uler the act of lSl2,aspari 
of the ''detvchment"' of one hundred 
thoa<:a id, th^ mil tia might be cnn- 
pelli'd to serve six m > it is. Ifcallel 
under the law of 1795, it was limited 
to three. In neither case wasany par- 
ticular discretion vested in the Presi- 
dent. The draft v.a-< made accordiig 
to the cxigeicv. The persons dratted 
coul 1 not bg d'.-tained longer Ibanil-.e 
legal p-riod of sciTice. The officer in 
comma'id could discharge thCni earlier 
if the oSjects of the draft were earlier 
efTccted, a id not otherwise. Such was 
(lie law in January, 1G14, when the 
power in questio-i was conferred upo'i 
the Gover-ior of Te;ines?ec. I will 
now explain the circumstances undor 
which that power was given. 

Tlie first letter from Gov. Biount to 
the Secretarv of War, wiiic 1 is pu'> 



tJirec viontha from their entrame into ser- 
vice : ih'il being cpiinlcrci by the miV.tii 
ffTJj of the sl-iie, passed prior to the act of 
Congrc's under which the del'ichnirnt zcas 
mule, as a tour of duly."' He adds: 

"When these troops were c:ilied in- 
o service, the term they were expect- 
ed to serve was not mentioned, in the 
i.istructions I received Irom t'le War 
Department, or in the act of the Gener- 
d Assemblv of tliis state, under whic! 



swer to Governor Blount's inquiry, if 
the troops were to be discharged '■'by 
u-hose order nnd ho:o their places are to be 
mppUci?"' — ^Tiie letter of the llth of 
January is evidently written for the 
purpose of conveying the iuformatioii 
required, and is in these words: 

'^ You are authorized to supply, by 
militia drafts or by volunteers, any de- 
ticiency wliich may arise, in the mili- 
tia division under the coniniai'd of Gen. 



d part of the force was called ou'.| Jackson, and without referring on this 
neither was it mentioned in my orders } head to this department. It may he well 
talUntr them out. I not havirigbee: that your Excellency should consult 
advised of the most acce jitahle term to ! Gen. Pinckney on such oi casions, as he 
the Government, and knowing no other ! can hist Judge of the whole number neces- 
limitalionto their service than such as | sary to the uttiiiument of t'^e public «W- 
wa« proTid&fl by the ft^t #f Congress,' je;t-=.' 



13* 



SIX 9IIUT1A MEN. 



These two letters from the Secreta- 
ry of War of January 3, and January 
II, relating to the same subject, and 
evidently written to make a complete 
reply to the ap]ilication ol" Governor 
Blount, in his letter of' Decctnlier 10. 
jTi-eccdin^, must be considered in con- 
nexion, and >ucii construction given to 
them a-: shall comport with the fair 
meaning of both. 



sons assigned for making this decision 
were such as must continue to operate. 
They were •• ihe laic of iht ■ilaic,'^ and 
" the spirit and patn'olinn nf Tennessee," 
which insured "A succESbios of corps 
competent to the ohiccls of Government,''^ 
Wiiilsi t!ie law of Tennessee, and "the 
spirit and patriotism of Tennessee" re- 
mained, the causes which i.ifluenccd 
the President":- deifrmination lemaincd 



The military committee conceive | in full force. It would seem obviously 
that tlie letter of tiie 1 1th '• vested absurd, that tiie President should cm- 
ple:iary powers in Governor Blount, | |)owcr the Governor of Tennessee to 
until it was rcro/rc*/ either iiy express I overrule a decision, made, by himself, 
order, or by peace, to call out such j upon such obviously just cossid-.ra- 
militia drafts, as, in his discretion, tions. Notliing but the most uncquiv- 
he might think necessary, for ttie. ob- 1 ocal and imperaiive terms could jus- 
taini.ig the public objects under the j ti(y such an iiiterprclation. 
ar.'.-V/'io- Ifiws."' The ordcr,conic;rringthe power,con- 

Thi> position, ifconfined in interprc- tains no language importing an iiitcn- 



tation, a« it is in terms, to powers UU' 
derthe laws existing when the author- 
ity was conferred, that is, under the 



tion to vest the Governor of Tennes- 
see, with any other power than that, 
which the President had previously 
laws of 1795 and 1812, there would | exercised, which was to call out the 
be no occasion to controvert; for it does j miliiia. \vithout defining the period ol 



not affect tlic argument. Neverthe- 
less, it is proper to enquire wlietlier 
this '•'plrmmj pomcr"' was intended to 
vest a discretion, ii> the Governor of 
Tennessee, as to the time of service, 
Jis well as in relation to the propri- 
ety of tlie call, and the numbers to l)e 
called. My opinion is, th.at.the (erm= 
in which the antliority is given, and 
the attendant circumstances concur, in 
sliowing, that the power conferred re- 
lates, not 'o the time of service, but to 
the exigency and the number to be 
called. 

Il has been already shown t'nat whe- 
ther the call were made under the 
act of 1795 or of 1812, the Executive 
dill not undertake to s])ecify the pe- 
riod of service, but left that to be de- 
termined bycircumstances,subject only 
to tlie limitations conveyed in the law- 
tliem-^clvcs. It is unreasonable to sup- 
pose that a power, not previon.-ly exer- 
cised, would be conferred in general 
term-!. The attention of the Presi- 
dent had been specially called to the 
subject. The indisposition of the Ten- 
nessee militia, to serve for a longer pe- 
riod tlian three months, had been ex- 
plaii'cd to \\\m. Hchadjust decided 
that the rail shouUI be considered as 
made ur.dcr the law of 1 795. The rca- 



the c;il!, and subject only to the limita- 
tion of law. On the contrary, it con- 
tains language most distinctly import- 
ing that such alone was the intention of 
the President — The Governor is ex- 
pressly told that •• it may be well he 
should consult Gen. Pinckney on such 
occasional as he can best jcdge, of ihc 
\yHOLE XUMBE1 ncccssarif to the attain- 
ntrni of the public objects.'^ A power is 
vested in Gov. Blount: i>ul he is ad- 
vised to consult with another ofliccr on 
the '•occasion''' of exercising it — he is to 
cotisull with this oflicer for tlie reason 
that he can '■'hrsi jul^e' how the powei- 
should be executed. The order poiatr 
out the subject on wliicli tliis judgment 
can -best" be employed: " Of the 
ivholc number necessary to the attain- 
ment of the public objects." This same 
olficer could also "Acs/ ;Wto" of the 
time of the service for which the call 
should be made. It cannot,! thiidf, 
be reasonably doul)ted, that, had the 
Prcsideiit referred to Governor Blount 
a determination as to timk, he would 
have, been directed to consult General 
Pinckney upon tliat subject also. This 
rel'erence being made specially, as to 
numbers only, fonlincs the interpreta- 
tion of the power, to th"^ s;une subjects, 
to whiclt its previous exercise, and ail 



SIX 3IIL1T1A MEN. 



lUl 



the attending cirrunistanccs nouM nat- 
arnllv conruic it. It was plenaiy fur 
the attainine'ii of its objerts: hut lo 
regulate the period of service was not 
oiie of those objects. 

Ttie act of A])/!!, 1812, v.-as special 
in its object* and temporary in its du- 
ration. The n^ilitary conuiiittee say 
•' it was an enlargement of tlie act of 
1795." This position is untciiable. — 
Tile act of 1795 was left in full force, 
and wholly unafKcted bv the act of 
1012. They related to'dilVereiit ob- 
jects, as has been already shown, and 
might l)oth, or either, i,<e enforced, at 
the same time, according to circum- 
stances. A call to service under the 
act. of 1312 must be itiadc upon those, 
who, .ncrording to its provisions, had 
been previously organized, cquij)ped, 
and held in readiness. A call, under 
the act of 1795. could be made upon 
the militia at large. Ttie call, in re- 
lation to which the order of January 
3, 1814, was issued, was evidently 
made under the act of 1812. It is 
sospoken of by all parties, although not 
stated so in express terms. The men 
in service were undoubtedly liable (o 
serve a tour of six months. Upon ac- 
count of their complaints, ai.-d the 
evidci'.t reluctance with which thej- 
would remain in service, the President 
d'etermined that they "may he consid- 
ere'l os having been crilkd under the act 
ef 1 795." It seems to me a vioI:;lion 
of 'dl just construction to insist, that, 
when the President hini>elf had deem- 
ed it good policy to adopt t!ie sViOrles! 
term of service, when he might legal- 
ly liave enforced the ionge-t, he, at 
tiie same time, meant to confer upon 
GovTrr.or Rlount a '■'• plcnaiy power"' to 
pur-ue a directly adverse policy. It is 
thus clear (o me, that under the laws 
in force, when the power was confer- 
red, it did not extend to a determina- 
tion of the period of service. I pro- 
ceed now to enquire how far the 
power was aflfected hy the act of April 
18, 1814, under which the six militia 
men were put to death. 

This latter act, as its title imports,is 
in addition to the act of 1795. It re- 
peals no single provision of that act; 
hut, on the subject of the time of ser- 



vision. The 8th section is in thc^c 
words: 

"The militia, when called into tlie 
service of the United Slates, by virtue 
of the before recited act, may, if in llw. 
opinion of the. President of the United 
States, the public intnrsl requires it, lie 
compelled lo serve for a term not ex- 
ceeding six montli>, after their arrival 
at the place of rendezvous, in any one 
year." 

It will lie observed that the act of 
1795, which has been alnady cpioted 
contains simply a limitation of the time 
for which the militia may he compelled 
to ser\e. The act of 1812 contained 
a similar provision; the act of 181 4, for 
the first time, vested, in the President, 
a discretionary power, with respect to 
the period of service, and. at the same 
limo limited the extentof that discre- 
tion. The provisions, of tiie act of 
1795, were not repealed, by those of 
the act of 1814. They were left, in 
full force to be acted upon, unless the 
President should decide to enlarge 
them, as empowered to do by the act 
of 1014. Thus, if a call were made 
for ;i tour of duty, it would be made 
under the act of 1795; for the act of 
1814 looks to that of 1795, as authori- 
zing a call lor militia. The period of 
service would be thiit limited by the 
act of 1795, unless it were altered hy 
the proper act of the President, in ma- 
king the call. And here the tiuc 
question as to the legal liability of Col. 
Pipkin's corps, to serve six months, is 
fairly presented ; and it involves two en- 
quiries, First: Could the President of 
the Ufiited States legally delegate lo 
the Governor of Tennessee the power 
conferred by the act of 1814? 

Second. Does it appear that the 
President has ever attempted to dele- 
gate tliat power? 

I cannot suppose that it is necessary 
lo say much on the first point. The 
doctrine that *^ elelcgalus non potest dele- 
oari," is as well established as any 
oUier, Mithe whole region of our juris- 
prudence. A delegated power cannot 
be executed by substitution, because it 
is a person;;! or official confidence. — 
The question whether militia, called 
into service, may be retained longer 
vice, it enlarges that particular pro- 't'lan flirce months, in one year, is made 



IZZ 



SIX 3nLlTIA M^S. 



cretiun, should d- facto anl liejure. be Ihi* opin- 
ion .It llif Fresidenl, •' llial -uclj .Irifls were re- 
miiri'd bv the pubUe iiilt 'est." 

This ijifcreiir:, viurCtiumiiltre rnore.m-ri*-- 
kfrc, lithe-, thought it iiere<sar« in go into siicb 
ail Hivt'stijation, ini^/it br tu.-taiiU(H)y the ruii- 
ti-ioiior.irv coii-(ru(,ti»n'^ whi. Ii were ainii (o 
ihisclau>i-i!i tie art of 4i>r:l,l8l4, in the ictiiil 
li-creti.in which wai vested iu the KxecuUves 
of sc'vorul of tile stales." 

T!ie firit para<rr;ip!) ru-sutHcs that the 



to depend •'■on the opinion of the Presi- 
dent of the United Slate?.'' The Presi- 
dent ca;iiioi make a subsliluie. or ddi- 
ga e, to rxpioss tilts opinion. — He can- 
not co.itidi; it to the Gov rnorof a state, 
or to a:iy body else. Congress conti- 
ded it to liim personally. It, was a 
trust of grcal delicacy and imporla-ice. 

It involved too many vital interests to - - ,— ...^...,. . <^-^u.«..^ i..<iii.,tr 

be ves;eJ in ordinary functionaries-, power had l)icn jLria:;ted pievioMs to 
and was tiieiefore conferred, withoii; | ^l^t- act of 1814, and argues lh.it ii ex- 
any povver to dck-i;atc it. upon the|'*'cd. because not "rrcoLvd,"' I have 
Chief Ma!,'istrate. It would be as rea- ■'''♦^adv shown tliat tiie order of Jan. 
sonahle to insist that the Pre-ident U N '814, contains 40 Mich power, for 
migtit delegate any of the high powers 1 \''"''"U' reasons, a; ^1 amongst others, 
collided to him by the constitution. — | lor the roason that, when that order 
T lis 110 man of sense can pretend, yet. 1 ^*'^^ made, the President did not him- 
iii truth, it is not more ab-uid tlian the) *^'''' possess the power inquestion.it 

being given by a subsequent act of 
Congress. The fallacy of this assump- 
tion of the committee must be oi)vious 
.-..j.,v ,^ „^.,.^ to all, who bestow proper aUention up- 
ularonc. They seem to have too high- !''" t''e su'nject. Tiey evidei tlv feel 
ly estimated their characters as men of' i^ themseivc^s, when thcv attempt to 
tiensc to advance, dirocilv, the doctrine ''o'''*-"'" '' up "ith the co dud: gargj- 
tliat the Prc?idenl could delegate the 1 •"'^•'^ of the paiagiapli. " He seems 
power in ques ion to Governor Blount; 1 ^^ h^we been williig, from his silence, 
yet tlicy have essayed to make that im- j ''ouj'h d with the notorious fict of Gov. 
pression upon the public. Thus evin-l ^'oiml's continuing to order out mili- 
cing a willingness to communicate, byj^'''^ drafts, under the discretionary au- 
indircction.an opinion, which thcv had p'^o^ity of those letters, to consider that 
toomuch self-respect toassertin terms, '^''''h 'li-nfii -,c n,^, «,-,...,. ui . 1.- .i ■ 



pasidon that the power in question 
miiiht be delegated. 

The course pursued by the miliiarv 
committee, upon this subject is a sing- 



drafis as Governor Blount shonld 

d 



1 quote wliat they say, m cxtcnw, that I "'J'-"" out were, in his opinion,rcquirc 
every candid render may perceive that '*>' i'l'-' pu'ilic interest.'" 
1 do tijem no injustice. 



This argument implies .tiial there 
was no authority in the President to 
call out militia, after the act ofl8l4. 



"After the pa'sncre of (his nrt, it ilops not ap- 
pear that tlie President rfiofrfrf tlie pnrrT which I ' 

he hail Kiv.-ii Gi>verii.,r Bloaiit? hv virtue or;<^sc,''pf u idcrthat art. Ileiicc the dc- 
ihcl,ur-,y,fthes..,r,iirv ..f W-.r/orthe nthjdnclion t!iat tile continued art- of Gov 

auiOlstoIJa iTirvJS 4: l)iithr..e.Mi.siohavellJ|„„.,, . ,, '" "'^'0\- 

been willing from his filenre, ro,i:,le.l «ith th.. I ,*"'^ "'^^'^" 'l'fO!-"''-li 'll hy the PiVsl- 

iiotorious fact "f (> iv. BLmii's ciiitiiiuiii- to [ ''<^'''f? •'^' founded Upon that act. But 

or,ler.mt miliila .IrafU, ..n.lorthe l.screli ir.y 1 this in CVorv view of it. is an i .correct 

auni..rit\ ol 111 .M- lellrrs(.i cnn-ii.iir thit «iichl -.• 'ni "' '■• i^ "" i .corrcc r 

dniftsa- Gov. lilo-iiit shoni.l onler o.it,«ere, I'li ■ Pos'tion. 1 ho art of 179j, was in full 
his opinion. r>(|iiiroii "by i\tv pw'j/ic intrresi." j lorcc, when tile powcr of .Faiiuarv 1 I 
;^.'.''' .:V''."''.i"":'"."*"™ "''•,'.'•' "'" '.*"* 1'^'>P'- 1 1811, was conferred. It contiimed in" 



«iii >n maybe nut more ■iiliriiiiillvei\ , (o wit . 
that it wris lhe".i;.inio>i of the Presiil'-nt, ihat 
the niibliciiiii'reit iliil reniiir""' tliat G.ivc-riMr 
Bloiiit «h .'lid, iiieler the advi-cnicnj, or hv tiic 
rc<|ii|siti.)nH of (Ji-ii. PiiieUiiey, have the p'owiT 
to order out oiililia ilrrifts, either lor thiiv. or 
six months, as tlie ••xigei.cie* of the fcrvice 
shoold rentier neces-ary, ^'■irilh-iil k/ti;,,,^^ „„ 
tA/j /(corf," to the Pri'.-lilent, for «|iceiul<firi-c- 
tioos. 

Tliix driiitrtinn they consider irre«is|ible .ind 
conclii^ixe, iind thai llietc was no'hiin: in the 
H'-t of .April IRih, ini4, > lii< h pn-veiitel thr 
Prefiilrnl irom exi're?«tiiij his opini.in, Ihron-h 
((eoer.il iiislriii'tioiK, lo the Kxeciitiieof a ■till 



full lorce. for every purpose of exerci- 
sing that power, alter tlic pas,«age of 
the act of 1814. The Jhet. that Gov. 
Blount continued to act u-iderthe pow- 
er, proves nothing, bec.-iuse it wascom- 
petent for him to do so. if he did not 
connect with it, an exercise of the en- 
larged powers conferred upon the Pres- 
|idenl, by the act of 1814. Tl:e recog- 
jniiion and silence of the President, 
therefore, proves nothing. 



wlioso order? for militia draft., iiudcrfiich (lis-* The second paragraph goes a step 



SIX Mll.lTIA ItTESr. 



133 



fuillicr than the lii-^t. The commiKcc 
sa\, tlicy " Ihiiilc ihin proiwsilion mav if 
p>'t more ajlnncilivcli/."' ^Vhclhev tiic> 
ihieiid, upon thoir own responsihilily 
a'lC ri'pulalion, so to put it, is certiiinl) 
diuUtlul, as every one will discover, 
wlio atlrmpts to fcrutinize the very sin- 
sulfir manner in which they predicate 
their sei:lc' ces. 

In the lliird paragraph tlie commit- 
tee assert tliat the\ consider tiie de- 
duciion suggested in the scco ;d one as 
" iiresiflible ami fo?ic/w«rcf,'' and for the 
nota!)le reason, " that there ions nothing 
«.\ TIIE ACT OF Ahril 18, 1814, vhkh 



light for the committee aiid for Gen. 
Jacksoi , when I admit that it may be 
douhilul whether the power could be, 
iir was conferred. Sui)po^e il doubt- 
ful, how then siands the case? 

The committee, those rigid construc- 
tioni-ts of power, are ready to jnsiify 
putting men to d.atii upon queslioiis 
of deduclion Mvi iiiferenrc. The propo- 
sition, upon which lilierfy, life, aid 
dealh have been suspended, tiie advo- 
cates of the ce''sured party •' think 
MAY be pill more nffirmativrli/."' ''Tiiis 
DEDUCTION they fonstV/p/- irresistible." — 
''Tills iiifrrence they belin-f might be 



mu-t be the opinion of impartial men, 
when partial friends ve;ture to employ 
no stroi ger terms thai- these! For my- 



prdcnled the Preai'kul Jrom rTpressingl^u-<ia\ncd."' Who can doubt, what 
his opiniuiulbronghgriifral instntctions,to ' ' ''"" " '^' 

the Executive vf a state, u-hose orlers for 
viiiitia drafts under such discretjon, ^ 
should DE FACTO mid df. jure, be the I self, after bestowieg upon the subject 
opinion of the President, that such a lull investigation aiKkicarefnl co^^sid- 
drafts were required by the public in- eration, my opinion is clear, thai Gov. 
fercst." Blount was not authorised by the Pres- 

Therc is ecrlaiidv nothing in the ident, to decide in favour of c,omp<llinc 
ACT of April, 1814, wiiich prevents the, militia to serve six mo: ths: that it was 
President from expressing his opinion, not competent for the President to con- 
fer upon him that power, and that t'.e 
President never attempted orinteidcd 
(o CO ifer it. And I am greatly mista- 
ken if a large portion of the lawyers 
of the country do not concur, in this 
opi'iicn. 

For the purpose of sustaining the le- 
ualitv of the executions in qnestion, 
the military committee adduce proof 
to show, that tlie regiment to which 
they beloniied was, in fact,orderi-d out ■ 
and mustered for six months. T!ii$ 
fact the commi'tee seem to consider as 
supplying " /ps'n/ y?)rsu»i^//o?i that the 
muster ai d inspection was rnade with 
tiie requisite authority." in reply, it \t 
sufficient to say, that *' legal presump- 
tion'''' is never resorted to where the 
true state of facts is well known, as in 
this case it is. 

The committee urirc that on thclOth 
of October, 18l4,G'.verMor B!"u t ad- 
vised the President, that tiiis regiment 
had been called 7>ut for. six months. — 



in the manner suggested. — But assu 
redly, there is much out of that act, 
in the general principles of [olicy and 
law that prevents the Presideiit from 
express nghis opinion, bi/ rrmoining 'ilent, 
O'd from subs'itnting others, by im;>li-] 
catio., to express the opinion the law [ 
requires him to express himself. 

T le committee themselves do not 
pretend that Governor Blou't pos- 
sessed the power, in question, except, 
bv deduction and inference. If 4he 
President could ifht legally confer it. 
as I think has been fully shown, tlie'^ 
Gov. Bliiunt could not be invested witli 
it. — If it be matter of just and reasona- 
ble doubt, whether the President could 
invest Gov. Blou;it with this power, 
then nothing can be more unfair than 
an attempt to clothe him with it, by de- 
duction and inference. Tnis would 
be fastening upon the President an il 
legal ac', by implication, contrary to 
every just principle. For if it were 
doubtful whether the President meant The committee say" he specially re- 



to confer the power in question, and 
dou!)tful also.whether he could legally 
«onfer it, both doubts ong'it to be so 
resolved, as to exonerate the Presidct 
from even the imnutation of wrong. — 
I put the case in the most favourable 



PORTED this regiment of 1000 rtun to the 
Serrrtary of War as in srrzirr for six 
months; from which fact the infirenc( 
is inseparable that they were co"-id- 
ered leijallv in service, or it was the 
bomiden duty of tlie Secretary to have 



i3t 



SIX flnriTfA MEX. 



•rtlortd their immediate disrharge." — 
Thev add, " if any confirmation was 
wanted for the original aiKhority, bv 
which the draft was made, for six 
nio.iths, Gov, Blount's report of 19lh 
oi;()clober,and the implied sanction of 
the President, inconlcstibly furnish'it."! 
Here is another resort to inferaiec\ 
and impliailion, and the irround upon ' 
which they are predicated is not fairlv | 
stated. The reader would naturally j 
conclude tiiat Gov. Blount's report of 
October 19, was made specially and pin-- 
poi'chj to advise the President that this 
draft had been made, and for six 
montlH. Tiiis is not the fact. An; 
examination of that K'ttcr will show 
that it is mentioned incidentally, a^ 
wojild ai)pear, only to inform the" Pre- 
sident of tlie whole number ofTemies- 
see troops tiicn in service, for the pur- 
pose of obtaining a Major Genemrs 
comniuid fur General Cirroll. I( is not 



I of military officers ; and t>et>vecn proreedings 
I withiii ttie builjr ..t the country aiid those on llie 
hiL-h seifi. That iiu|,licit obciliciice which mili- 
tary luf-n usui.llv pay to the onlcTs oi" their su- 
I'crii.rs, which indeed is iudr5[>eiifubl^ Di;ce!»ary 
to every military system, appe^ired tomesiiong- 
ly toim.dy the i;.-ii)cipleth:it those onlers, II not 
to perlorm a ;.rohibitcd act, oui;ht to justify 
the persoii whose general duty it is to otjcy 
them, and who is placed by the laws of his coun- 
try in a situation which, in jjeneral, rcsiuircs 
th;it he w.oiild chej, them. I was stronjlv in- 
clined to think that where, in con^etiueucc oi 
orders from the Kvilimate authority^ a vessel is 
seized with pure intention, thr claim of the in- 
jured party f.ir d.images would be aiiainst that 
government from wnich the orders proceeded, 
and would be a proj er julicct fur negotiation, 
liut I have been convinced that 1 was mistak.n, 
and have rereiled from ihis first opinion. I uc- 
■piiesce in that of my brethren, which is thit 
t.ie mstruclious cannot change the nature of 
the transaction, or Icgaliie an act which, with- 
out those instructions, would have been a plaia 
trespass." 



lilvely that the period oflime, forwhicli ' 
the call wasinad-;,all!acted the atten- 1 
tion of the President: And if it did, his I 
silence could not sanction it, or make 
it legal, had he designed l)v silence (o [ 
give it that character. T\w. infcrenee\ 
and implicalion of the committee ngjin | 
fail them. The fact is not made out, ' 
and if it were, the inference attempted ' 
could not be legitimately deduced j 
from it. I 

Tlie committee do not, in terms, 
maintain that the call and muster for ! 
six mo!i(hs, w hcllicr warranted by the 
order of (lie President or not. subject- 
ed the parties lo military law. This 
has been elsewhere asserted, and seems 
to be about half insinuated in the re- 
port. Sucii n doclrine is w hollv unte- 
nable. It is tlie law, and the law o.dv, 
that imposes a duty. The assumption 
of authority by unauthr.rized iidivi- 
duals cannot do it. This is the plain 
doctrine of common sense. It is the 
doctrine of the law (oo, as thus laid 
down by Chief Jtistice .Marshall, irr (he 
rase of Li/l.'c el at. vs. Boire.me cl al, '"> 
Crattc/t, 179, 



"I confess tlic first bias of my min.! w,i^ very 
strnn; in favor of the opinion, that (hnu.;h the 
iiislniclioiis of the executive could not 't;ivc a 
richl,lhi>y mljht vet excu'e from dnmaees. I 
wa.« much inclined to think that a distinction i 
on^ht to he tjkeii between nrt« of civil uuti those ' 



In the view here presented, the call 
for sis months is considered as unau- 
thorised, a!:d consequently as imposing- 
no obhgalion upon the men to continue 
in service. 'I'hose who regard the 
matter in this light, cannot but consi- 
der the execution as a legiili-e'lmmder; 
leg(ili:at, because perpelmted under 
the forms of law. But other highly 
important views of the matter leinai'n 
to bu taken, including all the facts and 
circumstances of the case, and testing 
the conduct of Gen, Jackson by them. 
It is certai:ily clear, that theGeneral 
;!nd his advocates can claim nothin" 
more than that, in the opinion of them^ 
selves., s(-ict right was on their side of 
tliti question. They canno). with anj* 
face of propriety, d(?iiy that there exist- 
ed much room for lionest doubt, and 
conscientious difference of opinion,— 
This being assumed, as a concession 
that must be made, let us look at the 
(acts that actually occurred. 

The men were mustered for a term 
of six months, as they believed, without 
any legal auliiority. Difficulties had 
arisen amongst the previous drafts, as 
to the time tbiy were liable to seiTe. 
Gen, Jackson had in.sisted tipon keep- 
ing them in service. On an appeal to 
the President, an order bad been made 
for their discharge, at ihc end of three 
nionihs. The sentiment amongst the 
citizens of Tennessee was strong in 
favor of a service of three months only. 
The whole coitdiictofthc militia proved 



Mix WIMTI.\ MftV. 



13d 



tliis. Gov. Blount liimscll, in a letter 
to tiio Secretary of War, d.Ued Jan. 5. 
1814, urges forcibly t!ie propriciy o! 
adopting this teivii. He says: 

•• The idea of a longer term to mili- 
tia, wlio, I believe, are all alivt; to a 
sense of duty, and anxious for a final 
and via;oroiis pros<cution of the cam- 
pai£;n to a final accompli*! nnenl of the 
o! jects of govcriimcnt, is disgusliiiff, 
•^■anrl if required of thnu lo perform 
a longer term, liieir disappoiniinent niight 
tend lo great cvi/s, which it is very desira- 
hle to a-ooid.'" J^ 

The excilinu lo mutiny, and the niuti- 
nv itself with which they were charged, It is attributed to the '■'■instigrttimC of 
w'.rc comniillcd, in the assertion ofi certain officers; but wlierefore they 
what thev conceived to he a legal riglit. should '■'■iusligide?' it we are not inform- 
Tii-' criminal and felonious "motives, ed. The residue of the month of Mo- 
whlch constitute the essence of every vembcr asid the Month of December 
crime, did not enter into their conduct, were spent in ci iminatious and recrim 
The sole intention was to return home, 



dchniie characier. With a part ol this 
force Gen. Coffee fought the battle of 
Tallushatches, on the ,?d of November, 
Gen. Jackson that of Tallrdeja.on the 
9th of the same month, and Gen. White 
destroyed the Hillabee towns on the. 
17lh, and Fort StriUlier was establisiied 
and fortified on the Coos;i river. At 
this place, at'ier the return from the bat- 
tle of 'l^alledcja. thc>- troops began to 
manifest a discontented and mutinous 
spirit. Whilst the existence of this 
spirit is strongly pourtrayed. and its 
opcV.itions minutely detailed, r,o ade- 
quate cause is assigned for its origin. 



as they supjiosed they had a riglit to 
do. It was from no spirit of ii.su'ior- 
dination, no design to prejudice tiie 
public service that they acted. So that 
if they were in fact mistaken as to tlieir 
legal rights, they were guiliy in act, 
and not in intent. The offeiirc was 
that of technical guilt, not of deliber- 
ate, or innate profligacy. In every 



Illations, between tlie commander and 
the men and their oflicers. Tiiough no 
cause is given for the commencement 
of the discontents, the question as to 
the period of service, very soon came 
up and cop.stitnied the ground of dis- 
pute. Gen. Jackson insisted upon de- 
taining the men beyond tiie period for 
whicii they considered tiicmselves 
bound. The ofScci's claimed their dis- 



view of the case, it was one to which i charge. Governor Blount rccomaiend- 



clemency ougiit to have been c-xtcnded 
• far as life was cor.ceri.cd. 

It is very important to enquire and 
ascertain, if possible, the considera- 
tions which must have operated with 
Gen. Jackson, to inflict the most rigo- 
rous punishment, in a case, where a dil- 
lercnt course was so o!)viously proper, 
and so much more in accordance with 
the feelings of humanity and tlic senti- 
ments of justice. 

An attentive perusal of the work of 
Major Eaton cannot fail to impress, up 
on every reader, tlie singular fact of 
the many difficulties that arose between 
General Jackson, and the Tennessee 
troops of every description, under his 
command. — He took the field in Octo- 
ber, 1813, with three descriptions of 
force — a corps of United States Volun- 
teers for one vcar, who entered the ser- 
vice December 10, li)12, a corps ol 
Tennessee militia detached, under a re- 
quisition from the War dcpariment, 



cd it, all grounding tiicmselves upon 
the validity of a three montlis term on- 
Iv — Jackson threatened, expostulated 
and coaxed. Actual disregard of oir 
ders ensued. Gen. Roberts dischar- 
ged his corps. Lieutenant Kearney 
arrayed his men, and presented liim- 
self in hostile attitude to the very per- 
son of the commander. All resultea 
in the men effecting their olijccf, re- 
turning home, and escaping piinisl'- 
ment. None can doubt the mischief 
of tills example, but it certainly pro- 
ceeded from tkc unjustifiable attempt 
of Gen. Jackson to compel that, which 
the law did not warrant. 

After all these events. Gov. Blount 
issued his order of the 3d January, 
1814, for a draft of 25 hundred men 
'■'for a term of three months'' expressed 
upon the face of it. Thus aliirming 
the opinion prevalent in Tennessce,that 
three months was the legal term of 
service. Theunfortuiiate John Wood'^, 



fnd a «)rps •( volunteers, without a executed at Fort Stroiher (or mutiny. 



-ise 



SIX .MILITIA 3IEV. 



M irrh 14, was one of these. General '■ 
Corko al«o bro!ig'rit into the fi-ld 2500 ! 
Die .u iderBriyidierGcncral Dolierlu 
TIk- lethality of t!ie draft, u ider wliicli 
tliey '.v.-re called, was made a <iue<tio:i : 
and it was roiiiitenaiued livGcii. Cocke ' 
himsflf. T re troops l>e< anu- ope Iv ; 
mtitiiii.iis, and "one hundrel mid ci^hliA 
desiThd."' W'e liave no accoirit lint: 
any of tiiem were punished, thoujrh : 
J;ick-o;i issued an order "to seize and 
send II der (.'uard lo Kort Strothcr ev-! 
cry o/KcT, without regard (o \\\< r.mk, 
who should he found, in a'ly manner. | 
afeinplinii to incite his arniy to mu-| 
tiny." 

The hatlle ol'Uie Ilor-e-i^hoc, whirl 
put an end to the Creek War, wa> 
foiii^hl on tiie 27!h of .March, 1814; 
on the 20;h of .April Gen. Piiick'nev ar- 
rived ar,d took the command, and on 
the 21st an order was issued for tho 
Tennessee troops to be marched horn 
a'ld di-chari;ed, except a portion from 
East Tennessee, left to irarrison the 
forts. Gen. Jackson's command bein<,' 
tcnni-ated, he rel-jnicd hon.e, and ie 
t!ic moMth of June following, he re 
ceivod the appoi'ilment of Major Gen- 
eral from the United Slates. 



Fr.-.ni tliis brief recapitulation of 
facts, it is manif.!st, that Gen. Jackso;' 
had felt a stroMj; di<po-itio!', wliijst 
comni i^'ding ilic militia of Tennessee, 
as a .Major General of that state, lo 1 
coiii/jcl by mlji'ary means, a service 
beyo.sd the law. " That he bore his 
disappointment very impatienllv, is 
evid -need, by the continued brtils and 
dis.iiTections in his army, which per- 
vaded the miliiia under no other Gen- 
cr.d, to a':v liiin^like ihe same e.vient. 
It is furl!ier evirle'Kcd !)v his speeches 
a!,d lell.Ts; and especialU by a letter 
to G 'V. Blount, in reply lo one ura;ing 
a want ol legal authority lo order ou* 
lrooj)sas required. 

"Wliiit llieii is to he (l.iiio? I'll toll yo.i 
wli:if Y.iii h ive only (■ini-f inCi I'lr cnesnan ' 
dr.Tsinn the critic ilrniMiiils in' nil "ill br hpIi. 
Henri int a Oirre ru.: ized for six viont'is, and ' 
WiM. .vNswm FOR Tim REscLi: lull irillili.i;. 
it mill all is lust, lh< rppiitiiliiin of the state, 
ainl yours itiiil minpaloiij: with it." 

In the =ame letter, the General says 
to Governor Blount: 



" Belipve me my valued friend, th. re a'e 
limes when it is highlv criminal to slirii.k fr-m 
rt>?i)..n-ibilily, or .Ji^sckci-i.e .<bout tuk 

EXERnSEOF I'-JR PVWKRi.".y^ 

There is no mistaki*;^.; the language 
here em|.loytd. The Generaf o; ly 
wanted the troopssent lor •• six monl/isJ'^ 
He cared not wliat the law was. Q |y 
send himth- troops, and he would "a.v- 
swER roK THE RESULT." He would 
'either '■•."hrin!,- from rmponsibilili/, i:or 
CcCT'scroi'le about the exercise ok 
IMS POWERS.".^ \Vhe!i the troops 
were sent for si.\ months, hciuade good 
I his promise. 

j Gen. Jackson's notions with respect 
to the militia, and the uses to which 
they might 1 gaily be applied, may be 
furtl.er collected from a letter written 
to the S' cretarv of War, dated 20tli 
Nov,, 1814. (Eaton 2tJ8.) 

''Permit me tosuagest a plan,whic!), 
ora fair ex|)erimeiit, will do a«av or 
lessen the expenses u.der ihe existing 
mode of calli g militia forces into the 
■ ield. Ifhcir.ver there happens to be a de- 
li'iencyin the rrfriilarfmc, inamjptirlk- 
■ilcr qunrler, let the ' Goieniimul ilcter- 
initie on the nerrKnri/ number! Tins 

[should be -VPfORTIOXED AMO.NO Till; 
DIFFEPE.XT STVTES. C^fAND C.\LL- 

I:D INTO SERVICE FOR AND 
DURING TIIK WAR.-'j:::o 

The sentime ts here avowed, the 
controversies and diOicuIlies that had 
existed.in all of whicli Gen.Jackson bore 
a co'snicuous part, serve lo es[>lain 
the feelinjrs and motive*, that led to 
Ihe catastrophe of the six militia men, 
at Mobile. The General determined 
to make them such an example as 
should strike terror every where, and 
efli dually silence all objeclioiis lo his 
own arbitrary notions about miiitia 
service. 

They were called into service .ns the 
military committee informs us, "iu 
compliance with the requisition of Maj. 
Gen. Pincknev. and in fnrliierance of 
the views of fJoven mo: t, bva l;ilitude 
■,'ivcn to liitn (Gov. Blount) by li.e War 
Meparimenl. in regard to ealls to act 
'i!;iiinst the C/w/i-.<:,"aiid rendez\oused 
on the 24'h June, 1814. 

The call is justified upon the aiiihori- 
■y of tiu' power co iferred. bv the leiler 
rom t'lc \V;ir DeparlniPiil of January 
1 1, 18M. By iliat lettor the Govci^ior 



81X "t'lT.ITI I MKV. 



JTi 



druTs a.'iy d.-Uciencics wucii m;iy "mr 
}fi //;• milltdri/.iivisio.i itih.icrlhc 'vtiiinund 
o/Gm. J.ickxon.'' Wluni llio reqiiisilion 
ill (^'iL-stion was made, Gen. .Jack>oa 
\v:is ot ill tlie ^•commanfi" oi' a"*' militin 
dhi':ion." The case did Mot exist for 
making the ca 1 uadcr tlio lelicr of 
, Ja: u ly 11.1814, whicii did not ex- 
tend •» to calls to act agiiiiist the Cirdcs" 
in aiiv circumstances, aud at any time. 
Ii -vas coifined in express terms, lo 
•'•niti/ drjictency which may arise in the 
miiilia 'liviiion vnrler the cnmmand of 
Gen. Jackson.''^ Tiiat divisinn was no 
16n<j;cr in service. Tiie Creeks had 
been suhdiisd: hid laid down their 
arms a!;d *ou'^ht for peace, ai.d Gen. 
Ja.:kson had reiuricd home, a' (i laid 
d.Kvn his comma-.id. The rendezvous 
bi i;!g appoi' ted for the 20(h of June, 
the call must have precidcd it some- 
thirjg like a month, at a time when 
G"':. Jackson asid iiis division were no 
lo i^iT in the field!! The call, there- j were not the ease, and F shall certai: ly 
fore, cannot, for this reason, be main- not assert that it was, tiien the canse 
(ained upon the letter from the War must be souglit, either in the circiun- 
Dopartment. to which it refers. stances of peculiar hardship that sur- 

AZ''iin. The Creek Indians being' rounded tliem, or in the cliaractcr and 
CO ii|uiMed, there was ncillier invasion I conduct of the general. Whatever of 
nor immi eiit danger of invasion, in ] extraordinary iiardsln|) they cncoun- 
tliat part of the country, from the i tered, there is every reason to believe 
C-eek Indians, or any other enemy, j that the Georgia militia engaged ii; the 
Co':-efjuently no p*ower existed in the I same service, at the same time, under 
President himself to call out the miiilia Gen. Floyd, must have endured about 
a-- called out hy tlie GoVernor of Ten- j tile same sulTering. No spirit of muti y 
nessee. of wliich these men formed a [appears to have existed amongst t-. em. 
part, at the time tlie call was made, j So that tiie lair conclusion seems to be, 
For hoth the constitution and the law [that the principal primary cause must 
tonline the power of ti.e President to be traced to something in the charad^ 
cases of invasion, or imminent danger i ter and conduct of their chief, 
of invasion. The draft was illcjgal 



Tlic lEKt tiiai tiiey acleu opc..i_* .;• d 
honestly upon a belief of their K-^al 
rights: the additional fact, that t e 
(juestion of right was a nice, con. pli- 
cated and doulitlul one, to say, titc 
least, presented tliem in (he cbarac'ef 
of men resisting what they deemed 
oppression. In this resistance lliey 
used no more force than wa- necessary 
to iittaiii tlicir ol)j(ct. I have newr 
known an> case hut tiieirs, in which 
men, thus dcmcanitig themselves, "ere 
considered proper subjects of rigorous 
example. 

I have adv^er'cd to the fact that no 
such spirit of di.--ro;,tent and mn■i^y 
was manifested b^ a:'V militia during 
the late war, as by tiiose from Tennes- 
see, under Gen. Jackson. For this, 
there must have been some origi:'al 
or primarv caoise, and in secknig for it; 
wc would naturally ask, were the T.u- 
nesseans more turiinhnt than any other 
citizens called into service? If tUis 



The first campaign of Gen. Jacksoii 
was made at the head of 2600 Iwehc 
months' volunteers, who mustered for 



upon both of the grounds here suggest- 
ed, lo wit, that Gov. Blount's power 

did not embrace the case; and ixisti:)gl service on the lOtli December, 18)2, 
fai ts did not authorise a call, even by land with whom the general proceeded 
the President. Thus, an analysis of fromMashviile toiSatchez.in the m-.ii.th 
previous facts to ascertain ttie origiii 



of Gen. Jackson's feeling toward-; the 



of January, 1813. For wiiat purpose, 
and under what orders he made (h.is 



m htia, discloses new and irrefragal>le march, is. and always has been, un- 



gr; u'lds to prove that Ih.e mci: were il- 
Uigally called, and illegally detained in 
service. 

T'lc considerations which ought (o 
h.'vr weiglied with the commander, 
to vt';^w wit 1 leirit v the •'■> idurl of tf;«i.-ie 
mn<uhave alrfvidy be^r. in part st{(ted. 

N 



known to the puMic. There \s some 
reason to doubt whether it was not 
chieflv a movement of his own. Major 
Eaton, however, says, he received or- 
ders to descend the Mississippi, "■ for 
tile d'ti-^ce of t'le Ic.iver cou; try, 
wiiicb was theu si.y//<«4ta /• be in davger'' 



138 



SIX JtllLITIA KEN. 



At Natchez he halted, as Major Eaton I volt, and as has already been sliown. 
asscns, according to in!.tructions, to j finally succeeded in eflecting their ob- 
Wait for I'lirther order?: and at N'alch< z , jecls. 



he received orders '• lo dismiss those 
■under his iommand from service, and lo 
take measures for delivering over every ar- 
ticle of public properltf in his possession, lo 
Gen. Wilkinson.'^ Tliis order he de- 
termined to disobey, and did disobev. 
Hi? reasons for disobedience were, the 



These facts, in my 0()inion, warrant 
the inference, that tlie disobedience of 
orders, so successfully practised by 
Gen. Jackson himself, was the primary 
origin of all the misciiief? that succeed- 
ed. The volunteers had witnessed a 
most palpable aiid open violation of 



injustice and hard-hip of dismissing military law and military discipline. on 
the men so far from their homes, to the part of their general. They had 



return as they could. 

In consequence of this resolution to 



seen him seize property and provisions 
to sustain him in his disobedience. 



disobey his orders, great controversy ' They had seen him, not mere Iv escape 
arose between the general and his offi- punishment, but receive applause, 
eers, and the quarter-master. The \ Nothing wa« more natural than that 
General not only refused to dismiss the [ they ?hoiild imbibe tiie same spirit, and 
men, but he refused to deliver over the i communicate it to others; and thai all 
property as ordered, resolving to take should suppose themselves justified, iu- 
v:ith him ^ so rnmh of that property «s following the example of their general, 
should he necess'iry to his return." Not- , in acting upon their own notions of 
wil'istanding the contrary directions of right, when lliev thought pr<)|)er to do 
th- quarter-master, General Jackson so. The success which attended the 
05" " Seized upon the u-aggons yet . mutinous efforts of the forces first 
zcithin his lines, and co^iPELhED the7n ^o ' marched against the Creeks, could 
proceed to the transportation of his sick.^' not IJiil to have an effect upon all sub- 
I (|uo1e the very terms employed by secpient corps and to diffuse amongst 
Major Eaton, who is iiy no means them the same refractory spirit. When, 
sparing of insiiuiaiions vcr\ prejudicial therel'ore, the six niilitia-inen, put to 
to Gen. Wilkiuson, and the oUicers death, and their associates ?entenced 
who advised Jackson against the vio- to degrading punisiiment, deserted 
latioii of military subordination, of such ! from forts Strothcr and Jackson, and 
dargerous example in an army. ("jcirff/"' the public property to sustain 

Gen. Jackson marched tiiesc volun- ' them, they did but act upon the ex- 
teers back to Tennessee and dismissed ample set by Gen. Jackson at Natchez. 
them. Ti)e giivernment overlooked, JVhcn about to suffer, thry mighl ucll havi 
his contempt of authority, and )\\s : said to Gm. Jackson: "To the evil or 
seizure of public property, and permit- j your example our deaths should be 
ted him again to take the command, ' attributed." To tiie government they 
Tvhen it became necessary to repel i might have said: "Bi/ countenancing 



the attacks of the Creek Indian*. These 
same volunteers constituted the princi- 
pal force with whicli the general 
marched into tlie Creek nation, in Oc- 
toi'er, 1813. It is to the ollicers of this 
same corps that M.ijor Eaton attributes 
the commencement of mutiny and re- 
volt, in November a;id Doceniber, 1813. 
The militia tii-st manil'e-teil this tem- 
per. But Major ESton observes, " To 
thismea.-urc ttiere were good evidences 
for believing that several of the ollicers 
of the old volunteer corps exerted them- 
selves clandestinclv and with great in- 
dustrv, to instigate lln-ni."' These vo- 
Innteei ■» =cini) bf'caijne the leadoj'* of rc- 



and reicnrding the jnntinous acts of Gen. 
Jackson, you brought disobedience aud de- 
frrtion into the militia of Tennessci; and 
have injUcted a cruel death upon ws." In 
both cases, the rebuke would have been 
as just as that of the son who l)it off his 
mother's ear under the gallows, be- 
cause she rewarded, instead of ])unish- 
ing, his first youthful acts of aggression. 
I am not now investigating the con- 
duct of the court martial, though 1 hold 
them deeply censurable, for tlie course 
they pursued. I am impressed with the 
opinion that they were men of little 
information, and not nnicli independ- 
ence. Except the Pusident, Colonil 



SIX MILITIA HEN. 



I«9 



Perkins, they were i.omiiiiitcd by Col. 
Pipkin, wlio" was ihe ostensible prose- 
cutor, and who has since shown that 
his feelings remain suflicienily excited 
against the sutrercrs. Col. Perkins 
had hiniseir romniilted acts of insub- 
ordinaiioii, during llie Creek war, that 
subjected him to punishment. — His 
arrest had been demanded by Gen. 
Coffee, and Gen. Jackson had inter- 
fered to get him excu«ed, upon the 
plea of " ignorancr nf tnilitary drill/.' — 
[See Eaioii, 130. 1.2.] Tliis plea is 
no favorable evidence of his (pialitica- 
tion, whilst the other circumstances of 
his case show that he was, most pro- 
bably, a special favourite with the 
General. 

The decisions of a court, thus com- 
posed, ought not to have a decisive in- 
fluence with the commander — And all 
the proceedings and proofs are uni- 
formly luid belbrc him, that lie may 
deride for himself, in approving or dis- 
approving their sentence. 

When Gen. Jackson perused the 
proceedings in question, he perceived 
that all the acts charged against all the 
sentenced persons were in substance 
the same. They all related to tlie 
departure from the army to return 
home, on the allegation that the term 
■«f service had expired. The conni- 
ving at mutiny, the exciting to mutiny, 
the actual mutiny, and the disobedi- 
ence of orders, were but separate parts 
of the same final act. Captain Stro- 
ther was tiot found guilty of a( tual mu- 
tiny; hut he was convicted of ex<iling 
to, and conniving at mutiny, and of dis- 
obedience of orders. The sentence 
did not touch his life — Yet assuredly 
an officer wlw excites to mutiny, is the 
most gricvious offender of the two. 
His example is most dangerous, iiis 
crime the most reprehensible, and he 
ought (c receive the most exemplary 
punishment. This Court Martial did 
not think so: an evidence at least, of 
very incorrect judgment, either in the 
case of the officer, or of tiie men. 

Of the six individuals, who were put 
to death, tiie case of each required from 
the General, a careful and candid ex- 
amination, because the reference of the 
sentence to the General is a substan- 
iial, not a formal matter. 



Jacob Webb departed from Fort 
J;ickson. Neither the charges, nor 
(he testimony, accused him of any oth- 
er act, than a simple departure, ex- 
cept, that after the departure he was 
seen at the head ol tiiose vvho had de- 
parted. He stated in his defence: 

'•Tiiat he served three montiis lliifh- 
tuUy, and coi.ccived, from the best in- 
formation he could get, that his term of 
service had expired: that he was told, 
by ijoth non-commissioned officers and 
privates, that it was nothing but right 
to go, and as soon ns he discovered his er- 
ror he relumed to his iliily.'' 

Tins sentence, under tlie circumstan- 
ces, stands in singular contrast with 
tliat pronounced in the cases of James 
Nelson, Joseph Routon, A. Whitton, 
and Robert B. Roberts. Thev were 
cliarged with mutiny in this, -that tliey 
forcibly took beef and flour from the 
contractors agent," and "marched off 
with the mutinous party." They al- 
leged the same defence, and added an 
expression of regret, and a call upon 
the mercy of the court. Though found 
guilty,they were not sentenced to death, 
but to the lesser suffering of stoppage 
of pay, shaving of heads, and druming 
out ef camp. As they added robbery 
to mutiny, one cannot but be surprised 
at the moral conceptions that inflicted 
tlie lighter punishment upon them. 

David Morrow. He was a Ser- 
geant, and was found guilty of car- 
rying about a paper to get signers to go 
home, of seizing flour and beef, and of 
[leading the party that left Fort Stroth- 
ep. He alleged the same defence with 
others, stating that he had acted upon 
" the advice wliich Le received from 
his Captain, corroborated by the opin- 
ion ofGen. Johnston, Colonel Chatham, 
Captain Earp, as well as many others. 
He threw himself upon the mercy of 
the court and produced also the fol- 
lowing documents: 

'•Camp .-teivart, 1st Nov. 1814. 
GENERAL OKDERS. 
To all Officers of the United States'' Jirmy. 

Whereas David Morrow, belonging (o 
Captain John Strotbers cnrn|)any. attach- 
ed to the 1st regiment Tennessee militia, 
who dpserted from Fort Jackson on 
the 20th or 21st of September last, has 
come forward and surrendered |iiimself In 



lU 



SIX MIMTIA M^X. 



thi»cam(.. h;.* arkr.oii IcJged th.- error ..|| l,eeii ki.owiV to ihe court a d o ihe 
hi. om.u.:.. prolessed hi- pe,„ter.ce .. . comnianding Gc.:cnil. He »vaf a 
h. ..me. :.ncl begge, pe,m,s».>n lo .-eacLer ot tl.e Bapu>: Ci.urch, .-.d- 
j'.iii his coniiiiiny, ami serve out hi? linn i. . ,„ j ■ 'i , • , , ' , 

o.--e,uce. ordi.y,.. a .-..thiMl .ol.l.e, :.■'"?•*'" ^?'"'' "•\"\" d i. del. , a d 



l»e ish.Teby pardoned, on reporln... ;iin,-^"f '•''"l"^'' ''I '"'-e Clilldrei , seve 
seltio Lis companj . of Col. P. P.pk.n*. ""O'!;^ »'tTf .vou.g ad l;.lplc^^, 
ivithoiil d 



reoiineni ivithoiit delay, suljcii 10 tlie 
will ■ I l!i.> commmiling Genera). 

The oflirers conimamiii.g sit stniions, 
ar-^ dire<-|p(l to f-inii-h him with rations, 
an! the CMiti David Morrow i$ permitied 
♦( j in Ca, i. lilackmore wl;o wiil siilT^ r 
hiiti to iio *o. in nrder more safely <<• pur- 
sue. his proper journey to his [ roper sta- 
tion, by cmniiind: 

GtO Dl FFiF.LP. 
Jlil-iJt-Camp to tSria Ulu Taylor.'' 



lof 

tlu- Generals ov u adini.-si-n, ii ..p- 
pears i at 'lie culprit wrote a lei.cr 
to him, alter his triwl. VVitli liie ciii- 
tei ts o! tha; Icttc- \vc are not acquaint- 
ed. That it was to obtair a (.aruon 
by stating his ca^c. ad exprc si:ig coii- 
iritioi! for lii.- oili- .ce ca : o; e rea.soi- 
abh doubted. But he made :.o suc- 
cessful impr.S'io 1. T ;e iiea.t o;' :e 
commander was stieled. hv ^oin- c use 



or other, against the pleadiigs of m-^^ cv. 
It would seem to me that a stroi'.ger "'^^" addressed to him in the i!:o.>t 
'C-'-e for rlf-menrv than thai made out ' movi: g vJluallDii, a f:i!!:er implori,.e ;o 
for M Tiow IS seldom found, nhoro ' ''''spared to aid in tiie suppori ola ii. Ip- 
thcrc i ad even !)ecii origir,al guili. ; lc?s wife and children. 
Tie had voluntarily returned (o nis| IIknrv Lev.is. Hcwas fou-d ?u;I- 

l.ige 
, , - . ..re "as 
y t he «-as deemed a necessary victim , no law to compel militia to serve Ion. or 
to ex mnlify ju'^tico' ' ■ • ... 



x,^ ..au .•.,u,.i...i.T iLiuiiicu iw iii> iiKNRV LEV.IS. Hcwaslou'd 
d ity, confessed Lis error, maidfesfed I ty of asserting in presence of a 
d -ep pcDJence, ard implord merr\ ; I portion of the troops, that there 



.foH.N Harris. M'ich notoriety lias 



than three moi'ths, thai lie would go 
home on the 20th of September, a, d 
would lake provisions wbere he ci'ii'd 
get it, ai.d olmarchins off at the 1,'ad 
of the mutinous pari of Caj>t. Mcijaiie'e 



be n attached ro this man's case. He 

wa.-; convicted of going throu^ih tl.e 

c^mp 'o get signers to go home on 

the 20th of September, stating that i Company. 

he wotild soon have a lar<;er company ) 

than Captain Kilnatrick, of receiyinjr I No outrageous or viol-nt conduct 

ad cooking his part of the flour a .d j "^■''s l""o^'d against him. His dof re 

berf forcibly faken.and ofmarchinir ofi 1 '^■•''* ll»esamc in substance with thai o[ 



with the mutinous party, ai:d ornnt re- 
purling those who were of the mutin- 
ous party. 

-No aggravated conduct was proven 
against him. His defence follows: 

•• The prisoner slates, in his defence, 
th it he >va< tot;il!y unacquainted wiib 
the nature of militia -eivire; that he had 
fi' (lueiitly heard his oflicers say they 
ktifiv of no law compclliiin; mililia to re- 
main in service longer than Ihiee months: 
and r om the opinio;i of other men of re 
spc' t.ibility and inf innalion. he conceiv- 
e.l his lerni of spr\ ire had expired; re- 
luriiwl Ins gim to his Captain, uiufer that 
impression, took up th.'? reci-ipt he had 
givon for it, and departed from Fort 
.I:ir!v«on. conscious of having tlischarsred 
hi- duly." 

He (00 was sentenced to death. 



Harris. In addiliop, he expressed re- 
gret for his disgraceful cour.-e. ad 
threw himself on the mercy of the 
court. But the court and theGei'eral 
wece alike deaf to the cr\ for mercy. 
Lewis was a mere youth, \y!io had 
served Iwo previous lours of three 
montiis, with re[)ut;i1ion ai;d honor. 

David HrxT. The facts of wliicli 
Hunt was convicted, were sayii^g hn 
would go home, breakiitg the guard- 
house,going oll^viththe mutinous party 
a.'id n-ceiving a sh.ireof the provisions 
Ibreihh taken. His defence was suh- 
•itantially that of the others, the belief 
that there was no law to compel iiio'c 
than three months service, " that he 
was ihrcalened into the act by others; 
erred tiirongh iciioraiice,issorrv lor his 



improper conducl, and solicits t))c 
T)'MUc;h 1 ni eoled in the rc'-ord, the ! mercy of the court."' Hi- •solicit;' 'on. 
.prniliaritios (^l' hi* case must l:avc'^w;ts as vain, as that of all who had 



SIX unriTIA MEV. 



iii 



preceded liim. His lil'o alone could General,! ihouglu there would be do dan'^ 
su;i-ry his Judges and iiis Goneral. ' gpr in my son's returninc; to Ins post, and 

Tiie facts disclosed in the followinsT, iicknowleaginij his error 11 lie commitioit 
(x^riificatcs, show (lio characlir and;'""'- JA.MESllUI^T. 

CO iduct of Daviii Huiil,in that ligiitinj SicrncJ in presence of Joiin Hoover, 
which ihfv oug-:t always Lo III' roi^ai-d- 1 \V. 11. Itoberismi. ihomas Dunjuviiy' 
0<l b} a commai.di-ig GLiieral, deciding! Jas. Wade. Jno. Matthcivs, William 

) M.ittlierts."' 



tipon a question of life and death. 

■• 1 am tlio fiilher ol' David Hunt one 
of I lie -SIX aiiiitia men' "ho ivere shot in 
the United States army in 1815. It has 
always been, and still is in ray opinion. 
th^i my son did not deserve the death he 
siitfered. Such coniidence had I in him. 
thai 1 thonsriit him incipahle ot' comaiit- 
Un^ an art for whirh he mistit deseire to 
die .10 ijjoofninious death. 

lii tlK- late. war with Great Critain. and 
with llie Indians. I tonk great pleasure in 
eqiiippiiiK loy soo David, that he might 
eiii.';.i;e m the service of bis country He 
went as a volunieer uith the first army 
th.if marched against the C'ret k Indians 
I iva> highly gratilied to hear that in all 
the battles that were fought with the 
Ciopks. he acted the part of a brave man. 
as well as that of an orderly sobiier. 

In IK'14, my son became one of tlie 
gariison stationed at Fort Jackson. He 
went there as a sub.-iilutp lur another 
man Wiicn he engaged ivitb this man 
it was the nncer-landing that the term of 
service would expire at the end of three 
months. .•Accordingly, at the e.\[iiration 
of (his term, my son came home «ith 
st-vf ral others, both oificers and soldiers. 
3Iy S'O told me that he was advised by 
persons qualitied, as he believed, to give 
advice on such occasions, that he could 
n (I be compelled to serve a longer period 
than three months 

Soon aflcr my son returned home, it 
w i' ruaioiired that he had done wrong in 
leaving the fort. U'e rellected (hat it 
wa* possible he might have committed 
an error. 1 theielore iinmedialely equip- 
ped hiui nilh suitable clothing, and he re 
turneil as early as he could to his post, 
uilliDUt the least apprehension of danger 
On his return, however, he was taken 
and kept in confinement until the 21sf of 
February, 1813 On which day he was 
put to death. When I beard of his death 

I was greatly surprised — the intollieence I j i ii i , i- i 

n, I ' .11 .,- every lolcr.able undc-istandiii'r to com 

was allogelher unexp cted. I mvselt ' i j ,i 

had been a soldier. 1 had fought in the P'"'.;"*'"" " * "i.- 

war of the Uevobition under Washington. I -^'>' contlusi.ins are: 

Fi -m the little kirnvledt'c 1 had acquired [ First. — T.at Col. Pipkin's regiment, 

fif military discipline ut'.der lhi« btiloved • of wliich tliei'e men composed a.part. 



Edward Lixsf.y. He was convicted 
of opening liie doorof tiic issuing Isouse, 
taking out Hour, issuing it oii(,r('ccivi,.g 
apaiiyaiid goingoir with the mutinous 
parly, a:'d o( speaking words tending 
to lead men to the act of mutiny. 
Defence—" Acted incorrectly through 
ignorance, regrets the impropriety of 
his conduct, and implores the mercy 
court." Semcnced to be shot. . 

Suc!i is a brief outli^.e oC the facts, 
in the case of the si.\ militia men. I 
do not intend further to disgust the 
reader by detailing the cases of those 
sentenced to the lesser jjunishmcnts. 
As the ciiaracter of the transactio'is is 
(he same, it is to be supposed that 
these .six were singled out for exam- 
ples. Let all who are capable of just 
reflection, decide for themselves, 
whether the circumstances ofextei.ua- 
tion which accompatiied eacli case, 
were not such as to mark wiih cruelly 
ar:d injustice, the rigorous execution 
of the sculcncc. 

I commenced this investigation, for 
the purpose of taking a clear and dis- 
liassionate \ iew of the whole case. 
.Appeals to paisioii, to feeling, or to 
])it'iudice, arc iiicomiiatible with such 
a view. I have, therefoiC, abslaiied 
from all such appeals. In consequet.cc 
of this, I am sensible that many read- 
ers may regard what 1 have written as 
tame and spiritless. I could easily 
have escaped this imputation: for, in 
wading through the tr.insaction, rny 
spirit has been often deeply stirred; 
but 1 laboured, I trust successfully, to 
repress it. I am persuaded tli.at I have, 
narrated the material fai ts with lideli- 
tv, and so arrainjed them as to enable 



142 



SIX miTLlA .1.IEV.>~HERO OF TWO WARS. 



was not !■ 'J^Hy called into the service 
of the UiHled States lor six months. 

Because, i.> luthority was conferred, 
ujion the Governor of Tcnni.'isee, by 
tlie letter from the War D paitmeiit,<)f 
J.iiiuary U, 1814, to make a call of 
militia for six montlis, in Junt; follow- 
ing the dale of that letter. 

Because, the terms of that letter did 
not authoriz J the call in the state of 
facts that existed in Juiie, 1 81 4-. 

Second, — That the offences i?hargcd 
and proven, -were acts done in the be- 
lief, that (')■! perpetrators wore exer- 
cisi.ig their lej^al riglits; and in such 



And slander's venomi-d sting. Untouclicd, uc 

moved, 
By passion? coiuiDun to uurtulity. 
Untrmpti'd bi ambiiiun; — to ri'Vt-nge , 

An utter str.inger, :inLt froiu entnuu:- thought 
As far ri:mo¥ed, as heaTen'saiij;t'lic piace, 
i'roni IhL'deuioniar rage oldeciiest lifll. 
ButtiKse wtTf vision; all' What do I lind? 
All imitative palace-, planned in lasti-, 
Toirratiiy poor pndf and low aoibitinn, 
St:iiiclin2 exposed, as be.ginj lor apiilausc. 
Surrounded by a hundred Siuoking huts, 
All tC'ianled by Haul's posieritv^l 
Who to the ciiicftaiu vassal homage pay, 
Cringe at his noii, and startle wiien he frowns 
As for the chief himself, hiiu ivhoai I deemed 
' Of soul ex.ilted far beyond the touch 
j Of grovelling passion-, far above the reach 
] or the bise flatterer's sycojibantic arts — 
Hiui I hiiv-" found surrounded by a crew 



case It is enuallv contrary 'O ithe prin-! Of needy worlduigs, wretched parasites, 
lirv. nml lh.> dirtRtes I .\y''o'■'•*'™.'^^ ^ "S'" '^.""'='>»^* '"a'le their 



ciplesof sound policy, and th<; dictates 
of humanity, to inflict exemplary pun- 
ishmt-iit, even if the law were against 
the accused parties. 

Thirrl. — That the contests between 
Gen. Jackson and the Tennessee: militia. 



To greet his flattering hopi s, which indicate, 
That he e'er loiii may do them service. 
Domesticated in the House, I lind 
A tu.jd-eater, in high authority. 
Fawning upon the chief, and flouting all 
Who approach to court his favour, or who claim 
Reward for service rendered heretofore. — 



during the Creek war, had im,nlanted IJ!!''- *''«■•"=- '"-^.[''''/"'^O''^'''^''"?' °'>'0"1. 

" • J- • 1 ■ .1 • i 1 hat due necessity thus drives me on, 

angry prejudices in his mmd against ; Ami binds my fortune to the chiettain's car; 
them, to the indulgence of which, these ! 'of iioorly quahCed is he. ihe helm 
unfortunate men were sacrifitcd. I 2L^^';','_''!''l'J'''''i!:°';"^'^'."'':".'''''l'"'.^ 
am much mistaken, if mo«t men, who 
take the pains to read what I have 
written, do not come to the same con- 
clusions. 

I -ubscrihe my name, because I am 
willing to be responsible for tlie farts, 
arguments and opinions that I have 
advanced. 

C. HAMMOND. 

!\Iarch 24. 1827. 



I'tirther Extrarls fiQin the Hero of Two ll'ars. 
A\ r.NPt-'BMSnPD IMl.lMA. 

Act II. — Scene l- 

[Bark portic of the Hermitage. Enter ./in<». 
■juary, musing.] 

„inl. Wli It strange qreations fancy can sup- 
ply : 
1 had pictured in my mind the Hermifncre, 
.Secpiestered from tlie nidc and bustling world : 
Iiuliiisouicd 'mid the deep and shady groves. 
Which art had planted. Iliad thoujht to lind 
The humble ivy circlinj round its walls; 
A gr.en sward lawn, ia front, on eilher sirle 
The sportive himbkin fii^ikim in the ^hudo, 
r.iublem' of irino(-enre and sweet liiiiiiilitv, 
.Vrcordant ivilh tlic Chieftain's character; 
Ada lied well in tranijiiilize the iiiiiid, 
liivi coratr (he genius, and couiluce 
To thought refined, ami aiitiiinarian lore. 
The ma-ter I had <Iraivn, n« one whose life 
Shone lorlh nl limue, a bright exeni;ilar 
Of iilllhii hir professed — "or seeking fame, 
N'or ^huniiiii,' d^ity when his coiinlrv called. 



hains. 
His fellow me-i ; and who submits himself 
To giiulancc, such a'^that he now endures — 
But lol becomes. — Heavens I was I overheard.' 

[£ii/cr from the Hall, Hero and Lady Hero."] 

Hero. Good Sir, I have heard what gives mc 
much concern. 
Here come> a strong report that in your land. 
The arch Magician Harry, bears the sway, 
.-^nd holds, 
Securely a' hi? own, the people's hearts. 

.inl. 'Tis hilt a hollew coalition voice: 
For none Imt Hero holds the peoples' hearts, 
.\iid their true feeliugs weekly arc proolaimcii 
By faithful friend*. The Advertiser teems — 

Hero. With falsehood most ab-urd. He likf 
the ass. 
In fabled story, brays most lustily. 
But can'Kit hide his ears. The lion's skiu 
Disdains to cover such an animal. 
His brayingsdo me prejudice. Who trus(= 
To insolent, absurd, and ribald calumnies, 
Does injury to all connected with him : 
Of this I've recent proof. The busy fools, 
W ho urged ine on to call Buchanan out. 
Have prostrated, almost, my highest liopc; . 
But you, — I feel 1 owe you many thanks 
For past and for prespective services. — 

Ant. .My service runs before my salutation.-- 
I came not here wilh cmpty-liaiided promises. 
Which empty thanks might well reciprocate. 
For labour done a present compensation 
Miiy well be claimed ; f.ir that to be performed, 
Promise may be against a promise set. 
And ilecmeil a reciprocity. 

Wf ro. .Viid docs the m;in of learning nud re- 
search, 
Visit me as the licggared vagabond ! — like Bcv- 

rrlcy? "^ 
And such as lie ? — to ask for present pence '. 



-erenc and nnrourcrned miibt faction's slornis.' And future o'Viee' -Tis humiliating 



THE HERO OF TWO WARS. MILITARY finEFTAIN. 



^•■s 



Alrcatly many hij;li ili^tiniuishcil namc!', 
Stand in the gupol'lirst prilVi luent — wlienoc, 
If I'm in.itle President, llicy'll iie'i-r retreat, 
Without the >tiice claiiulil. — And thry have 
chiini?. — 
Lady Hero. They've laboured much, and 
should have their reward. 
The cock that scratches must be allowed to 

pick. 
Thoush 'tis a ease of hardship, there's no help. 
Where there's more pigs than teats, some pigs 
mu>t starve. — 
^nt. (aside) Sampson's Delilah! — what a 

speech was there! 
Hero. I did concede thou hadst some service 
done. 
Though what it was, I am not well informed. 
The concession was of courtesy ; 
T^i boast a service is lo c.ncel it. 
Yet ivould I hear for what I am indebted, 
That I maj judge, if a reward be due. — ' ' 
JliU. vireat men have treacherous memories. 
Thisl Cud, 
Istrue, even at the llermitage. And to refresh 

them, 
By modest hint, is hel<l to boast a service 
And cancel all its merit. — Be it so. 
Ijabours forgotten, ne'er receive reward — 
And this can but belal them, wlieii recounted. — 
Grval chieftain, you have muchastonitlied me! 
— Of all my labours, all my sa<Tilices, 
To upliltthe peoples' candidate on high, 
Professing ignorance, and roniKlly stating 
That they exist, but as of courtesy. 
Before I dabbled in the dirty courses. 
Which your supporters were compelled to fol- 
low. 
The savor of my name was sweet and healthful. 
The wise ami learned received me, acompeer; 
All my pursuits were useful and profound; — 
I Stood, confessed, the literary chief 
Of the vast occidental hemisphere. 
What am [ now ! the jest and scorn of many. 
My very name, a by-word of reproach, 
Hung up as o> e regardless of all truth. 
All candour, fairne.-s, and good character! 
And wherefore? For tLis very potent reason, 
lbu< kied on my armour in 'liy cause, 
And looked Hot back. Whatever was avouched, 
I took upon me to maintain f>r truth. 
You were proclaimed the hero of two wars, 
ilow idly you w II know : but I maintained it, 
Boldly as Eaton, roumlly as yourscll'. 
In the famed Swarlout letter. — 'Twas pro- 
claimed 
You were a Cincinnatus, — second Washington. 
— Encore! 1 -houtcd. Glory to the chief! 
The very Hector oflhi? mighty nation! 
Hector and Hickory are derivatives 
From the same root — By the same cause im- 
pelled. 
I stoutly swore it — 'Twas Paris ravished Hellen , 
Hector stood forth the champion of the deed. 
Of lust the apologist and vindicator. 
This wa? your great example, — "Booty and 
Bfauly.^'' — 

Jlcro. What mean you, Sir? 'Ti? vile insin- 
uation. 
Jlnt. I crave your patience. You're too sen- 
sitive. 
"Booty and Reauty''' was the watchword given 
For your destruction. — Was it f/i«(i a slur? 
Fair Hellen left her husband — and for what? 
Was beadog ordrunkard? a poor knave? 
A e7iiar''el?omp, ieiiloT'=-pated. horned crea'n-"? 



I said not so. — But Pans, we're instnieted. 
Was a most (iroper man in parts and manners, 
To attract a buxom lady's best affections — 
Lady Hero. So was my Hero, in his days of 
vigour. 
Oh, 1 shall ne'er forget — 

Hero. Madam be silent. 

And let no folly now escape \o!ir tongue 

Lady Hero. By all the cats! the ctiicftain'sit 
a pet, 
As if he'd kicked the kiver from himself 
And left us naked. — 

Hero. You'd soon make us so. — 

Proceed, Sir! I am fain to hear you through- 
^Inl. I see no cau^e for so much huflishness, 
For reprehension rude, or tart reply. 
Hellen was booty to her ravisher ; 
Her beauty stood before all other women. 
Thus she was beauty and ^as booty too. 
Paris enjoyed both; — and what of that? 
Booty., — be it of gidd or pretty woman. 
Is ioo/y still; the last — the best possession. 
Say 'st not thou so, great chieftain? .And beaut<. 

stolen, 
Is sweetest in the enjoyment. 

Hero. Prating knave, 

Forth:3, thy insolence, thy ears shall answi^. 
Here. Toady ! give this scoundrel his deserts ; 
Let him partake the late' of that vile slave. 
Who felt my veogeance, when the knave Buc- 
hanan 
Dared to assert I had not spoken truth. 
And left me in the lurch to save his bacon. ^ 
Ant. Hold, honoured Sir! and hear me but t 

word — 
Hero. No! Mot another! I've enough beei^ 
outraged 
What, Toady! — ho! Perdition! Vengeance 
Vengeance ! 
Ant. My heels shall save me. 'Tis a righ' 
gootl oflice 
They have before performed. But little thought 

That thus wonld all my labours be rewarded. 

I'll hie me home ; and this shall be remcmbercri. 



]HII,ITARY CHIEFTAIN. 

The following extracts, from a speech 
delivered by Mr. Clay, in 1819, on thr, 
subject of the Seiniiioie war, <hous ihe 
light in which tiiat clear sighted states- 
man then viewed the probable conse- 
quences of General Jackson's military 
violence. We rcconimL-ndthcni to the 
attentive cousidenilionof every reflect- 
ing reader. 

•• 'I'hf lirst circumslance wliicli in iJie 
murse of his performing that Hnty, (ixeri 
our atlcntioii, had, iMr. Clay said, (illed 
him ivilh rei-ret. Jt was t!ie extculioi; 
of ihfi Indian chiefs. Ilow, he ai-ked, did 
they come into our possession? Was it 
in the courso of fair, and open, and honor- 
able war? No: but by means of deception 
— by hoisting foreign colors on Ihe stafl" 
from which th? vtara ai)d stripes alone 



aiMTAKV CHIEFTAI.S. 



should ii:ive do.ileil. I'lius en!iiiare<l. the of the man ha# been handed down to ihe 
Indians were taken on shore, and ivithoul &xccration of postFiitv " 
ceremony, iiod wiihoul del. IV. were hung. I '"lie would not tres'|ia?s much loutci- 
Hang :in Indian! We, nr, who are civil- j U|.oii the lime of ihe coinmiltee; but he 
izcd, andean comprehend and feel tiie|tiu>ted lie should be ii.dulgen »»ilh sumo 
effect of moral caufC and coiij^ideraioni-, | fen retlectionf upon the danger ol i er- 
attach ig-iioininv to that mode of death, j milting; the conduct, on wliich it bad l.teii 
Ami the gallant, aiitl retined. and high hi.- painfnl duiy to animadvert, to p.iis 
minded man, seek? by all possible means ' wilbont a Milemn expiession ol the ili-^ip- 
to avoid It. 13ut, what care* an ludian i prob.ition of this Ib^u.'e. liecal to \>.ui 
whether you bang or shoot htm? The recollei-ti'in. s:iid he the Iree nali. ns 
moment be is captured, he is considered | which have gone befoieii.-. Where irre 
by his tribe as displaced, if not lost. ' they now. and how have they lost their 
'I'hev, too, are indill'erent about the man- lii)crlies? If we .;oold transport ourselves 
ner in which he is ilispalcbed. liut, .Mr. , ba' k to ibe ases when Greece and Kume 
C. said, he regarcfte'l tiie occurrence with flourished in their greaiest prurpeiitv. and, 
grief for otiier and biglier coiisideiations. I mingling in the throng, ask a Grcnan it' 
It was" the first instance that he knew of, he did not fear sonie daring mihlary 
in the annals of our cmiiitry. in which re-i chieftain, covered h ith glory, some Pbibp 
laliation. bv executing liidian captives, or Alexander, "onlrl one day overthioiv 
had ever been deliberately practised, bis liberlies? No'. No! the contiflput 
There may have bi'en exceptions, but if and indignant Grecian would exrlnim, 
there were, tlicy met with contemponi- we have notinng to fear from our berimes; 
ueous condemnation, and have been re- our liberties « ill be eternal ll a R. njan 
prehcnded by the just i)en of impartial citizen had been asked, if he did noi ie .r 
history. The gentleman from Massachu- the conqueror of Gnul inigbl tstablir! c. 
sells may icll me, if he pleases, what he throne upon the ruins of the piibltr libeiiy, 
])leasc5 about the tomalKuvk, scalping he would have instanily repelled il.c 
knife — about Indian enormities and for- ^ insinuation. Vet Greece bad fallen, 
eign miscreants and incendiaries. I, too, Ca;':ir had passed the liu' icon, and the 
liate them, from my very ?oul I abominate patriotic arm even of lirulus could not 
them. But. I love my country, and its preserve the liberties of his couniiv! 
constitution; I love liberty and .safety, i The celebrated Jladame de Siael, in her 
and tear military despotism more evrn ' last and perhaps best work, has said, that 
than I hale tlie*e monsters. The gentle- in the very year, almost the very moi'th. 
man in the course of his remarks, allu.led iwlien Ihe ('resident of lie Directory • e- 
to the state from whitli 1 have Ihe honor ' dared that mon ,ichy wnuld never im le 
to come. Lillle. sir, does he know oflsbnw its fiiahtful head in I'raiK e. Poi'a- 
ihe high and magnanimous sentinirnls ; parte wiih his grenadiers, entered liie 
of the people of that state, if he supposes palaceofSl. Cloud, and di-persin?, \Mlh 
ttipy will approve of the transaction to i the bayonet, the depi-.tifsof ihe pei'|Me, 



which he referred. Hravcand generous, 
limn.inity and clemency towards a f.illeii 
foe constitute one of their noblest charac- 
teristics. Amid'st all the struggles for 
that fair land between the natives and 
the present inliabit;'.iils, Mr. C. saiil he 
defied the gentleman to point out one in- 
stance in which a hvenluckian had stained 



deliberating on the atlairs of the >',ale, 
laid the loundation of that vast fabrir of 
despotism whish over-hadowcd all Eu- 
rope, lie liopcdnntto be misunderstotid; 
he vas far from intimating that Gen. 
Jackson che'i>hed any <lesigns inimicxl 
to Ihe liberties of the country. He be- 
lieved his intentions pure and palriolic. 



his hand by nolhing but his high i [[e thanked God that he would not. bul be 

?cnsc' of the distinguished services and ex | lhaiik*d him still inoie that be could not, 
altcd merits of (General Jackson prevent- 1 if he would. o\erlurn Ihe liberties of ine 
ed his using a dilTerent term — the eXeru- T.upublic. Eul precedents, if bad were 



fion of an unarmed and proslralc captive. 
Yes, said i\lr. C. there was one solil.irv 



fraught wilh the most dangerous cnnse- 
i]uences. .Man has been described, ly 



exception, in ivhirh a man, enraged at be- (some of those who have treaterl of !-,;s n.. 
lioUling nil Indian prisoner, who hail ile | lure, as a bundle of'imbils. Thede'rii- 
slroyed sumo of his kindred, plunged his I lion was niiirh liuer when applied to f v- 
fword into his bosom. The wicked ernmenls. Preredenis were ibeir hnbii.'!. 
deed was considered as an nliontin.iMe There wa" one impor'aiii ditl(r<ine be- 
iiiitrage "heo it occurred, and the name tween the foroiation of habits bv an iiKfi" 



MILITARY CHIEFTAIN. 



Hi 



vidii il iijiil bv sjover.iiuenl;!. llecontriict-i 
il ')iiiy after rrei|in-iil ifpeliiidii. A eingic 
iiisiMiice lixes (lie hiiliitun.l (tetcrmines IIh 
(lirPi:tii)ii of fjoveriiineiil-i, .A};aiii#t th< 
:il;ir;niiig doctrine ol'iinliiiiited disoreti'^n 
ill our military oommaiKlcis, u lien ajipli- 
ed even to prisoners of "ar, ho mii»t en- 
ter Ins protest. It bcf^an npon I hem; it 
would end on us. lie hoped th it our 
hajipj- (orm of nfovernmenl was destined 
to lie perpetual. But it' it were to he 
preserved, it must ht hy the practice of 
virtue, by justice, by moderation, t)y 
inasjnaniinity. by greatness of soul, by 
keeping a watchful and steady eye on 
the Executive; uid. above all, by holdins 
to a strict accountaiiility the nii'lituiy 
branch of the public torcc. 

Wrt arc fivjlitin^. said Mr. C. a great 
moral battle (or the benclit, not only oi 
oiir country, but of all mankind The 
eyes uf the whole world are in (ixed at- 
tention U|ion IIS. One. and the largest, 
portion ot it, isgazing witii contem|)t, with 
jealousy, aiiil with envy; the other por- 
tion, with hope, with conlirlence, and 
with ^itTertioii. Every where the black 
cloud of legitimacy is suspended over the 
world save only one brialit spot, which 
breaks out from the poliiical hemisphere 
of the West, to bnghteti, and animate, 
and gladden the humane lieait. Obscure 
that by llie downfall of liberty here, and 
all mankind are enshrouded in one uni- 
versal darkness. To you Mr. Chairman 
belongs the higli (irivilegc of trans.Tiilting. 
unimpaired, to posterity, the fair charac- 
ter and the libcilyof our country. Do 
you expect to execute this high trust by 
trampling, or suffering to be Ir-impletl 
dowi. l-tw, justice, the c institution, and 
the rights of oilier people? Hy esbibit- 
iiigs examnies of inhumaiiily. and cruelly, 
and ambitioi? When the minions of 
despotism hear!, in Kurope, of tiie seizure 
of PensacTla, how did they chuckle, anil 
chids the admirers of our institutions, 
tauntingly pointing to the domon<l ration 
of a spirit of injustice and agorandisi»ment 
made by our country, in the mid-t of 
uraicable negotiation Behold, said they, 
the con luct of those who are constantly 
reproaching kiuga. You saw how those 
admireis were astonished and hiini' their 
head.? You saw. too, when that illiislri- 
nu8 man, who presides over us, adopied 
i^is pacilic. moderate and just course, 
bow they once more liftnl up their heads, 
with exultation and deliglit beaming in 
their countenances. And yoti saw how 
thr>;8minionstbem?elrcs were tinnlly com- 



pelled t.. unite in the geneial praises be- 
-towcd upon our government. Beware 
iiiw you (orffit this exalted character, 
tiewaic how you give a fatal sanction, in 
ibis iid.int period ot'our republic, scarcely 
yet two score years ol<l, to mililary in- 
i -uhordiiiation. Hemember that Greece 
had her .Alexander. Home her Ta-sar, 
Kiiijland her Crom.vtdl, France her >oiia- 
I a te. anil, that, if we vvould escape the 
r.ick on which they split, we must avoid 
their errors. 

liow different has been the treatment 
of Gen. Jackson, and that modest but 
heroic young man, a native of one of tbr 
smallest stales in the union, who' acbiev 
I ed lor his country, on Lake Erie, one ol 
the most gloiious victories of the late 
I war. In a moment of passion he f(,rgof 
, himselt, and offered an act of violence, 
[which was repented as soon as per|)eiial 
led. He was tried, and snltejed the 
{judgment [uonounced by his peers. Puli- 
j lie justice was llioiight not even then to 
I be satistied. Tiie press and Congrf ss 
I took up the subject. My honorable 
fiiend from \'iigiiiia, (.Mr. joh'.son) the 
faithful and consistent eenlinel of the law 
and of the constitution, disapproved in 
that instance, as he does in this, and mov- 
ed an inquiry. The public mind remain- 
ed agi'.ated and unap[>eased until the re- 
cent atone.Tient, so honorably made by the 
gallant commodore. .And was there to 
be a distinction between the officers of 
j (he two branches of the public service? 
Are former services, iiowcver eminent, to 
I piotect t'rom inquiring inti> recent miscon- 
I duct? Is thereto be no limil,i)o jirtiden iiil 
j bounds to the national gratitude? [!e 
was not dispi'sed to censure the President 
for not ordering a court of iiiqiiirv or a 
I general court martial. Perliaps, imptdl- 
1 ed by a «e :se of that giatitnde, he de- 
j termined, by ani.iiij.atinn, to extend to the 
! g.-jneral that pardon wiiich he had the 
i undoubted right to grant after senterce. 
I Let us. said .Mr. C. not shrink from our 
jdu'y. Let us assert our constitulinr.al 
[ powers, and vindicate the iastiun)cnt from 
[ military violation. 

He hoped gentlemen wou'.d deliberate- 
j ly survey the awful position on which we 
stand. They may bear do« nail opposi- 
I lion; ihey may even vote the general the 
'public tbnuks; they rn:iy carry him tri- 
^umphi-.ritly through Ibis honsr. But, il' 
' 'hey do. in my bumble judgment, il will 
': be a triumph of the principle of insubordi- 
■nation — a triumph of l',e miirtary over 
I the civil authority— a triuoipb over the 
O 



M6 



THOMAS M'cnAU.— CHARGES A PROOF. 



powers of this house — ;t triumph over 
the constitution f f the land. And he 
prayed most devoutly to heaven, that il 
might not prove, in its ultimate eflects 
nnd con<equencef, a triumph over the 
liberties of the people. 



From Uic .Varjjlandtr. 
THO.II.VS M'GR.WV. 

Most of our lellow citizens will, iio iluubt, re- 
collect tin; excitement created in this city by 
the conviction of llio above named per-on, du- 
rinj the luontli of December, 1814. lie w.isa 
private in the Ptli couipany of the Cth Regi- 
mi nt, .Maryland Mdilia, was tried by a gener- 
al court martial which convened at lialtimure 
onthe21st Xov. 181-t, of which Bri;aiiier Gen- 
eral Foster was President. The charge? pre- 
ferred a'aiiist him were, -'neglect of duty," and 
of "offering violence to Jonathan Townsend, 
55ergeant, and Sergeant's guard, in the execu- 
tion of their duty." 

He " WHS found guilty of both charges, and 
stvitenced to sufler the lunishnieiit of death, by 
being shot." General Scott. howc\er, ili-ap- 
provcd of the form of the sentence, and ordert-d 
a revision of it by the Con- 1, which being done, 
he approved of it, and directed its execution 
on the 3d Deccinbcr, 1814. By a siibseqncn' 
iirdor, he suspended the execution of the sen- 
tenix- uiitii the LOth l)e.:. 1814; •' lu await the 
dcr'ion of the President in the case." 

TL'is mutiny it will be perceived occurred at 
a time when the enemy werr still in our water?, 
and when subordiBtition was highly essential to 
the safety of the place, and that had General 
Scjtt wished an excuse for spilling the blood of 
a brave, though deluded militiaman, the cir- 
«umslances of the case would have afforded 
him an ample one. lie, however, felt iis a hu- 
mane and generous commanilcr should feel, and 
in the exercise of power he forgot luit mercy. — 
JlcGraw had forfeited his life to the laws of his 
country, but he had done so uuder a delusion, 
that as a militiaman he would not he subjerted 
to the same rlsorous discipline as if heliad been 
a regular. The General fell ton, that if Mc- 
Graw had offendeil againvt the law, that hie 
faiiiily and frieinl? hail strong claims upon their 
country, and instead of hurrjtin^him into etef- 
nity, with hut "four days" to prepare for so se- 
rious a transition, lie extended his time for prep- 
aration until the 16th December, and in the 
mean lime obtained for him the pardon of the 
Presiilent of the Unitetl Sl:ile~. To the clcni- 
oncy of his General, MftGraw was indebted f'jr 
hisiil"e, and in that act. General Scott approved 
himself worthy nf the Inurclshehad won on the 
plains of Canada — laurels which would have 
lieen tarnished had he imbrued hishtiods in tin 
bl lod of his countryman, when nn e\;implc wa- 
not c died l"or by the safety of the army unde 
his command. 

*'> ask those "four I'ellow citizens who wen 
.present on I Iain; '• id Hill, on the day of 11-, 
anticipated exicuti a. awaiting in dreadfu 
suspense the awful oment when the ordi r o 
" fire" was to de|<rik Ihc trembling offender c 
his being in thi» liSc — we ask them to call I 
mind the gtn<.ral shout of joy that roEoundod 



through the dense crowd there assemble! wheB 
Major Belton announced the pardon of the 
President — we call upon them to pause, liefore 
'hey permit their prejudices to spellbound their 
juiL'iuenls into a sanction of the bloody, inhu- 
man, and illegiil execution of Hams' and his 
fellow sufferers by General Jackson. 



{■Il.iRGE.S .4.NU PROOF. 

The maimer ill wliicli tlit* cliartre* of 
l>argaiii and armiigcnu'iit Ix'lwceii Mr. 
.Adams and .Mr. Clav, liave been made, 
and the proof adduced to sustain them, 
present a most singular anomaly. The 
propo-'itions, from which the i)jre;ain is 
inferred, are alleged to have been made 
hv ccrlain friends of Mr. C'lav: and tiic 
proof tliat thc\- were made is drawn 
from the declarations of tin- person? 
who made them, tiioufrh disavowed \n 
themselves. This is considered suffi- 
cient to establish the fact. A brief re- 
capitulation, cannot but interest all. 
who would arrive at truth. 

Gen. Jackson asserted, that a j)ropo- 
sition w;is made to him, on the part of 
Mr. Clay, and was indignantly re- 
jected. — Hence it was, in the opinion, 
of the General and his supporters, a 
fair deduction, tliat similar oilers were 
made to, and accepted by, ;\lr. .Adams. 
After ringing the tale, upon some thou- 
sand changes, the General is, at length, 
brouglit to name his proposer. It wa« 
Mr; Buchanan. But .Mr. Buchanan 
denied making any communication to 

Gen. Jackson, of the import slated. 

.'\Ir. Marklcy was named as one who 
hud conversed upon the subject. He 
too, negatives all tliat is imputed to 
him. Yet the charge is not abandoned, 
it is insisted, that Mr. Clay is bound to 
prove that no bargain was made. He 
lias solemnly denied it. — He calls upon 
all his iVii'nds, through whom it was 
cliarged that the proposition was made. 
They auswer, one and all, that Ihej 
never were agents, in anvsurh affair; 
that they know nothing of any such 
arrangement: and do not believe it ex- 
Mcd. — Rut Ibis is not suflirieiit. The 
next resort is to fasten giiill upon .Mr. 
Adams, and Mr. Clay, by proving tiiaf 
•heir friends, who notv deny, most ex- 
:dicitly. any J<nowlef'ge upon the sub- 
;cet, ojirc held language from which th« 



CII VRr.ES AND I'UOOK. 



11 r 



(tontrary might be inferred. And hav- 
ing obtained a few statements of de- 
tailied conversations, erroiieoiislj re- 
collected, and pL-rliaps [xirposely, mis- 
represented, it is insisted tliat tlic bar- 
gain is proved. The iiijustire and tlie 
wickedness, of this mode of proceeding, 
are so palpable, one cannot but wonder 
how any ititelligent mind can regard i( 
without disgust, — or how any lionour- 
able man can repeat it. — A recent oc- 
currence furnishes an appropriate occa- 
sion, to expose the true nature of tiiis 
ungenerous mode of attack and proof, 
ft is licrc publislied at !arge,that a full 
iind faircomparisonmav l)e made. 

In the Illinois Gazette, a publication 
was made, stati;is thai Gen. Jackson, 
at the m<Mith of Cumberland, on his re- 
turn from New Orleans, first received 
an account of Mr. Clay's last publica- 
tion, and upon learning its contents, ap- 
plied some verv coarse and piofane epi- 
thets to Mr. Clay.— The Louisville Fo- 
cus republished the statement; the 
Jackson papers deneunced it a slander, 
and called for proof. — So far our read- j 
ers will perceive that the case is like 
General Jackson's charge against I\lr. 
Clay. 

It maybe further illustrated. When 
Beverley's letter was publi-hed, its 
tr'itli was denied in the Democratic 
Press and in the National Journal. — 
The Jacksonians, however, insisted to 
have the authoritvnpon which the de- 
nial was made. Nothing short of a de- 
nial under Mr. Clay's own hand, was 
sutficient to put them to the proof. — 
This was all right and proper in the 
Spring of 1C27, where Mr. Clay was 
concerned ! We have another, a very 
difTerent, and a much more correct 
Tiew of it now, from the same politi- 
cians and moralists, in relation to Gen. 
Jackson. We give the following ns a 
specimen, from the editorial head of 
the Nashville Republican of March 25. 

'•EinTORHL JMPrDESCF. The s!iame- 
le«e efi'rontery of the Editor? of thp l.ou-s- 
ville Focus, is without parallel in all llu 
annals of neivspiiper Ulark?iiarfli>nn. — 
They repiibli-:b from an iilinnis print ;: 
gross calumny on Gen. Jackson, as?pitlntr 
at the same time, that they were in pos 
session of ftroiig corroboralinir evidenci 
•f its authenticity. The statement wa« 



promptly denied by us, and Ms aulliois 
called upon for llieir proof Instead, how- 
ever, of accepting the cballenue, and pro- 
reeding to sulislanliale llie bi.ellous alle- 
gation, ibey have the assurance to demand 
of us theanlhonly upon which we cuntra- 
dielcd the slander! Having made the af- 
tinnation, they modenh) invite us to prove 
lis negative.'.' And this is the game that 
the coalition gentry of Kentucky, have 
heen constantly playing since the last 
presidential election. 'I'hey refer lo old 
records in support of their caKimnies, and 
call upon t;s to piihlisii ihem. They an- 
nounce lo the world that Gen. Jackson, 
at sundry times, has heen concerned in 
various di.sgracefn! transaclion-, and in- 
vite his friends In pi)i)iisb liie ultending 
circumstances. And, to cap the climax, 
they allege that at a specified time, on 
a particular occasion, he puf.lirh/ uttered 
foul and profane language, and then thev 
challenjce the editors of this I'aper, to 
prove tliat he ilid not use the expressions 
by them attributed to him I "We cry you 
merry, master Stephen." Make good 
your allegations; sub«tHntiale your accu- 
sation, or you stand convicted tiefore the 
world of a B.ASE AND INFAMOUS 
FALSKItOOD." 

Even so, gentlemen, even so. — Make 
good your allegations against Mr. Clay 
and Mr. Adams, or your chieftain is 
in the same predicament. Vonr whole 
course towards Mr. Clay has been ex- 
acMy that which you so justly con- 
demn. You have drawn a picture of 
your own coriduct.and you have drawn 
it justly. There are, however, other 
resemblances, in this transaction, lo 
that, in which you have assailed Mr. 
Clay, that it is proper to trace. 

VVlicn the allegation of Gen. Jack- 
son's profanity became public, and be- 
gan to circulate, in the new.spapers, if 
seems there was a certain Doctor Jes- 
se Miller, resident at the mouth of 
Cumberland, who felt a strange kind 
of consciousness, that Gen. Jackson 
might suspect liim to I)e ibe author of 
it. This Doctor Miller, therefore, de- 
termined at once, to wipe olT such 
imagined imputation against him. frr.m 
the mind of the General, and accord- 
ingly addressed him a letter. Thi.e 
letter the General has put into the 
iands of the Editors of the Nashville 
Republican, and they have published 
an extract from it, as follows: 



148 



CnARCFJiA- HROOF. 



'^Smitltland. k'y. I fnim twenty to thirty mtmhers f>f Con- 

D.. . „ c.„ -pun „i :^-i _r tu- i„,t^ -.^ ' sresi friim the Wesl. n ho voted for A'l;nis. 
EAR biR — 1 he oiiiect ol this letter is ■ ,. 

10 remove from iny.elf any cei.-ure. 1 ;'''''"'' "''''V' "' >''i°7'K^'* '"""'••^""•- 
which in all i.rohalMhtv m;.v rest upon \ "''•^-JP"", ,t.eneral Jar.k.on m^inifestecl 
me-l have .een ..n.l re..l in mo.t of the i '•""^'■""^"'^ ..""g*"^^ Mrelcheci ••■th h,= 
a.lmini»trat.on na|.ers of Kentncky. „ arm. ami rephecl. -By »/.. .rmnar«/a(f Gorf 
m.hrio... report, relative to ,,hat ,'„.i f "^ "." f °"'/, V''""" '""' ** ''"^'•"'f' 
9ho„M havesairl conrerniu- Mr Clay an.l | ''<"'• "/■'" ^o^'^' .;"« ° m-irderer or. ihe 
hisfrieml^. Permit me. Sir. to slate to Z'"/ '/^ <"'?""• , . , ^, 

you that I am en.irely innocent, and j < ''^ D .lor .epeated ronnderable more 
equally ignorant of howihe report onm- ■ "f ""''^ '^''"^•^'■'«""" re^i ectu,^- elerl.ons. 
nated-l.ei Iff with you durin- the short "'"<^*>- »■* =' ''"<-."<>< ■<"late to the charge 



3lay you made at the mouth of Cumber- 
land. I aai prepared to say. 'hat nothiuer 
indecorous escaped your lips, to me. or to 
any of the company. I well recollect of 
asking you, if you harl seen Mr. Clay's 
pamphlet, and after giving you a laconic 
statement of what it contained, instead of 
showing any irascihility of lompfr. you 
■imiled and Sijid , nothing would aflord you 
more pleasure than to know Mr Clay in- 
nocent of the charges that were laid 
against him. 

JESSE Mir.LER." 

Here, attain, is a strict analogy to 
the case of i\Ir. Clay and Ocn. Jaik- 
son. — Mr. Biiclianan faiioil to sujiport 
the Gcncr.il, wlio reli"d upon iiim as 
aut'ioritv. Doctor M.llor has volun- 
teered to contradict tiiose ivho rely 
upo:i tiim as auihority. But the analo- 
gy docs not stop here. The Editor of 
the Illinois Gazette comes out too, 
wit!> liis proof — Not, as in the case of 
Mr. Clay, by puhlis'iinii dot.ichod and 
iijarl'led stalenienis of his friends, as 
the foundation for an itiference. But 
with direct a;)d positive proofs, as to 
the langUHge used by Doctor Miller, 



iu the jiapers, it is unnere?sarv to repeal 

.lEssE i'vr''Ei:->^ON, 

TUOM.XS WILLIS. 

DOCUMENT NO. 2. 

Copy of a kiltr to one of tite Fditors. 
SSIITHLA.M), Ky., Mahcii 19, l8iR. 

Dear .Sir. — I see in a number of the 
public prints, that you are den' unced as 
Ilie piopagalors of uh:it lbe\ teim an in- 
fimous slaiwler upon the character of 
General Jackson, fur first [<ubli^hirg1vlull 
is styled the Genrrd's answer to Mr. 
Cl.iy's pamphlet, at the mouth of Cumber- 
land river. 

^horlly after the steam boat Pocahon- 
las laiideil I went on board — a lew min- 
utes after I met Dr. Miller on the bow of 
the boat who asked me if i had seen the 
General. I told him I had. lie obser- 
ved that he wished to see him and walked 
aft to the cabin. I directly observed ihe 
Doctor and ihe General in conversation, 
which I think nui^t have lasted fjr 20 or 
30 minute?; I did not bear what passed 
between them, but the Doctor rebilcd to 
me wliat pas-cil as soon as he c.me on 
shore, where 1 was standing, as 1 had 
nalked out just before him. 

The following is what passed, as rela- 



and fastening upon him the fact ol at- ,pj i„ ,,,^ p„=,„ ,,j, .l.ijbe'wc, 



tii uiling to Ceil. Jackson the vervpro- 
far'ily which was piibjislied as being 
uttered by him. We give llii.< pri)of 
al-o, tliat our readers may more fully 
understaiid tiie whole case. 

DOCUMENT NO I. 
\Vp, the uii'ler-i^iied,(lo certify th.Tt we 
heard Dr. Mdler relate Ihe fnlliiwing con 
vrr'.ilion. which passed, he says, between 



board without any intention of speaking 
to General Jackson and was standing at a 
short distance fiom Ihe company to which 
the General was conversing, when the 
General advanced loward^ him and held 
out his hand, saying, "sir, I certainly 
have had the pleasure of seeing you be- 
fore."' 

Dr Miller — Yes. General, you have; I 
had the pleasure of being introiluced to 

himself an'l General J ickson on Im ird Ihe 1 vou several years ago at a ball in Lexiag- 

steam b.i:it i'.ic diontas.al Smithl.md. Ky.; I ton. Ky. 



VIZ. lie (hoclor Miller) staled, thai, at 
the bar. on board the steini boat I'ocii- 
boiitas. he inl'oraieii Gtiieral J.irk^on that 
Mr. Clay had piibli-hed a pamphlet in 
refill. ilion of the ciiarje of b-irgain and | 
sale, and )i:id procured cerlilicatej of 



Jackson — V"ur name, sir? 

.Miller — M\ lanie, sir. is Miller. 

Jachsoti — Mr. Jlillcr, how do you do? 
How have you been? [.;'» ikc same time 
slia!iiri^ him iy the hand.] 

Mitirr — (jfneral vour recollection n'ust 



CHAUGES AND PROOr. 



lit) 



Jipvorvofoorl: I did not expect that ymi I \ier, iis they weie mostly strangers. Af 
would rpcolioct me. | er the Dor.tdr had repealed what had 

Jacksim — Your name. sir. I had forgot- 1 a^'^ed, I awaiti went on hoard the hoat, 
ten, hilt your I'calurrs I never could foi- liiidsing; that I might hear him (the Gen- 
get. Well. Mr. Miller, how does tlie era!) speak on the subject — hut he uas 
land lie with you? engaged in playing cards, and I left the 

Mile- — I suppose I understand you. i Imal wilhuul he-iring him say any thing 
General; you allude to the presidential about ("lav or bis pamphlet 



question. 

Jacks' 71 — I do. 

Mil cr — To be candid with you Gen- 
eral, lalivays respected you vcrv hi£;hl\ 
as a man and a General, hut cannot vote 
for you for president. 

Jackson — Sir I thank yon for your can- 
dor: come let us go to the bar and drink 
something. 

''While at thebar the Doc'or asked him 
if he had sfcn Mr. ClavV paniphlet, to 
which the General replied, he had not. 
and asked if it was any thina; new; the 
Doctor sai i it was a new publication and 
thai there was but one copy in our town. 
The General exprc>sed a great deal of 
anxiety to sec the jiamphlel, and askerl 
what it cor»laiiied. The Doctor replitd. 
thai it H ;;s a rtfiitalinn ol the charges of 
bargain, sale, intrigue, iS-c. and that he 
(Clay) had the cerlilicates of twenty oi 
thirty members of Congress from the 
west, proving hi* innocence. The Gen- 
e.'al appeared to tly into a great pnssion. 
raised his arm, and -wore, by the immac- 
ulate God. Clay was a grand rascal: By 
the eternal God. sir. he accused me with 
being a murderer on the floor of Congress 
'I he General then ask< d him how he 
thought the election wouhl go in Kentuc- 
ky for Governor. The Doctoi- replied 



Very resfiefi fully vours. 

JESSK i'ATTEIiSON. 
P. S. The above is substantially the 
conver-iati in as related by Dr. Miller — 
I may he a little incorrect as to the pre- 
cise words. J. J>. 

Now it is obvious to every rational 
man, thai Doctor Miller has asserted a 
falsehood, in his letter to General Jack- 
son, or ill his conversation with Mr. 
Patterson and Mr. Willis! — or that the 
latter gentlemen make a false accusa- 
tion against him. — It is not for us, 
who know none of them, to take upon 
us to decide the question. The pre- 
sumptions are against Doctor Miller: 
two witnesses agree to iii.s statement. 
And his prompt denial to Gen. Jackson, 
before he was pul)licly accused, indi- 
cates something like co', scions wrong. 
— Bui how, upon just principles, does 
this aflect Gen. Jackson? He is ac- 
cused, upon tlie authority of Miller, 

and Miller distinctly acquits him! 

There i- fal-ehood somewhere. But 
surely there can he no justice inaflect- 
iiig to . i.nsider, that Gen, Jack>on is 
convicted of liavii g used the language 
imputed to him. li Patterson and wTl- 




The General said no — that a fiiend o( 
Wiiliam T. Barry was never an intrudei 
on him. lie hoped the Doctor's senti- 
ments as to the Presidency W'U d change. 
kc. They Ibeii shook hands and pait<d. 
Thi-, sir. is as near as I can recollrci. 
the statement mai'e by Dr. -Mdler, of the 
conversation between him and the Gen- 
eral, and which he related 'o me, ami 
several others, before the Pocahontas left 
the I Hiding lie staled thai a number o| 
persona were prese:it. and heard what 
p issed between him and the General; hut 
I believe none o( the citizens of our place 
were of the number. I saw sever,! per 
son* present when Ihev were conversing 



sert the truth, Iher: (here is no proof 
that the General used the oiFensive 
language charged upon him. 

Eviry Jacksonian. the Ge eral him- 
>elt included, will join iti the coi elu- 
sion here suggested, as being strictly 
correct, in the case before us. — Does 
ilot every reader perceive that the 
same conclusion resulls from (lie state 
of facts, in regard to the charges 
against Mr. Clay? Yet the Jackorii- 
ans, including the General liimself, iii- 
•^ist upon a directly adverse conclusion. 
Thcv prove iMr. Clay's guilt, by making 
his friends CO- tradict themselves. By 



hnt do not recollect who was of the nnm- (he same rule, the General's guilt is 



IM 



CUARGl^ AXD PROUfr'.— ANUTUER rAGEANT- 



r?tal)lislu-(l in thi-; case. — A very clev 
cr aiKumcfit could be m:ide, to show 



see, svmptoms of independence were 
manifeslcd, and men were itupudtnt 



how iin]! 



robahic it was, tiiat Doctoi I enoiii;h to talk of Adams" Electors for 



!\Iiiler would invent sach a monstrou> 
lie, and associate it with so much plau- 
sible matter; and how very probable 
it was. that he mitrht be bought off, — 
tliat is, obtain th'- promise of a douceur, 
in future, for making a bold retraction, 
to serve the chief.— But such sort ol 
arguments would be as base and vile, 
as those now used by the Jacksonians 
against Mr. Clay. Let every honest 
man compare the cases, as I have here 
briefly sketched them, and I do not 
doubt, he will lind in them a strong 
resemblance, and will come to the 
conclusion that what is unjust in one, 
must be unjust in both. 



President. iVeithcr ^ ictory nor mar- 
riage festivals being at hand, the man- 
agers bethouglil ihem of the General's 
birthday, and it was resolved that a 
farce should be " cnacltcC at Murfrce^- 
boroiigh. This is the seat of govern- 
ment of the state of Tennessee, some 
thirty miles distant from ^Nashville, con- 
sequently in the neighborliood of tht 
General. A birthday day dinner i> 
proposed; the 1 6th day of March beisii: 
the natal day of the mighty chief. The 
in\itation is given in the name of the 
county of Rulh<M-ford, and the following 
neat specimen of fulson;<' palaver, is 
introduced into the note of invitation. 



'■'I'lie undeisigncd ninnot preteimil Ibe 
opportunity berehy iilTonled, of express- 
ing to you, iiidividii. illy, and on bebalf ol 
ANOTHF.R PAGEANT. I jj^^j^ constiluenls. the regret and indigna- 

The putfers of the Hero of two wars, tion with which ibey hnve witnessed, for 
" ' ' <• -' ji^^g j.^^j j^^^ years, the untiring and un- 

manly efTirts of your pnlilical enemies, to 
tarnish your f:iir (auie, and to embitter the 



..f the man of the People, and of the 
Farmer of Tennessee, continue the 
most unremiliing ex'-rtions to keep the 



'•GRE\T mon" before the people. They \dointslic peace of your amiable family .— 

Recently, witli lite ' " ' 



evidence a mo.4 decided apprehension, 
of the consequences that might result, 
should they llag, for an instant, in ex- 
hibiting him. No saint in the Roman 
calendar, ha? so many days of distiuc- 
lion. And it is not improbable that he 
may soon i ome to claim as many les- 
tivc davs, as all the samts together. It 
would swell the catalogue handsomely, 
to include his wedding days. — These 
would add two. if not three.tothe num- 
ber: for his friends insist he was mar- 
ried twice, if not three times, to the 
same wife, and part of these while she 
was the wife of another man. — But all 



egiel. they have 
heurd of an often refined cnliminy. 
under new colour of authority, emanating 
from a source little to have been suspect- 
ed; which from the whole tenor of your 
public and privaic life, your recorded cor- 
respondence, aatl from theinlim;ite know- 
ledge which some of the undersigned had 
of your conibict at the time, anfl ol' the 
public events of that date, they Icel free 
to pronounce wholly false and unfounded.'' 

The invitation isaccepted with great 
satisfaction, and the compliments to 
himself responded to, with peculiar 
modesty. The reader shall judge foi 
himself. 



in the most virtuous innoccncy 

The Pageant at New Orleans did I '• I pray you to say to my fi-llow citizens 
not turn to much account. It cost the I of Rutherford, that I sincerely thank them 
.late ten thousand dollar-! But that i for the generous scnimiee'.s which llicy 
was notbin-. where the Hero was con- ''"^e aulhon/ed you to express m refer 
^\as iioii m„. ■,„.,„,,„ .,i,T„.l ! encc to the eliorls which have been made 

corned. H co>t nuhvidu-ils aKo,a hand- ^ ,_^_ ^^^, ^^^^^.^^^ ^^ ^,^^^.^^^ ^^, character 

some sum 



, ,, /-. 1 1 1 • ! liy mv enemies 

, and the General and I'ls ^ ,_^ ,,^-,, my public and private life, it has 



Tommittees. New York, Ohio, and 
Kentucky — The cotton merchant i|uar- 



happened th;it no action deemed worthy 
of being remembered, has been deprived 



ter master, who was courted, and the^| ,|,p icslinionv necessary to .Tii.ilvze its 



deah-r in lumber, who was neglected, 
all felt that it was a failure, though , 



motive and test its moral value; and 
Hhilst, in all those vvhic!i have hern as 



some swore that it was not. The ef-| snilcd, I am vindicated by the favorable 
feet was disiistrous. Fven in Tennes-' judgment of thc^e of my feltow citir.ens. 



AXOTIIER PAGEANT. 



151 



who have examined them impartially, 
and l)y tlie approbation of my own con- 
science, 1 need not assure you that the 
shafts of calumny have fallen harmless 
from me." 

The easy flowing style of the 
Geni'iars domesticated XNliite-washcr, 
is very pci'ceptibk' ia tills reply. The 
writer had discretion enough to for- 1 
hear all allusion to domestic matters, | 
and the chieftain, obedient to the dic-i 
tation of his keepers, was content to let 
it pass. 

When the General arrived at Mur- 
freesboroiigli, he was greeted with an 
address, delivered by a certain Sam- 
uel H. Langldiii, Esq. It is puj', puff, 
all puff'. Political motives are dis- 
claimed in such manner as to convince 



all candid persons, that the fact and •, , ., , >.. 

the disclaimer are dire ;llv adverse to void of even the appearance of rcproadi — 



considering how very often tjie chief- 
tain made himself a proper subject to 
be prosecuted. The assault upon 
Robards, the murder of IJickinson, the 
outrage upon the Bentuns, and many 
other similar acts, are instances that 
tile General was never fea/ful of en- 
coutitering "prosecution"' for '■'■crime" 
in Tennessee. The fervor of the ad- 
dresser carried him on. 

"We have seen a national benefactor 
made the ot)ject of the most uns-paring 
persecution. VVc have seen hio public 
& private actions & motives i'alsitied k mis- 
represented. We liHve seen his domestic 
peace assailed by the tongues and pens of 
slander and detraction. JVe have seen the 
•^•ifc of his Losijiii—one-^hoae '^hole life has 
been a continued series of virtuous, chari- 
la'de, pious and praise -worthy actions, dr 



each other. Hear iiiin: 

"This interview lias not been solicited 
lor political purposes. We ultcily dis- 
claim all such motives. It has been 



made the innocent object of the venal li- 
beller's blackeit defamation. Hut pro- 
tected by truth and honor, we have also 
seen the shafts of calumny tall harmless 
from him and his house, "and our hearts 



,., ., c ,, ..,. ,. r r ■ r 1 ■ ""™ mm ana nis nouse, and our hearts 

sought for the cratiticafion of friendship i,.,,._ „„•■- ... ,, „ ■ i, „' 

J 1 /- 1- /■ . ,■ ' "a\e reioiced at the sisht The hearts 

ailH OTlrtl-I rpplino- icv flirt filll-t.r.c-rt .-if t«^ ., -^ . _ 'fs''^- *•" I * C d I Ih 



and good feeling — for the purpose of tes 
lifying our uiidiniinished estimation of the 
great "moral value''' ofpubiicand private 
virtue united ivith the most distinguished 
nihilities.'' 



of our wives, of our sisters, and of our 
daughters, have been made glad." 



Considering the admitted fact, that 
ojw act of this lady's life was, to live 
If all this be true, how happened it \ l"""^ ^'''■<^'^, .^"7' ;'' 'h<5 ^'^ of Gen. 
that the Murfreesborou-h folks never ' ^''7'*",'' "''"^^ *'"^ '^S='' "i''^' o-'" Lewis 
before thought of celebrating the f^o.''='''^S ""'1 considering that a legis- 
Hero's hirth dav? The -moral valur' '• ''*''f ^'^'' ''"^ j^'l" '.'I record, lix upon 
of ^^public and private r/rtw," might by i !^'''" ^, 'i""^^" ^^ adultery and descrt- 
^ome be thought, in the nature of a ! !PS ^l'^^ 'Hisnand, this, it must be con- 
^neer. But tliere can be no doubt of '<=**^ed, is a pretty well wrought speci- 
men of hyperbole. The General re- 
plied to it, in his best manner, and by 
selecting some of his most approved 
epithets. 

" Ves, sir, it is true that myself and bo- 
som oompaiiioD have been assailed v.itli 
malignant shafts of calumny and detrac- 
tion, but truth is omnipotent and «ill pre- 
vail over falsehood and error." 

This does bravely for a man wlio 
knows that he is speaking oi" a woman 
whom he seduced from lu-r husband. 



liie siiiijile sincerity of the addresser 
Hear him further. 

'•We all know you from the greatest to 
the least; from these gray headed vete- 
rans of the ^{evolution, to the most juven- 
ile spectator in this extensive crowd. — 
To all. tliis day and this occasion, bring 
an a-sociation of pleasing reminiscences. 
The aged remember you as the uMe and 
jiealous advocate ol' your client's rights — 
the energetic prosecutor of public crime — 
as the enlightened -tatesman who mainly 



assisted in framing liie constitution under j and ^vhom the law separated for that 



which wenort- live in the enjoyment of free 
dom and happiness, anu as the stern and 
even-handed dispenser oi "justice and 
right," from the bench of the highest judi 
diciil tribun,;lof the state." 



seduction. It shows what adulation 
can say upon one side, and confidence 
Eciterate on the other. The domestic 
white-washer was probably not pres- 
„, . . , ent, or the two principal 'subjects of 

Ihis reference to the prosecution of this paragraph, would have been kept 
public crime, is rather a liome Uirust, I out of si-ht. His " ho^om comminij" 



tat 



ANOTHER PA»;EANT. 



and the ''•omiu'potence of Inith,"' are more. Some tifteen or ci^lueen years 
to(>irs which the General should never' asio. (his -inan of sense'' wus a ( aiidi- 
toiicii. Comiiigfromtiiin.tliev give rise date ior Congress in Virgini.i, avowing 
to wicked associations ill t:ie mind oC the Ihc highest t..ned fedL-ralisn). ai.d pub- 
reader, which it were better should not lislied an address in which be niyrlnl 
;,fije, l!ie errors ami follies of tlie Jefu-r.-oii 

We have no account of tiie dinner, ' school of polilic>. to the entire sjiiis- 
tior of the regular toasts. But there faction of John of Roanoke, and other 
are volui.ieers in abundance. The I worthies of the same stamp! He mar- 
first is from a Col, Burton: 'ried a lov ly woman with a cood es- 

. \ late — but it isgo.e. A \outiilul sister 

" Sterde indeed «ms t!,al Claj, »v".ch, ^,,- ,,;^ „.„-^ .uSu.^v estate came under 
did not promote the gro.vth ol "^ckory^W^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ while there, her es- 
an.l much .s ,t to be leared ibai an ex-, ^^^J^^^^^^, ,^^,^ reputation both vanished, 
nosurc to the suiincams ol r.Kei.uuve in- r, , • . i- , ■• -. ■ i 

!, ,1 . ,• ,, •, „ J.,; „ .. Kedured to hve bv his wits, he adveii- 

lluence, will not meliorate its Cv>aaitt<in. ! , i i •- m 

tured to scramble (or I reasiirv pap at 

No doubt the Gereral accorded VVcL-hington, and plaved an under part 
Jieartily in t!ii; scntim'.f.t. Every i in ass;iili. g Mr. Cra\v!b:d, thiougli 
thing is '•• flcrilc" \\\ his view, wliieh the columns ol' tlic Washington Kepub- 
does not promote his own growth. — , lican. Finally, was selected for hi> 
This we have long known was the '. present vocation, that of " recording tfy 
head and front of Mr Clay's olll-nding. : actiutis ofuur second U'ashington.''' Not 
He ''■did not promote the gr07rtrt of hick- onlv his »• literary mtriis," but his moral 
DRY."' And according to the notion of perioptions •• arc e/jual to the task,"' and 
Hickort) worsliippeFs, this is a mo<t w ell adapted to its performance, 
damnatory ollence. Coloi'cl Burton.; The three following toasts arc quit<' 
therefore, must have spoken to the feel- appropriate: 
ings of all present, and to the very 
heart of the Hero. I " % Solomon Ben=ly, F.sq.— -AtKl the 

Gen. Jackson toasted the memory of ^'"•■•'/^"''- '" 'i*"- '"•", ''^ ^.f>='" S' V7" '"■ 
inton:-one of the company toasted l'^"P>^- »"■' '^ J'^;!!''^/''";' ^""•, , 



CI 



H. Bcnloii 



' B\ Ma). John D. Fletcher.— Slamler- 



-Ihr honorable 7 /< .,^k;.s rt. ticnion. I ers of" ,-nx^Uc character: -verily, verily 
which the General must have taken l(,,g shall have iheir reward.' ' 



with great zest. 
foUowintr: 



Another cave us the 



Ithey 



I '-By G W. Damon. Ksq. — The presi 
I dcnlial election: those who are net for U5, 
ire asaiasi us." 



'•The author of JpflTerson. in the lale 
Nashville l*rpi)blic;;-i. in answer to Mi. , . /-, ■ 

Johnson's .Vlams convention a.ldress: A • ""rst to sa_>, that the General wa* 
chip of the ol.l Kevolulionarv block, his ;<l«?l'gl»'cd with the prophetic assurance 
literary merits are eqird to the fojA-o/ r^'-jof the first:— the while-washer gave 
cording ihr actions of oiir second IliwA- j hearty assent 10 the second, proceeding 
inslon. See how a man of sense and en- upon the principle that the greater the 
Jarged information c:in put iloivn the qiiib- i truth, the greater the slander: and the 
b!cf and subllelies of a mere lawyer." third w;is received by all, as selling 



apart the pap of the Treasury for liie 
exclusive reward of the t:iithful. The 



This refers to tlie General's domestic 
wiiite-washer, and truly, the master and ; . , ,, . . , , , 

the man are well consorted. . This *"'P!:"^'1 "' "T '" ? 

:rson. who assumes the name ofJef- Pr^'t"'.^- 'he devil may quote scr.j.lnr 



pe 

I'erson to while-wasli den. Jackson, 
was, during tlie lalter da}> of Jelfer- 
son's public life, his furious reviUr. 
The " old bloik'' of whicli he is said to 
be a chip, performed good service in 
the revolutionary war. But his last 
warlike feat was that of commanding 
the lalhiui; hatchet company, in Balli- 



lor !iis purpose. 

When V. e rocollect how exceedingly 
I modest the Hero is represented to be, 
wc cannot but think the following 
rather a rank oblation: 

" F>y Dr. McConrchie. The memory 
of GpiiPral Washington, and his surerssur 
in miUl^n/ fan'r. our honored guest: roajf 



A>OTnER PACEAVr.—TO «E^. AlfPRFW JArKSOX. 



153 



flie Mier. like the former, tj.hai.ge a 1 TO «;i;>. A>DUKW JACKSox. 
laiiiel wreath tor aci*ic crown '' [ Si-?.— Having n, my lornrn r c ri mu- 

i iiicatio'.r. treated of your eitraoriliiia- 
T le General asse.ib to the preten- 1 ^^ coi duct since the ccmmencemtnt 
sioi that '.e U the « swxesiorinmintnry ^y ^^^^ prcidenlial canv;i>*.I pass wilh- 
,/-;,if" to Gen. Washington. I shou.d t,mpj.e,-;,ce or apoloz^. to -ome other 
ii .s to know to what poriioii of W a*h- ^^ ^^. ^.^^^^ ,;.-g^ equallv ^cp^ehen^ihle, 
ii-oi's military fame i.e has succeed a„j goiiallv unberomirg a gentleman 
ela.d how tlic succes-^ion has been ^^d a pn-.lic officer. I comiuenre v.,:h 
ea<. upon him. Is it Uaihinxtons ^^^^ treatment to Governor RaS-in, 
c. a JO,.? his humaMty? his respect for -^^^ ^^^ ^^ the time, the chief iri.;g- 
the civil aut'ionty? his pu^ictihous j.trate of Georgia; aid whose coi ..-ti- 
o'. lience to orders? his amenitv to hi5 turional power" vou der.ied, and at- 
e-jals? his urbanity to h-s in(er.ors? tempted to set at'd.tiance. 
N . e but his parasi'es. or p<.h!ical de- , ,.^ y^^^,^_ jg,o_ ^.^^^ proceeded ^^Ith 
▼ . ef -, who know nothing ol ium, Lave ^ y^^„^ ^^^^^ f^^^- f^^^ gcott. and its 
cf.-rredthe-etrai'sot character upon ^eighWhood. on vour marcli agai' si 
G .i. lack>oii. Thougt. it w.,uld seem the Mickasukee towns, the; ce you went 
tna. he is entirely willing to take , ^^ g^ ^^.^^^^ ^,,j g„^jj^ to Peasacoia. 
th -m from the hand of any_ Pillgarhc ^t or about the time.and after vour de- 
w :o is di-poscd to offer them. _ 1 oe ^^j.^^ the Indians on the froVtiers of 



SiiO g wish expressed to "exchange 
th • laurel wreath for the civic rroicn," 
indicates the haokering so commo:- to 
* military chieftains," on thai subject. 
T:ic good compa; y at Mirfecsbo 
rough, seem 
materials 
the exchange referred to. 



Georgia, became exceedingly trou')Ie- 
some. sacrificing the lives of the border 
settlers, and carrying off their proper- 
tT. Governor RabuQ was infonncd of 
these events, and eame-tlv solicited to 



:m to have partaken of all the '^^ ^j^^^ sufferers. That he might 
usuall.v engaged in effecting j;^^ ^^^ ^.j^j^^^^^ ^.^^^ knowledge, or in 

any way interrupt your plans he ad' 
dressed to vou tl;e foil 
letter requesting your 



Thev man- 



ife-ted a right kind of temper to be- , ^^^^.^j-^^ ^.^^ ^i,;^ folbwi"r,g respectful 
come subjects: To flatter their leader, jitter reouesting vour aid 
and to reprehend all waodo ijot Hatter | 



him, are the true characteristics of 
tluise who have put off the cit-z-n to 
put on the vassal, in all ages of itie 
world 



"TVIiLLEDGEvntLE, 21stMarch. 1818. 

General Andrew Jackson. Sir. — lou 
have 1.0 doubt been apprised that since 



Tiese continued effort? to preserve ; vour departure from Harllcrd, with the 
the GeneraFs standing, hv exhibiting Georgia militia, the Indians have 
him as a spectacle, are depradi .g to been hoverir.g on the Irontier of Te.- 
f c counti-v-. They demonstrate the /air county: that they have M//frf « -Wr. 
f.'.ji.v of both his 'followers and him-, Bwh, and icounde'l his son, and being 
3(1. 'All decent pride is discarded, ; pursi-ed by the citizens of that county, 
all •^elfre-pcct abandoned, when a man have met them in hostile array, when 
3n-f"Ti himself to be ha»v ked aboui for an engagement took place which li.st- 
po'itical effect, as a partv coloured ed nearly an hour, in which ourhitle 
Merry \ndrew, and piebald horses arc : detachment (co, sitting only ol ihirty- 
parad<»d through the streets to at-, tour men}lost screra/ A:i//f</. and a inm- 
tr ct viMtors to a circus. Such scenes, I ber badly wounded. This rencountre 
wi ere men of distinction are the ac- has excited considerable alarm.on that 
tor^ are di^oTistirg bevoird measure. ; frontier, ar.d the inhabitants, m many 
Ti.Jy have preceded the de<line of all i instances, are flying from their houses 
free 'governments, and are making, un-i for the want of protection, 
der Uic au-pices of Gen. Jackson,! The object of this communication is 
alarming progress in ours. ■ to request you would be so good as to 

It is truly surpris'ng that they do, station some troops near the big l«€nd 
Wot '-rf>:)te general apprehenfion. I of the OcVmulgee, aid at. or near. I. e 

uiort Pis^ilHhie points below that place. 
V 



154 



TO GEN. ANDREW JACKSOX. 



If it is not convenient for you to furnish 
thi' .lecessary lorce, you will please 
giv;,' 'i tructions (or supplying such de- 
tac inie lis as may, in that evcrit, be 
ordered into the service un'kr the an 
thority of the stair, with rations, &c. I 
hope you will write me on this subject 
u-ilhoHl 'ielay, as sfrt-at alarm has been 
produced, by the liostile attitude which 
the enemy has assum"d."' 

Tiie above letter is exceedingly cour- 
teous in its language and reasonable in 
its demands. It embraces matter which 
was of great interest lo the Georgians, 
and which, ■situated as you were, ought 
to have claimed your immediate and 
prom[il attention. But how did you 
treat it? I'islead of answering it, as 
Tcquesled, you observed a perfect si- 
lence on the subject till tlie 17th of 
August f)llowing, aiid then barel\ al- 



(ion, if it should be found necessary. 
The forces were directed to proceed 
against the Indians on the east side of 
Flint River, generally deiiomipated 
Hiprinnccs and Philemmees. Captaia 
\Vriglit, whilst on the march, ascertain- 
ed that Hopaunce, one of the chiefs, 
had leP his own village, and was then 
at the Cheh'iif tuu-n: &Luithuul authority, 
he immediately proceeded against it. 
The result was disastrous to the poor 
Indians of tiiat plvte. Several of them 
were killed, and the captain found, 
after it was too late, that he had bee« 
precipitate, and made war upon/rifHci^-, 
instead of ennnies! 1 have detailed 
the circumstances of this unfortunate 
alFair for purposes already evident, but 
which will be more conspicuous as I 
proceed. I must, however, pause for 
a moment to itiquirc, whether you <ire 



luded to it in tlie most contemptuous so totally blind to your own character., 
terms! The exposure of that part of as not to sec a striking illustration of it 



the frontier of Georgia, the massacre 



in the conduct of the disobedient and 



of its citizens, and the conflict which unfortunate Wright? How ol'ten. sir, 
the governor informed you had taken I have you disobeyed orders? And how 
place, it seems were matters of too i often has the breach been healed h\ 
little importaiice to arrest your atten- the success of your enterprise, and the 
tion. Vou had not even the common consequent lei.ity and forbearance of 
civility to acknowledge tiie receipt ofiyour countrymen? Had W right met 
tlie letter; but, swelling with the | and defeated an eww^/ in the Cliehaw 
mighty project of invading the Spanish! towu, ho would have been lauded lor 
dominions and carrying the war into a 1 his sagacity, and his disobedience for- 
cou'itry will! wiiich we were at peace. I gotten. As it was, he fell from a state 
you rushed madly onward, regardless j of re<pectability and honour, and tied 
of the CO. 'stitution, and every thing else. ' from liis country in disgrace! He had 
but a manifestation of your own power. 1 diso!)e\ed the orders of his superior, 
Afti-r waiting sutHcient time to receive and had slaughtered, through mistake. 



intelligence from you, but in vain; and 
being repeatedly urged by the dis- 
tressed inhabitants of the frontier to 
afford them protection. Gov. Rabun 
delerniined to raise and organize a 
force for that purpose. This hk had 

A RIGHT TO DO. BV THE CONSTITI'TIOX 

AND LAWS OF TiiF. STATE. Several com- 
panies were accordinglv equipped, and 
put under the command of Captai 



nnocent women and children. Yoa 
have also disobeyed orders, and have 
executed men without the sunction of 
liiv! You have invaded the territory 
of a nation at peace with us. and. under 
the plea of iiecessitu. have trampled 
upon the law of nations and the riglits 
of foreign subjects. What better were 
you than Wright? He failed — you 
succeeded. Cut the ])rinciple in both 



Wright, a gentlcuMU wlio, from iiidis- i cases is the same. Wright was head- 
position, had ?iol been mustered into strong and precipitate. So were you. 
the service of the U. S. in a previous i iNIoderation and forbearance seem to 
draft of militia, and who tendered j have formed no part of your charac- 
his assistance on the occasion. Capt.tter. Had Wright been less heedless 
A\' right was instructed to call on Capt.'aid can-less of consequences, he would 
Uollnvell. commandi g a detachment iiave been guiltless of shedding iimo- 
of United Stiles militi. I, at Fort Karly. cent blood. So with yon. had you 
and to rir!ui>l liim !o aid in tlie expedi- been guided by reiison and humanity, 



TO eEN. ANDHEW JACKSON. 



US 



»he constitution would not iiave been 
violated, ;ind the six militia-men whom 
you sent to untimely graves, niiglit 
hixxe been living monuments,! will not 
eay of your clemency, but of your sense 
of justice. But 1 return to the subject 
in hand. 

When you were informed of the un- 
authorized attack upon the Clieiiaw 
Tillage, vou flew into a violent passion, 
issued an order for the apprehension of 
Wright, commanding iiim to be con- 
fined in irons; and. witiiout knowing 
the circumstances, vented your rago 
upon Gov. Hal)un, in the most insulting 
and bullying language. By what au- 
thority did you order Wrigiit to be 
apprehended and confined in irons? He 
was not under your command — had 
never been mustered into your service, 
nor was he in any way attached to 
your army! He had been acting under 
the authority of the state of Georgia, 
and for his disobedience was amenable. 



are the first man in tiie United States 
who has violated the constitution with 
impunity! 

When it became known that Capt. 
Wrigiit had disobeyed orders, and had 
attacked the fntivhy instead of the 
hostile Indians, Governor Kabiin ex- 
pressed the deepest regret, and imme- 
diately wrote to the Indian Agent on 
the subject. He had Capt. Wright ap- 
prehended and while he was engaged 
in pacifying the Indians, and assuring 
(hem tliat the attack was unauthorized, 
he received from you a letter, couch- 
ed in the most bitter and insulting 
terms. Here, then, is another evidence 
of your ungovernable and outbreaking 
temper. Instead of seeking correct 
information, or writing a letter in t!ie 
language of a gentleman, you proceed- 
ed in the dark, and poured out your 
invective in all the ribald style of a per- 
fect bully. Why did }0u write to 
Gov. Rabun at all? Were you so 



not to ywi, but to the law^: which he had 1 ignorant as not to know, that you had 



tr-msgressed. Yet he was actually 
taken into custody bv your soldiers, and 
if he be yet living, he may thank God 
that you were not present to suspend 
the writ of Habeas Corpua, bj' which, 
and the civil oflicers of that state, he 
was wrested from your deadly grasp! 
But. let me iiifiuire, at the time you is- 
sued this tyrannical order, where were 
i/ou, and what had yon been doing? 
You were in a Spanish province, on your 
march to Pcnsacola! While Wright, 
through mistake, was attacking the 



no command over him? Did you not 
know that he was the chief magistrate 
of an independent state, and that he 
was not amenable to yni for his con- 
duct? A man of your reputed infor- 
mation should have known all this, 
and knowing it, should have been gov- 
erned accordingly. But it seems, 
nothing was too high or too sacred, to 
escape your imaginary power. You 
towered above the constitution, and 
with the same hardihood with which 
vou invaded a neutral province, un- 



wigwams of unofTcnding savages, you Idertook to reduce the Governor of a 
were storming tlie forts of a nation state, to a servile submission to your 
with whom we were at peace! You will. Your letter was not only insult- 
were knojvingli/ acting in violation of ing; but discovered in every line, the 



jour constitution, the lawofnations.and 
the positive instructions of your govern- 
ment!! \Vas it well for a man thus 
situated to order a free citizen of the 
United States to be confined in irons? 
I will not pursue this sjbject further. 
The transaction is in perfect accord- 
ance with the whole tenor of your life. 
Were it not for the achievement at 
Ncw-Qrlcans, which has spread a veil 
over your crimes and infirmities, there 
is nofrone American in a lVi(iu>and who 
would, not look upon you wiih the great- 
est abhorrence. Your hands, Sir, are 
■■'ninedwith innocent blood, and ^on 



ignorant and inflated tyrant. Full oi 
your own consequence, and setting at 
naught the civil authoritv, vou say to 
Governor Rabun: "YfUl," SIR. AS 
GOVERNOR OF A STATi:. WITH- 
IN MY MILITARY DISTRICT, 
HAVF NO RIGIIT TO GIVK A 
MILITARY ORDKR \VH1LST I AM 
IN THE FIELD"'!! Can you find in 
the range of your experience, in all 
the acts of petty tyranny, a more arro- 
gant and wanton assumption of power? 
Whnt right had you to command the 
Governor of Georgia? Whence your 
authority to forbid him to exercise (be 



i5« 



TO r-.r^.S. ANWOKW JAJ KSO\.~KEl>rT>ATT. A VVSS. 



CO o[ilUiiO.;al lu iClioils Ot' lli> (ili^cl 

Wijoemp.>»veied ^o)« to call iiirn to ac- 
count? Ifliif had he no riglii to give i 
a military order w.ieii you was in the 
field? Was not the fio itior of Georgia ' 
expo-'jd? Had not you left it with a 
powerful arin\, open to Uie invasion of 
the savages, and nas it for tiie Cov- 
er ;or to wail till it might i/leasf vou to 
return? B'.sides, Sir, you were not in 
■\h'- "Jiehr to wUich you so iiaughtily al- 1 
luded. You had left the United States, i 
T'le frontier settlers of Georgia had' 
.been massacred, and tlie Governor had ; 
no otiier alternative but to resort lol 
co'.s itntional inea:;5for dele cr!. Had 
yo'i ecr^ present wilii an army at your , 
he'iU. your u;iprincipled a :d wantoi , 
conduct in otlier cases, leave no room | 
to Jou'it what would have been your 
course in this! The constitution aiid . 
the laws would 'lave afiPird-d no pro- 
tc'-'ion. The Governor "oidd iiave 
paid for his temerity by impriso :ment, 
ifi.ot with hi'< lif^. I have a right to 
ir.fer this from your letter,, and from! 
the host of bloody deeds, which mark- 
ed vour footste[)s duri >g (he war. — 
H 'd you been guilty of no other vio- 
\i\ ion of duty, and of law, it might be 
attiibiited to the excitement of the 
m ment, and passed over in silence. 
I i"^, howevf-r, i>ut a single link in a 
!.• % chain of Ti^igrant abuses, for w!iich 
you can offer no apology, and for 
w' :cU tlv'rc can be no atonement. 
T e love of dominion is still burniiig 
in vour breast. You are not yet sated 
w fi power. Yourvaiiity has prompt- 
ed you to aspire to a wid(-r, an<l in 
your liands a more dangerous sphere 
ofailion; bn'. I pr;iy (ind, for the sake 
of I'lO ronstitu'ion, and the counlr\. 
you may be disappointed. 



KKNOVM, i VKSK. 

The*e two men are the principal i 
Editors, in Kentucky, that take tlie i 
le I J in supp'irting the Hero for Presi- ' 
di-nf. Iveidall has not been lon^ 
C'".:aged in tiie service. And it ap- 
pear-, from his own aeknowledginenl, 
tiiil hi> has received, ihrough his new j 
poliiiral frie.';ds at U'a^lii' gton abou' j 
t>yo thousatid dollars, bv wav of com- 1 



pe:jsa U' , Pari Ioui.cl:, ai.J pai . .d- 
vanced (or sui.scrlptoil^; his venahtj 
is thus liilly estai)l'?!ied. 

Kc.d.ill and Peon, were, for a long 
time, hitler adver^aries; Penn and tiie 
Pope> acicd in cohcert, fr<>m jealousy 
otandnaired towards M;. Clay. Iv. n- 
dallwa?on tile other aa.d tue protei; -e 
o| Mr. Cl.i>, and his tturdy advoiate. 
Bui Mr. Clay could noi give him an 
oliice Willi a salary of loOO dollars, 
and Kendall made a bargain wiih Mr. 
Clay's opponents. Penn and ihePt | -s 
oppose I'.e Administration, heinn^e 
they hate Mr. Clay. Kendal) o\ | o- 
■^es it for a coa-si-dc-rati-on. T us 
u ited in o'ljfct, and upon a par in 
principle, Kendall and Penn arc tne 
champions of Jack-o. , and the de- 
UMuncers oiAlr. Adams and Mr. Clay. 
The Argu- of Ke-dall. arid ihe Ad- 
VI rtiser of Penn, are tjuoted far a id 
near -y the Jack-r"! papers, as deserv- 
ing o.'credit, and entitled to confidence. 
It is, therefore, important that they 
should both be better k. own than tluy 
are. The editor of the Commentator, 
published at Krankfori, Kc; lucky, lias 
brought tiieni out to uive the character 
of eatii olher. We give his article. 
From it the reader may form a just 
coiceplion of the true character of 
tiiese two worthies. 

' r.ut who it re ihey ? Who are thev 
i»ho aie (lerpettiilly ijpvisinu' '•shimlets^' 
and 'Mvilfiil misre|iresenlations''' agninst 
this paper ami its eiiilor? A hopelul pair 
of asmriates. in a cause worthy of such 
sujipnrlers, who knnw earii olher well. 
Let thetj give some account of them- 
selves. They can do it ni terms sniud 
tolheirown tastes. &aiiproprnite en.Mii;!). 
Let Air. Kendall, who stanrls as leader, 
speak (ir>l. and tell us who J'enn is— ^ 
Hear hini!" 

•' The vagnbon I Penn, wandered 
about awhile, ihsronsolale. until lie»as 
picked up \<y ihe Pope a i\feileralfartior, 
at l.oiiisyille. as a conveiiimt tool. I>y 
whom he has ever .since been used as a 
hlackouanl and bully, to abuse and iroa-- 
bca( all thai is rqtuilican in Jefler-on 
louDty and the state.''' — Jlrgus of October 
10. 1825. 

••Very well. — Now Mr. I'enn. please 
to lellwho. and what .Mi. Kend^ill is. be- 
-i.lrs lieing yonr a— riate, friend anf' 
(ile-lcader. * Hear bim'" 



KEXDAT-L & PENN THE BARGAIN. 



151 



•»Fohl That's worse Ihan Paine ami the 
skui\Us — Now, are not you a pielly pair 
til' polecal.-i to be accusing otiicrsol sland- 
ei' and niisiepresentaliou?'' 



"OCr-Mi'. Kendall will certainly be dis- 1 
aptiomied, if he imagines that the editni I 
of this paper will descend to re>pond to | 
hi-> vulgar and peisnnal abuse 'The lash 
has been successfully applied to him as an 
editor — -the gaird jade Tvinces"' — and he 
resorts to a species of personality, of 
which, contemptible as he is, he may yet 
have cause to repent." — Louisville Jldver- 
(iser.ofSept. ?, 1825 

'■Oh, that's pitiful xcliining — Cant you I tjon of every honest politician. It 
give lis somct^ir«£r more spuidvy ?" I shows how monstrously unjust is the 

"This compromisrmig\n be speedily accusation of Gen. Jacksoii, that he 



THE UAUGA1\. 

Tlic following article explains itself. 
We recommend it to the serious attcn- 



effected, if (be members of the Lesfisia- 
ture COULD BE AS CIJKAFLV 
BOUGHT AS AMOS KENDALL.' — 
Ltiuisville Adv. Aug. 4, lo-5. 

'• Not so very cheap cither Mr Penn — 
.■^1610. if no otiier was paid or promised. 
w:is a good round price, ihe full worth 
.ind more too. Yim know he oiTeied 
hunsclf to .Mr. Clay for ^1500. You re- 
collect his testimony before the Senate 



might by a hargain with Mr. Clay, 
have become President. We copy it 
from tiie JNew Hampshire Journal, of 
March 24. 
THE LAST PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. 

'• The charge of coriuptioti and intrigue 
in the last Prsiden!iale!ectin[i,lirst brought 
against .Mr. Clay by a member of the House 
nf Kepre=ent;;tives, and there abandoned 



however, proceed — and donl stop to talk I by its author, having been since given to 



of '•compromise''' now.'' 

•'Amos Kendall is acting the part of a 
political desperado. Me has now but one 
object in vie.v, and that is, to irritate 
those, whose virtue and good sense have 
taught them to detest him The Argus 



the |)ublic under the .-anctionof Gen. Jack- 
son's name, has justly escited the atten- 
tion of the people, in every part of the 
country The nature of the charge it- 
self not less thanlbc b;gh standing of the 
parties, (both the accuser and the nccus- 



has become t!i>: pitiful vehicle ol dirty j ed.) h .s given to this controversy an im- 
arl nice, falsehood ano vulgar abuse, its pnrlance which justifies every new at- 
editor, viewing the peojile, as actuated by I tempt to throw light upon the subject, 
a mean sort of selfishness, and susceptible The late address of Mr. Clay to the pub- 
of being misled by those who rely on lie has brougtit to my recollection certain 
political chicanery and a niggardly species circumslaoces, vvhi(-h appear to me t" have 
of low cunning, continues to give currcn-jsome bearing on this subject, and which 
cy to statements, which men of half sense ' therefore I shall proceed to state, 
must, at the tir't sight, pronounce impu- At the time of tlie late presidential elec- 



dently false.' — Lou. A 'v. Hci. 1. 1826. 

'• That's smarter — pretty well Wr. 
Penn, and there is a good deal of truth in 
vour remark, which you see, cuts.— 
What do you say to it. Mr Kendall? 

"Pitiful is the soul of that man. who 
can attribute to others no higher motive 

of act on, Ihan a job of printing!"' 

'■ But of Penn we know much. In pre 



tion, I had Ihe honor of a seat in the 
(louseof Representatives; and my anxiety 
to give effect to the known wishes of my 
constituents forthe election of Mr. Adatns, 
did not sulYer me to neglect any opportu- 
nity o| informing myself, minutely, of the 
progress of events, and of their causes. 
\Vith Ihe friends of theseveral candidates, 
particularly those of Mr Adams, Mr. 



scribing uncomfortable predicaments and Crawford, and Mi. Clay, my iolcrcoursc 
attitudes for others, he is doubtless aided | was con-tant. intiniale and extensive, 
by c.cpcri''nce. He <;annot have f)rgoten j With many of them. I conversed freely, 
tiie unsavory place into which he was and frcipienlly on the subject ; and became 



plunged, in attempting to escape from the 
vengeance of an insulted husband. The 
Ohio may have washed his clothes and 
skin clean, and given him the appearance 
of a decent and respec'able gentleman; 
but the waters of the ocean cannot cleanse 
the fiul heart which led him to attempt 
to insult and flishonor hisneiglihor." — Ar- 
iT"'. Oct. 31. IS? 5. 



early acquainted wilh their differeot 
vieivs and feelings, in relation to it. as 
well as the motives by which they ap- 
peared to be inlliieaced: and 1 can safe- 
ly declare, thai the result of all my in- 
quiries, in respect to Mr. Clay, in par 
ti' iilar. was a conviction, (founded on in- 
numerable farts aid indicali"!!^ of opin 
ion. oc^iirrincr under mv own observation. ' 



15S 



THE BARGAIN. 



that, in this difficult and delicate juncture, has there adduced, it i^ in nay power to 
his coiiiiuct was disiintjuislied by purity , add tlie followiug. It was my practice 
ef motives, by a deep sense of public du- 1 while a memberorCongress, to note down, 
ty, and great prudence and discernment i at the cl >!'e ot" each fessioo, in a journal 
in the course proper to ot pursued. It , »vhich I kept for that purpose, whatever 
was seen I'rom the commencement of the occurred to me, of uninteresting nature, 
session, that his opinion would hive great during the session tliat had just closed, 
inlluence in the election; and the iViends i The (ir-t ^esainn of the Icilh Congress 
of Jr. Adams never suffered themselves closed on the 27th of May, 1824. The 



to believe that Mr. Clay, — himself an 
experienced statesman, bred (rom his 
youth to the civil set vice of the country, 
would thiow the decisive weight of his 
powerful influence into the scale of a 
'•military chieftain,'' before whom all 
merits and ah services, merely civil, 
seemed to disappear. In his high office 
of Speaker of the House, he seemed anxi- 
ous to preserve his usual impartiality be- 
tween the coidlicting parties; and though 
among his intimate tVien.ls, his opinions 
wee known, he neither obtruded them 
upon the members generally; nor, so far as 
I could ob.-erve. did he take any undue 
pains to conceal them. 

With respect to his friends, (by whom 
I mean the members of Congress from 
those states which had voted for him tor 
President,) it appeared tome that, gener- 
ally speaking, tiieir attachment was not 
to Mr. Clay as an individual merely, but 
asa public man — as a statesman, whose 
general views of policy were in accord- 
ance with their own; an.1 that, finding 
they could not make liiti President, they 
looked round among tbe candidates for 
the man iviiose views of policy nearest 
resem'de those of .Mr. Clay; particularly 
en tlie two creit questions, of Inter- 
nal Improvement, and Domestic Manu- 
factures. This was especially the case 
with the Ohio members; and I was ex- 
pressly told by one of them. (Gen MWr- 
thur.) tliat ehirjlij vpontliest grounds. \)\ey 
had come to the determination of voting 
for ' r .\'lams. bclore they had ascertain- 
ed what would be Mr. Clay's course on 
this occasion. 



loUowingextract from this journal isunder 
date of ''June, 1824;" and was wrilttn by 
me immediately on my return from Wash- 
ington. 

"I spoke but twice this session, to 
Mr. Clay on this subject. The tirst- 
was on the caucus, against which lie 
declareil himself; hut professed to be 
governed in tliis wliole matter, eiitlre- 
Iv by ills friends' advice. The other 
conversation related to General Jack- 
son. It was soon after Pennsylvania 
declared for the General; and when 
he seemed, f'lr the moment, to carry 
all before him. He spoke with equal 
truth and feeling on the subject. He 
said it was truly dismtra^his to see 
lb» peojde so intoxicated aiid drludod, 
by a little military glory — that a man 
totally unknown to the civil history of 
the country. — who knew nothing of the 
constit'ition or laws of the land, — and 
who, in short, had no other recommen- 
dation than liiat which grew out of liis 
forlunnle campaign :it New Orleans, 
should he thought of for president of the 
Utiited States, and even preferred to 
all others. — at a time, too, when some 
of tlie ablest men the country had ever 
produced, (he did not mean, he said, to 
include himself in the numtier) — men 
who had grown grey in the civildepart- 
ments of the government, in Congress, 
in diplomatic missions, and in the cabi- 
net, were before the public, ascandida- 
tes for that olVirc — was, he said, such a 
i symptom of tlie diseased state of pub- 



It is not however so much the object of j Ijc sentiment, as must be equally alarm 
this communi'-ation to express my own ] ino- and di.-<cou raging, whether viewed 



opinion, either of Mr Clay's motives, or 
ofihe conduct of hi« friend*, a? to exhibit 
evidence in relation to certain ('acts stated 
by him, in his last address to the public 
In a p irl of that address, it is his object 
to «b"v, that he had, early and repeat- 
edly, expressed his opinion that General 
.Inckson was not quililiod fir the Fresi 



by lliose who sa;v the highest objects 
of laudable ambition, snatched from 
them by a military chief, or by those 
calmer observers of passing events, 
who look with i)hilo-;ophical, or pro- 
phetic eye*, on the causes of the per- 
manence or decay of our free institu- 



donry; and consequently that he could in 1 1'^^"'*' 

no event, be expected to vote for him. | The above extract contains but an 

to the great nvi'-i nf evidence, wb.icli he | impcrfoct skctcit of Mr. Clan's remarks 



THE BARGAIJf. 



159 



to me at tliat lime, lie declared with 
great energy, his opinion, that what- 
ever might be General Jackson's other 
merits, he had no pretensions to the 
character ol'a statesman; and he paint- 
ed in lively colors, the dangers to which 
the country was exposed, (rem the sud- 
den overllow of military enthusiasm, 
by which he was borne along. It was, 
he said, an evil omen-^ and one which 
forbnied nothing iavorai)lo to tin; fu- 
ture uestiuics of tiie republic. I not 
only considered these opinions of Mr. 
Clay, as worthy to tie recorded, hut 
spoke of them at the time, as indicating 
very clearly, his intention to support 
cither Mr. Adams, or Mr. Crawford, 
agaiast Genei'al Jackson, should he 
ever be called upon to decide between 
them. 

Recollecting this conversation, and 
knowing that iMr. Adams was the se- 
cond clioice of many of Mr. Clay's 
friends, I expressed, at the commence- 
ment of the next session, a very deci- 
ded opinion ihat he would receive the 
the vote of Mr. Clay. The state of 
Mr. Crawford's health disqualified him, 
in the view of all but liis iKuticular 
friends, for the office of president; ai.'d 
knowing, as 1 did, Mr. Clay's early and 
deliberate opinion of Gen. Jackson's 
want of the requisite qualifications, I 
could not doubt, that, as a necessary 
consequence of this state of things, lie 
would vote for Mr. Adams. Tlie lirsl 
week of the session did not pass, with- 
out confirming me, very strongly, in 
this belief. It was on the occasion of 
the reception of General Lafayette, 
^y the House of Representatives. In 
the address made to him, as Speaker 
of the House, Mr. Clay dwelt with 
complacency on the civil virtues of 
Lafayette; and spoke of his " uniform 
devotion to icgututcl liberty," as com- 
manding our highest admiration." Im- 
mediately on tlie adjourimient, 1 ex- 
pressed to Mr. Clay my satisfaction at 
the preference which lie had given to 
the civic merit of Lafayette, over his 
mere military exploits; and my hope 
that we should not soon forget this just 
distinction. He replied to me, that it 
was chiefly as the friend ofcivil liberty, 
tliat Lafayette was admired in this 
'."untry: and that it becp.mc the IIoii-c 



of Representatives, in particular, aa 
the guardians of our civil rights, to re- 
ceive him in this, his highest character. 
He added, with peculiar emphasis: 
'•V'ou will not find nu , Mr. Flumer, 
disposed, by any ad of mine, unneces- 
sarily to increase the military fcoesy 
which has already produced such 
strange effects among us." From the 
manner in which this was spoken, 1 
could understand it in no other way 
than as a direct answer to my allusion 
to the approaching presidential elec- 
tion; and I drew from it the obvious 
co:iclusion, that Mr, Clay intended to 
vote for Mr. Adams. This was on the 
18th of December, 1824— the day of 
Lafayette's reception, as may he seen 
by a reference to the journals of the 
House. The supposed <'orn<^/ overture 
o" Mr. Clay to Gen. Jackson is alleged 
to have hcen made on the 30th of tlie 
same month. 

In his late address to the public, p. 
18, Mr. Clay sa>s, "Ifl had received 
the vote of Louisiana, and been one of 
the three candidates returned, I had 
resolved, at a time when there was 
every probability of my receiving ilj 
that I would not allow my name, in 
consequence of the small number el 
votes by which it would be carried in- 
to the House, if I were returned, to 
constitute an obstacle to an election.'" 
This statement is confirmed by the let- 
ter of Mr. Johnson of Louisiana, to 
whom he made known his determina- 
tion, before the meeting of Congress. 
j It may be further confirmed by the fol- 
lowing extract from my journal, under 
date of "March, 1825," wjitten immedi- 
ately on my return from the session of 
1824-5. 

'•General M'Arthur, of Oliio. told 
me, that, meetii'g Mr. Clay one day, 
when it was thought that he would re- 
ceive the vote of Louisiana, he told him 
that if he came into the House, it 
would be by so small a vote, that ho 
was afraid his friends could do him 
I very little service llure — that .Mr. Clay 
answered, he hoped he should not be 
] returned as one of the candidates. 
I since it was evident that his election, if it 
I could take place, would be contrary to 
j the expressed opinion of a vast majori- 
fv oftliC pc'inlc — and thai if returnf*^ 



iOn THE BARr;AIN.— A UEClSlVESMiN.— THE KARMER OF TENNESSEE. 



to tlip House, under such ciicumstan-lthcir meetings the cotHn handbill, »\ith 
cey. by receiving tiie Louisiaiia votes, the deiiuiiciatioiis of iiifamou5,di?grtKC 



he should tliink it his duty to decline 
tiie support of fils friends, and use his 
own influence in support of one of the 
oilier f andidales." 

The preceiJing extracts appear to 



ful. i:c. On the 28ili of March, wc 
were told, it iiad been "cxhibilerl to llu 
JacJisun mceliiigs, held this veeit. it: the 
severai icards of this cili/." And it wm 
added: " It /'■-" unitccrssuri/ to May it hat: 



me entitled lo more weight than any prodwed one uiii-frsal >etilimenl of dis- 
statement 1 could make from mere re-\gust,anrl indignctiim with all vlto Azc 
cclleLtioii; as they were \>ritlen ntl seen it.'' One of the Jackson papers, 
the time, for my use only, and with no | called upon their aJiierents, not to he 
expictation that they would ever be i remiss and sutler Truths Advocate to 
seen by any other person. If the facts' trumpet a victory to its five thoujai.d 
they contain should add any thing to the [subscribers. It hi^^ing bee'i distinctly 
ju-t defence of an injured fellow citi- stated in the C'ii*l8Sttati G .zette. ;i at 
ze- , my object in their publication,! the election woul^ b4a tc-t of pany 
will have been accomplished. To! strength, a Jackron ha .dbill was stuck 
stand by, in silence, and see another j up, all through ti:e city of. the moning 
urjuslly assailed, when it is in my {of the eUclion, in the foUowhig terms, 
power to aid in his defence, by the ex- 
hibilion of fads known only to me, 
wouhl in my opinion, be little less 
criminal, than to be myself the author 
of the wropc. 

WILLIAM PLUMf:R, JunV. 
Eppitig,A: n. March 18, 1828. 



ATTENTION ErECTOIlS!!! 

" Thi- P.jll for Towijfhip oBiccrs open? at t 
oVlock. A. ^1. iiiid clo'es :it C o'clock P. M. 

'• Tlic Poll for Citv oiBcer- op-iis at 9 <i'c!ock, 
A. M. ami clo*c= at'4 o'clock, P. M 

"Rcmciiib. r the Test unnouiiceii by C. Hara- 
momi i- Co. ami lose not jour votes bj matlrD- 
tiou lo the hours of election." 

But all this availed nothing. The 
charm was most evidently broken, and 
la majority of the godd people of Cin- 
A DECISIVE SK;.V. 'cinnati, have set their sign ma .uel of 

The. election for members of the i condemnation upon the Hero and Ms 
city couiril, of the city of Cincinnati, satellites. The people, have defeated 
and of Trustees for the township of the people! The coflin hand bill has 
Cincinnati, including the Territory of operated nothing for those who at 
the city, took place on Monday the 7th templed to use it. If it cxi ited indigna- 
of April. The vain confidence of llie tion, it was agai;!St the perpetrator of 
Heroitcs in their strength, induced the enormities it exhibits. Its eflerts, 
them to commence the contest, with a if it had an\. have been the same pro- 
determiiiationto elect no man. for any duced in New H.nmpshire, and they 
of the olfices, who was not a supporter , seem to point to the propriety o| jivinc 
of the General for President. The 
A'.lmini>-tratie(»i men met them on their 
own ground. Tlie battle iuis been 
foii:i;ht. and the Heroitcs completely 
vaiKUUsiied. The city is divided into 
five lllriis. e.ich electing three council- 
nicii. Twelve of the lificen council- 
men, arc supporters of the administra- 



it a more general circulati< 



Tnr. FARM KR of Tes.nf.ssee.— The Logis 
lalureof Loui*i:ina have passed a law nri;,rQ- 
imaUnirTKN THOUSAND ih.llars to dclraj 
the e\iicii'cs of Gen. Jackson's visit to ?<i'«- 
Orleaiisoii the late '-Glorious ci-hth."' .Now, il 
his friends ask ID.tWO .lollars to pay the csiu-n- 



tio!i. The aggreg.ite maioritv for the i -. . . . ■ , , „ r. •.;.fiv„,.,,,.r 

, , . , , e^n . n'l ti I ce5ol oneic.it in which the fiirmeri/il'niK.'WC 

whole, IS about -W votes. J he Ad- | j^ 5|^^yp,l oU" to theiiiultiliule,-haw n.iich will 
mi ' ■■■■■•■ -T, . 

town 



Kuc, is .iiii'ui -u<^' ,i'n.-. J I IV, ''"- I is sliowcd oU to tl[eiiiultilune,-naw n.iicn " 
nibtratJO!: ticket for Trustees of the • they nsk for n similar purpose when he h mii 

, f' I'lr. \ c • I- './,//a.-./;,ra.<.-...ifr.'Trulytl,isisamorff.r7» 



ol about r,00 votes. So much for 

til. • !:(rntc|nr" vaunted strong hold of 
,1. .r.;.!ii, il.' city of Cincinnati. 

■ ma !c aciivc edorl-. 

MS hr.wked «bonl. .r 



iJc 

usand 

rpcri- 

>imof thai rqtHlilicansii'npiiril;/ which we have 

I. .I'll pronii.scil .m the election of General Jirk- 

-•u'. A |irctU e\ainple of that lenilcr rare for 

'• '. 'j ii.'.iii^u. wlii'l' i' to 'istinciii'h Gin- 

H.:.'s U ■ Only T.r- 

so l>oi.r «i: ■ ■'^'^'- 



TiiUTH'l^i ADVOC^ATi: 



AND 



MONTHLY ANTI- JACKSON EXPOSITOR. 



CINCINNATI, OHIO, MAY, 1828. 



GE.N'KRAI, JACKSON'S VIOLENCE. 

It li;i? been objected against General 
Jackson, (hat he is a man ot" violent 
and ungovernable temper, and, for that 
reason, ought not to be elected Presi- 
dent. His supporters partly deny, that 
he is more rash or violent, than men in 
general; and partly insist, that no evil 
is to be apprehended, from the iiuiul- 
gence of his passions, were he elected 
President. It is the purpose of this 
paper, to examine both these sugges- 
tions: Proofs will be produced upon 
the first, and some illustrations attempt- j 
ed, upon the second; and to Ijoth, ihe 
attention of the reader is requested. 

In this i'.vestigation, I shall draw no 
proofs from the atjnals of the General's 
private life, and none from the history 
of his proceedings in the late war. I 
shall conline r.ivself to his own coi-.duct, 
since he became known to the nation, 
and since his reputation was. in some 
degree, identified with that of his 
country. Public distinction, not only 
confers honor, it imposes arduous du- 
ties. Many indulgencies may be allow- 
ed, to a mere private man, which ought 
not to be tolerated in one of eminence. 



perform his duties, as Major General, 
in the (juiet and respectful manner that 
luame the office. James Madison was 
Pusident of the United States, ajid 
Gen. Jackson knew that he was not a 
man to countenance a system of "i/ooti 
and carnage.'''' In March, 1817, Mr. 
Monroe was inaugurated President. 
Towards General Jacksoi, Mr. Moi.roe 
iiad manifested no common respect. — 
They stood in the most friendly rela- 
tions to each other. Communications 
and consultations had taken place be- 
tween them, as to the formation of the 
Executive Cabinet, certainly the very 
highest evidence of mutual esteem. — ■ 
It would seem tiiat General Jackson 
regarded the elevation of Mr. Monroe 
as an event that removed all necessity 
for him longer to impose restraint upon 
his course of conduct. 

I have no knowledge what was the 
cause, but it is well known that Gen. 
Jacks( n cherished very unfriendly feel- 
ings towards Mr. Ciawtbrd, who was 
then Secretary of War: And he took 
an early occasion, after Mr. Monroe 
became President, to ofler outrage and 
insult to tl;e Government, in the person 



, In one case, the example can work buti of the Secretary of War. The follow- 
► a partial evil; in tiie otlicr,itsmi5cliiels I ing general order, was issued by him, 

may be incalculable. Self command | on the 22d of April, 1317. 

and self respect are almost inseparable. 



A.d he who cannot or does not control 
him-elf. is unfit to govern others; be- 
cause, though he may be feared, he 
cannot be respected by them 



"DIVISION ORDER. 

AdJI'TANT Gt'NERAL's OfFICE, 

H. Q. Division of the South. 

Nashville. April 22. 1317. 
The commandiDg general considers it 



The outrages upon tlie rights of in-uJue to the principles of subordination, 
dividuals, and the laws of the country,! vvl)ich ought and must exist in an army, 
perpetrated bv Gen. Jackson at the ''' prohibit the disobedience of any frder 



close of his career at New Orleans, 
made, at the time, a deep and sol- 
emn iinpressicn, on the public mind. 
No loud voice of condemnation was 
raised: but there was a strong and 
mixed sentiment of regret and censure 
that pervaded the countrv- General 
Jackson perceived it, and very wiseh 



emanating from the department of war, 
lo officers of this division, who have re- 
ported and been assirned to duty. iiide.'S 
coming through him as (he proper organ 
ofrommunicalion The object of (his or- 
der is to prevent the recurrence of a cir- 
ciiniPt-.'nce which removed an important 
ofiicer from the division without the kimw- 
ledge of the commanding general, and in- 



bubmitled to its silent chastening; j deed when he supposed that officer enga- 

Forabout two years tic continued to' ged in his official dcties, and anticipated 



162 



GENERAL JACICSON'^ VIOLENCE. 



hourly the receipt of his official reports 
on a subject of sreat importance to hi* 
comnoHnd; also lo prevent ilic topograph- 
ical reports from beiwj; matte public 
through the medium of the neH«-paper«. 
as was (lone in the c i«e alluded to. there- 
by enahlinff (he enemy to obtain the ben- 
elil of all our topographical researches as 
«oon as the general rnmraanilit.g. who is 
re'p'insihle for the division. Superior of 
firers liavinjr commands assigned tliem 
are held responsible to the guvernmenl 
for the character and conduct of that 
command; ami it miglit as well he ju.-tified 
in in oifirer senior in command t.i givej 
orders to a s'lird on duly . iviihout pass- 
in? Ih;it order throiigh the otli'xr of th-tl 
guard, as that the department of war 
should couiiiprm.irid the arr:ingempnts of 
com^landillg grnrrals without giving llieir 
orders thr.Mjeli thr proper channel. 'i\> | 
acquiesce in .«uch a course, would be a i 
tame surren.ier of military rights aud 
etiquette; and at once subvert the estab- 
lished principle'' of subordination and 
good order Obedi«'nce to the lawful 
commanils of superior officers is constitu- 
tionally and moriilU requiied. \.<\i\ there 
is a rh.iin ofcnmmunicalion that biqiis the 
military compact, whirh if broken opens 
the door to disnhedience and disrespect. ' 
and gives loose lo the turbulent spirits I 
who are ever rendy to excite to mutiny.! 
All ihysicians able lo perform dut\,wlio 
are absent on furlough, will I'orihwilli re- 
pair to their respectixe posts. Com- 
minHiiig olhcers ot' regiments and corjis 
are nrder<.(l to report specialh/ ail officers 
absent from duty on the SOlh of June 
next and their cause of absence. The 
array is loo small to tolerate idlers, and 
they will be dismissed the service 

By orderof Major General Jackson 

(Signed) IIUBEKT liL'TLKU. 

% .\djutant General 

it i; not my intention to off^r .-iny 
comnK'utbf rtiyowii, ujion this order. 
I iittrj luce it as tlic fust of a series of 
exlfWa.;;iiKics, that marked the ca- 
reer ot'Gen. Jackson, throiis;!) the res- 
idue of the year 1017. Besides, it is 
rC|>uMislied as <X|ii:i"atorv,of olher| 
high tnatter, withwiiichil isconiiocted. ' 
So soon as this order was puiilislied in I 
tlie iicwi-papcrs, it became a matier ofj 
much conversation and some censure. 
'ri«>se led to a roiitroversy helwecii' 
(Jen. Jackson and rien. Scott, and a 
■orrespoiideiifo between them suhse- 
Tiier.tljlaiJ beiorc the jMiMir. Iml not 



vory exteusively circulated. One let- 
ter written by Geu. Jackson to Gen. 
Scott, is, perhaps, the most extraordi- 
nary specimen of indecent violence aiid 
outrage, that, in modern times, has 
been addressed hv one gentleman to 
another. It serves, in a peculiar and 
forcible manner, to illustrate the tem- 
per and disposition of the General. — 
it cannot be properlv estimated with- 
out reading it, in .connection with the 
matter that gave ri^e to it : and for that 
reason the whole is here inserted. 

"GEN. J.ACKSO;5i«TO GEN. SCOTT. 

Head Quarten, Diiisionof llie Sautfi\ 
Nashville. Sepiember 8, 1817. 

Sir. — W ill) that caniiour due the char- 
acter you hav. sii^taincd as a»snldier and 
a man of lionour. and with the frankness 
of the latter, I addressyou. 

Enclosed is a copy of an anonymous 
letter, po?t maiked. New Ynrk, I4;h Au- 
gust. 1817. together with a public.itioo, 
taken from the ('olumbian. which accom- 
panied the letter. I have not permitted 
myself for a inoQient to believe, that the 
conduct ascritied to you is correct. Can- 
dour, however, induces me to lay them 
bel'ore you. that you may have it in youf 
power lo say how far they be incorrectly 
stated. 

It my order has been the subject ot 
your animadxersions, it is believed you 
will at once admit it. and the extent to 
which you may have gone. 
I am. Sir, respectfully, 

Your most i-ibe'ient servnnt, 

(Signed) .ANDREW J.^CKSON 

Gen. \V. Scott, L'. S. .Army 

AiioDVnious Letter .iildrps^ecl to Maj. Gei-. 
Andrew Jackson, po»lmarki-<i ".NcwYork, Auc 
14," atul rrceivcil tlir 3il Septembej, I8IT. (Kii 
closed in the foregoiiii;.) ^ i^ 

" Yiiurlate order has been the subject 
of much private, an ' some public remark. 
The war otlice gentry and their adhe- 
rents, pensioners and expectants, have al! 
been busy; but no one (of sutlicient mark 
lor your notice) more than i^Iajor General 
Scoit. wlio, I am credibly informed, goes 
so far as to call the order in question, an 
act of mutiny. In this district he is the 
orffan of Government injiniKiiions. and 
the supposed :iuihor of' the paper enclosed 
— which. Irowevcr (the better to cover 
bim) wa- not published uiilil he had left 
this city for llie Lakes. He on ynur guard. 
As liipy have pla^ e I spies upon Bmwn 
here, so it is probable you are not with- 
out them. The Eastern Federalists bavt 



GENEHAL JACKSON'S nOI.rVCE. 



163 



now all become good Republicans, anfl 

pledged to the sujipnrt of the President, 
as he to them Governniftil can now do 
well without the aid of Tennessee, &c ij-c. 
'A W'tni to the wise is enough.' 



together with the two pHpers therein en- 
closed. 

I am not the author of the miserable 
and unmeaning ailicle co|)ied froni "the 
Columbiiin,''' jind not being a reader of 



The enclo^erl is taken from the Colnm- that ga/ette, should |.robiibl) never have 
bian. a paper of much circulation in this i heard of it. I.u'. f >r the copj jou have sent 
state. IVew York. j me And whilst on the subject "lv< li ing 

Cerlitie<i. and signed, — J M. Glassell ' arid publishine. it may save time to ?ay.dt 
Aid de Camp." once, that with the exception ot ilie sub- 

" The f.'llon ing article was enclosed in j s<°-"Cf "I" t"o articles n hirh appeared in 
the foregoing letters. j -The Enquirer,'' last fall, and a journal 

'• General Jackson"* doctrines of nbe- i "^^P' »vhil>t a prisoner in the hands of the 

dience. Queries to the Editor of , j enemy, I have not written, nor ^i^u^ed any 

and other learned casuists. 1 . Suppose | o'^^^'l" write a single line fir any gazette 
the Government of the Inited Stales give j whatever, since the commencement of the 
orders to a general officer, or delicately '<*'^ "'*'"• 

signify their wishes and intentions, to re- Conversing with some luo or three pri- 
move from ace rtain command, one of the | ^"'^''^ gentlemen, about as many times, on 
generafs protegees and favorites? These i 'he subject of the Division order, dated 
orders, or intentions of Government, aie j »' Nasliville. April ii2d. Ibl7, it is true 
not plea.Hng to either the ciuef, or his ' 'h;>t I gave it as my opinion, that that pa- 
subordinate. They, therefore, employ 1 per was. as it respected the futur<", muli- 
their joint faculties of manoeuvring to , """' 'f its character and tendency ; and, 
frustrate the object of Government. By I "S 't respected the past, a reprimand of 
artilices. evasions, and pretended misap- ! the Commander in Chief, the President of 
prehensions of meaning, they have so far j 'he United States; for although the latter 
pievailed as to hold a command in deli- U'e not expressly named, it is a princii)le 



aice of Government itself, for nearly a 
year. 

Does not this case prove, that Govern- 
ment, when restricted, according to the 



well underst .od,lhat the war department, 
without at \e;i^ihh supposed sanction can- 
not give a valid command to an ensign 
I have tl'.us. Sir. frankly answered the 



dictatorial system of General Jackson, ' fjueries •iflilres'etl to me, and whicli were 
may not only he trirkeil ami insulted, but j suggested to jou by the letter of yur 
absolutely nulldkd? What redress would I anonymous correspondent, liut on a ques- 
an interested court martial alTord? i lion so impoitant as that which you have 

2. Suppose that thnugh the same Gen [raised with the war department, or in 
oral, positive orHers ivere given, by Gov- o'her words, with the President of the 
ernment, for another officer to supersede | United States, and in which I (ind myself 
hispiotegecand favorite in the command i incidentally involved, I must take leave to 
of his usurped place. Suppose these pos- illustrate my meaning a little: In doing 
ifive orders, a- '.hey were not susceptible ' wnich. I shall employ almost the precise 
of quibble or subferfuje. be pocketed, laid : fanguane -jthich ti-aj used on the occasions 
aside, delayed, and not executed, for more i above altui/ed to. 

months than it would be necessary to cm- 1 Take any three officers. Let A be the 

ploy days or hours; would this case prove ' common supeiior, B the intermediate 

the utility of Government relying for the commander, and C the junior. A wishes 

execution of its ordets solely on the in 'to make an order, which shall aliect C. 

(egrity of a commander? Perhaps it may The good of the service, etiquette, and 

be alleged th^l such cases aie purely inia- courtesy require, no doubt, that the oider 

ginary; let facts which have occurred in should pass through B; or, if exjpedilion 

less than a year be examined, and it will |and the dispersed situation of the parties 

then be known whether they vary in any I make it necessary to send the order direct 

respect, from the cases as above slated. I to C, (of which necessity A is the judge), 

.A QUERIST. ifhe good of the service, etiquette, and 

— ! courtesy require, with as little doubt, that 

GEN. SCOTT TO GEN. J.ACKSON. •■ ( A notify B thereol". as soon as practicable. 

H. Q. \st and 3d Mitifary l^cpartments, \S»ch notice, of itself, has always been 
Acts For/.-. October 4th. iS\T. j held sufficient, under the circumstances 

Sir,— I have the honor to acknowledge ] last stated But we will suppose that A 
l<e receipt of your letter cf (be Tth ult. 'sends the order direct to C. and neglect" 



U>4 



GENERAL JACKSO\»8 VIOLENCE. 



tonoiirv B thereof; — "tnil such appears loj F.xecutive will he offeocfed at the opinion, 
be the precise case alluded to in the or-' that it h is committed an irregularity "> 



der bei'ore cited. Ha? B no redress 
apainst this irregularity? He miy un- 
questionably remonstrate n ith A, in a res- 
pectful manner; and if remnnstrance fail, 
and there b-? a higher military aulhoiily 
th;in ^, 15 may appe;il to it for redress — 
N'>»v, ill the case under con«ideration, 
there t:xi«tpd no such higher authority; — 
the vv;ir department, or in other words, Mc 



the traosmi-sion of one of its-orders; and, 
a- to yourself, although i cheerfully ad- 
mit that you are my superior. 1 dc-ny that 
voii are my commanding otiicer, within the 
meaning of the 6th article of the rules 
and articles of war. Even if I had be- 
longed to your division. I should not hesi- 
tate to repeal to you all that I have said, 
at any tiuie, on your subject, if a proper 



Frcsu/eHf. being the common superior(Aj, occasion oflered. And what is more, I 



and tlic general of divisiOD.the iiitcrine 
di.ite commander (B) A private and 
re>pectful remonstrance, therefore, ap 
pears to hive been the only mode of re- 
dress which circum-tances admitted of. — 
An appeal to the army or the public, be- 
fore or after such remonstrance, seems to 
h:ive been a greater irregularity than the 
meisiire coniplaine<l of. To reprobate 
th.it measure publicly, as the Division or- 
der Hops, was to monnt still high.er in the 
scale of indecorum; but when the order 
g .es so far as to piohibit to all officers in 
the division an obedience to the com- 
mands of the President of the United 
States, unless received through division 
head quarters, it appeiis to me. that no- 
thing but mu(-ny and defiance, can be uii- 
deistoof! or intended 



should expect vour approbation, as. in my 
humble judgment, refutation is impossi- 
ble. 

As you do not adopt the imputations 
contained in the anonymous letter, a C"py 
of which you enclosed me, I shall not de- 
grade myself by any luither notice of 
it. 

I have jiist shown Ijie article from "the 
Columbian'' to some military gfnllcmen 
of this place, t'rom whom I learn, that it 
was probai'ly intended to be applied to a 
case uhicli has recently occurred at West 
Point. The writer is supposed to procetyl 
upon a report (which is ncverlhelt-Ss be- 
lieved to be erroneous) that Jsrgadifr 
General Swift had orders from the war 
.lepartment, more than twelve months 
since, to remove Captain Piutiidge ifom 



Tliere is .inother view of this subject, | ,|,g Mi|jt.,ry Academy; and that he sup 
wh -h must have esc;iped you, as I am 
pcrsiiaJed there is not a m in in America 
le-s lispiiscd to shift responsibility trom 
himself to a wenjter party than yourself. 
S;ipi")se the war .lepartment. by order of 
the President, sends instructions direct to 
tlip commanding olViccr, perhaps a cap 
tain, at Natchitoches (a p^is: within your 
divisinn) to attack the body of Spanish 

nv-ilists nearest to that frontier, 'f <•>« I -po Maj. Gen" A. Jackson 
captain obeys, you arrest him. But. i( 
in comjiliance with your prohibition, he 
sets the commaiuls of the President at 
n:itifrbt. he would liiid himself in a direct 
co.diict with the hiijhest military authori- 
ty under the Constitution, and thus would 



presseo tliuse ordeis, &c. The author is 
iielioved to he a young man o( the aiiny, 
and was, at the time of publication, in 
this city, hut not unil« r my command, and 
with whom I ha\e never had the sm.i.'lcst 
intimacy. I torhear to mention his i itae^ 
because it is only known by conjecture. 
1 have the honour to be. ^-c 

[Signed] W.SCOTT. 



GEN. JACKSON TO GEW,8C0TT. 
//. Q, Division of the South. 
Nashville, Dec. ,*5, 1817, 
III, — 1 have been absent from lliii 



have to maintain, against that -fearful j place a considerable time, rendering the 
odds,'' the dangerous position laid down | last friendly ollice I could, tn a particular 
in your order. Surely this consequence j friend, whose eyes I closed on the CDth 
c.-iuld not have been toresecn by you, I ultimo. Owing to this, your letter ol the 
when vou penned that order. " : 4!b of October, w.as not received until the 

I must pray you to believe. Sir, that I | 1st instant, 
have expresse.rmv opinion on this great 1 I'l-on the rerc.pt of the anonymous 
nupstion. without' the least hostility ,„ | communication, made me Irom New Kirk 
vourselfpersonallv.^ind without anvview II hastened to lay it belore you. Th:it 
ofmakmg my coui't in another qnarler. .is course was suggested to mc by the respect 
jq ms.nn.ted by your anonymous corres M frit for you as a man and a soUhcr. >'.nd 
pondcnl I have nothing to fear or hope th:,! you milfhl have it in yout power to 
from cither party. K is not likelv that the answer how f;ir you had been guilty of 



GENERAL JACKSON'S VIOLENCE. 



ICi 



so'i.-io init ioexi"iis:iii|p coiiducl. I.iile- 
pei> lent of tfie service? you had rendered 
yoMr cnuntry. the circumstance ot' your 
wealing the badge and en^ignia of a sold- 
ier, led me to the conclusion, that I was 
addressing a gentleman. VVilh these 
fteliii£js you were written to; and had 
an idea been for a moment entertain- 
ed, that you could have descended 
from the high and disrnitifd charicter of 
a '^lajir General of the United States, and 
used language so opprobrious and inso- 
lent, as you have done; rest assured. I 
should have viewed you, us rather too 
contemptible tn have held any converse xuith 
you nn the sulject If yon have lived in 
the ivirld thus long, in entire ignorance 
of the ol/'i^iitions and duties xohicli honour 
impose, you are imleed, past the time of 
leiniiiig: and surely he must he ignorant 
of 'hem. who seems so little under their 
influence. 

Pray, Sir. does your recollection serve, 
in what school of philosophy you were 
taught; that, to a letter enquiring into the 
DHtiire of a sujiposed injury, and clothed 
in laoguage decorous and unexceptiona- 1 
ble, an anS'ver should he given, rou'hed in i 
pompous insolence and hnllying expression? 
I ha I lioped.lhat what was charged up- j 
On vol] by my anonymous correspondent,} 
wa- UTifoinded ( h^d hoped so, from a 
belief that General Scott was a soldier 
and a jtntleman Bu; when I see ltio»e 
staieiiiPTits doubly confirmed bv his own 
wields, it becomes a matter of inquiry, 
how far a man of hofiourahle feeling*, 
can reconcile them to himself, or longer 
set -ip a claim to that character. Are v~'u 
ignoiLint. Sir. that hafi my order, at which 
your refined juigment is so extremely 
tourt.pd been ma<le the subject of inquiry, ! 
yoM -night, from your standing, not your 
ch ;.racter. Iiave been constituted one of' 
mv judges? (low very proper then, was I 
it, tliiis situated, and without a Liiow ledge i 
of a-iy of the attendant circumstances. | 
for you to have prejudged (he whole mat- 
ter. This, .(t different times, and in the 
cirrlp of your friends, you could do, and 
yet. had I been arraigned, and you de- 
tailed as oue of my judges, with the de- 
signs of an assassi)i. lurking under a fair 
exterior, you would have ipproacbed the 
ho"y sanctuary of ju«tice Is conduct 
like this congenial with that high sense of 
dignity, wliich should he seated in a sold- 
ier's bosom? Is it due from a brother 
officer to assail in the dark, the reputation 
of another, and st'ih him in a moment -.vlien 
f'n cannot rrpect it? ! might insult ao hon- 



oura'ilt" ma:i 'oy quesiion.-i -iii..;! a* M(»se; 
hut shall not expect that they will har- 
row up one, who must be dead to all thi.,c 
feelings, which are the true characteristic 
of a gentleman. 

In terms, polite as I was capable of no 
(ing, I asked you if my informant bad 
stated tiuly? — If you were the author of 
the publication and remarks changed 
against you, and to what extent? .\ ri-.f- 
erence to your letter, witfiout any cooj- 
ment of mine, will inform, how fir you 
have pursued a simdar course; — /ioicj lit- 
th of the lirntleman. and hoj: much oj the 
hectoring bully you have manifested. If 
nothing else would, the epiuiets wtiich 
grace your shoulders, should have dicta- 
ted to you a different course, an.: have 
admonished you. that however smfill may 
have .een your respect for another, res-' 
pect for yourself should have taught you 
the necessity of replying at least mibily, 
to the inquiries I suggested : and mote es- 
pecially sh'iuld you have done this, when 
your own convictions must have tjxed \otj 
as guilty of the abominable crime of detrac- 
tion. — of slandering, and behind his back, 
a brther officer. But not content with 
answering to what was proposed, your 
overweening vanity has led you to niake 
an offeiing of your advice Believe me, 
Sir. it is not in my power to reiidei joa 
my thanks. I think ton highly of my self 
to suppose, that I stand at all in need of 
your admoniliins; and too lightly cfyou, 
to appreciate them as useful. For gorid 
advice I am always thankful; biit.'it-\cr 
fail to S|)urn it, when I know it to flow 
from an incompetent, or corrupt source.— 
The breast vahrre ba>^e and guilty passions 
dwell, is not the placeto look for viiiue, 
or anv thing that leads to virtue, illy 
notions. Sir. are not those now tauglil la 
m'wiern Schools, and in fashionable liigb 
lilf. They were imbibed in aiK.crit. 
days; and hit! erto hjve, and yet bear me 
to the conclusion, that he who can waul. 'n- 
ly outrage the feelings of another. — who, 
withoui cause, can extend injury where 
none is done, is capable of any cttii.c, 
however dele-table in its naiuie; and will 
not fail to commit it, whenever it may be 
imposed by necessity 

I shall not stoop, Sir. to a jusliGcatioa 
of my order before you, or to notice the 
weakness and absurdities of your tin.'el 
rhetoric. It may be quite conclusive with 
yiiiirself; and I have no disposition to at- 
tempt convincing you, that youi ingenuity 
is not as profound. as you have imagined 
it. To my governmeot, whenever it may 



IGG 



GEVEUAL JACKSON'S VIOLENCE. 



please, I hol<i myself liable to answer, 
and to produce the reasoDR which prompt- 
ed me to the coarse I took; and lo the 
inlermeddling pimps ari'i spies of the -jsar 
deparlment. ivhoureio flie garb ofgeiuie- 
men, I hold myself responsible for any 
grievance they may labour under on my 
acC'iUDt: with winch you have my per- 
mission to number yoursplf. For what 1 
have said, 1 offer no apology. You have 
deserved it all, and more, were it nccesi- 
sary to say more. I will barely remark, 
in cniiclusion. that if you feel yourself ag- 
grieved at what is here said, any com- 
mnnicatinn from you will reach me safely 
at this place. 

I have the honour to be, 
Very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant. 
[.Signed] ANDREW J.\CKSON. 
Brevet Maj. Gen. VV. Scott, U. S. 
.Array. New York. 

An intelligent render cannot fail to 
perceive, that this letter from General 
Jaclcson is alt02;etiier in the worst pos- 
sible taste. It is not merely vulgar, 
rude, and abusive: but it is character- 
ized l)v a kind pf flippant pertnes?, pe- 
culiar to a p'tli-d and spoiled favorite, 
in a sophomore class at colle!j;c. There 
is in it, ail assumption of supcrioritv, a 
corisequential swagger, most otfensive 
to propriety. But its virulence of in- 
vective casts its other defects into 
shade. 

' The reader is requested again to pe- 
ru-e thelelterof Gen. Scott, a'ld ascer- 
tain, if he can, what there is in it "op- 
prohrioiis tiivl insolent?''^ what of ^^ po'it- 
poH-< insolence mil l>it!!t/ing expression?"' 
■what that should forfeit for him the 
characlerof a '^sofiiiernwln nrnllrynnn ?^' 
prove him '^is^noranl of the ubli^ations 
an I rltilics vhich honour impo.te" and 
rciider him '-/oo contrmpliblc to hold any 
converse with ?" What that manifests 
the "f/r.s/iTd.s ofnn nssosain,'^ or an inten- 
tiovi '•'•to ass'iil in the dark the reputation 
of another, 'ind atabliim at n moment zehrn 
hr eannni rrprct it?"" What of "the her- 
torin'j bull I/?''' of ^^tlctrartion ?" of '•hlnn- 
lieringhchin'l his hack n brother offirer?^' 
of " corruption." or of '■'base and gniltp 
w/«wof(.^.'" What that should stamp 
liiin tin '■;'iWTMCiW//»(,!r pimp and. spi/ of 
the 7i-or dcpnithient?" The request is 
repealed; let (he candid reader point 



out, if he can, in the letter of General 
Scott, any thing to warrant these harsh, 
coarse, and discreditable imputalioas. 

Gen. Jackson had issued an e.Ktra- 
ordiiiary order, contravening, iii direct 
terms, the orders of the President ; for 
every- order from the war department, 
must be received as emanati'ig from the 
President. He had couched his order 
in no termsof me isured respect for his 
superior. It was published to tiie world, 
and excited a great deal of remark and 
speculation. Many spoke of it as mu- 
tinous in its tendency and character. 
Amongst these, was Geiicral Scott.-" 
His opinions are conveyed to General 
Jackson, through the suspicious and 
discreditable channel of an anonymous 
letter, imputing, al-o, to Gen. Scott, the 
authorship of an anonvmous publica- 
tion, in a newspaper. Upon this. Gen. 
Jackson calls upon Gen. Scott for ex- 
planation. He assens '• if my order has 
been the subject of your nninuidversions, ii 
ii believed you will at oiuv admit it, and 
the extenl to lohich you may have gone,'"' 
Gen. Scott meets this expectation. — 
He says, frankly, that in two or three 
privaleconvcrsation5,with two orthree 
private gentlemen, "/ gave it as my 
opinion, that that pfip^irwas, as it rejtpectcd 
the future, mutinous in its character and 
tendency."' Gen. Scott proceeds to il- 
lustrate his opinion, by stating two oi 
three supposed cases. This is done in 
the most respectful manner, and in tiie 
most courteous terms. No sentiment 
is manifested towards Gen. Jackson 
but that of respect. Gen. Scott says, 
in so manv words, ^ I have Gr/>rf«.c,v/ my 
opinion on this great /^uent ion, vrithoiit the 
leaft h/>flilily to yourself personally. / 
;du)uld not hesitate lo repent to you all thai 
I haze s'li'L on your subject, if a proper 
occasion offered, and :chat is more, I should 
expect your approbation.^'' In this Gen. 
.lackson finds opprobrium, insolence, but- 
li/ing, heiioring, assassimilion, slandering, 
intermeddling, pimping, and much more 
that proves Gen. Scott ignorant of the 
ob/irrations of honour, destitute of the 
ch'iraettrislics of a soldier and a gentle- 
man, and too contemptible to have converse 
xeith." 

Certainly, no gentleman, of a well 
reculated and disciplined iniiid. would 
irdulccin th? use of terms like these- 



GEXERAL JACKSON'S VIOLENCE. 



167 



towards a man of character and stand- 
ing, no matter how improperly he had 
been treated by liim. Tiie) are terms 
wliich disgrace a genthmaii, in utter- 
ing them, rather tiian liim upon whom 
they are cast. If they have recently 
obtained a passport into good compa 
ny, tbe General may well claim t'le 
credit of introducing them. Before 



combat, by a sense of rehgion. But lest 
Ihi* motive should excite the ridicule oi' 
geull«men ot libetul hiihils of thinking 
.ind acting, I beg leave to adtl. tbiit 1 de- 
cline ihe honour of your invitation from 
patriotic scrui/tes. My ambition is not 
that of Eio'lraius. I should think it 
would be easy for you to console yourself 
under this refusal, by the application of a 
few epithets, as coward, 4ic., to tbe objecf 



his adoption and use of them gave tlienl of your resentment; and here 1 promise 
sanction, they found little countenance to leave you until Ihe next war, to per- 
among men of honour and decency, suade yourself of their truth 
anv where. Your famous order bears Hate the 22d 

The reader cannot but perceive April. 1817. At intervalsof three or four 
what was the real nature and extent of', months thereafter,- that is, when it had 



General Scott's olTence. He had dared 
to question tlie correctness and propri- 
ety of a public act of General .Jack- 
son. This aroused the General's in- 
dignation, which vented itself m the 
unseemly reproaches, which hi-= letter 
contains. May not the inquiry well be 



been officially published to the troops of 
your division, and printed in almost every 
paper of the l^iiion. — as if to challenge 
discussion, — I found myself m company 
where it was the subject of conversation. 
Not being under your command, I «vas 
free to give my opinion on that public act, 
a- any one else. For I presume you wdl 



made, whether he, who is so impatient 1 p^t assert, that vvhere aooOjceris not ex 
under a respectful scrutiny and censure I pres^iy restrained by (he military code, 



of his public conduct, and who resents 
them with so much bitter virulcice, is 
a suitable person to be trusted with 
high authority, in any government? It 
is assuredly an inquiry which well de- 
'serves consideration. 



he has not all the rights of any other citi- 
zen. For this fair expression of opinion, 
on a principle as universal as the profes- 
sion of arms, — and which opinion I, after- 
wards, at your instance, stated to you. in 
all its detail. — you are pleased to charge 



The object of this article is not to >"« with having slandered you behind your 
vindicate Gen. Scott, but to exhibit i ^"^'^'-'-^^ accusation which I consuier 
_ -, , . II • V . u i the more amusing, as I never had the hon- 

Gen..Tackson,ashereallyis \ et, hav- j ^_. ^,. -^ -^^^^ „r«c«ce.' in all ray 

ing pubhshed Gen. JacKSon s letter ol |,i(-g, , ^^^ .^^^^^^ ^f^^^ Sir, that nothing 
outrage and insait, it seems due to Gen. I j,y, „,y ^^^^1 respect (or your superior 
Scott to accompany it with his reply. ; j,gg .^„(j services, prevents me fiom in- 
Tiiis may be the more acceptable to ! dulging, also, in a little bitter pleasantry 
our readers, as very likely many of on this point. 

them have never had an opportunity to i It seems that you are under the further 
peruse it. The spirit of moderation i impression, that if you had been brought 
and dignity that pervades it, stands in ; to tri;il for publishing that order— (an idea 
happy contrast, with the very difTercnt , <hat I never heard any other suggest) and 
temper impressed, upon that of Gen. I ' ^PP"'"'ed one ot your judges, that, .-is- 

Jackson. It is here inserted. I f ^- '" '''^«- ' ^''""J'' h;^ve approached the 

holv sanctuiry ol Ju^tlce, 6:c. Such is, I 

GEN. SCOTT TO GKN. JACKSON. thitik, your language. Now, like you, 

H. Q. \slandZd Mililan/ Departments, ! without believing one word of it, it would 

New York. January 2d, 1813. i ''^ »« <"''«)' f""" '"«' Qwnually. to retort all 

c,R _Your letter of the 3<\ ultimo, was \ 'his abuse, as it was for you to originate it. 

banded to me :ibou; the 'V2<1. and has not But 1 mn«t inform you, Sir, that however 

been re.ad.— I might almost say. thought '^wh I may desire to emulate certain por- 

of. since. These "circumM;uicns"tt ill show j tiof'^'f your history. 1 am rot at all in- 

that if is my wish to reply to vou dispas- clined to follow the pernicious example 



iionately 

I regret that I cannot accept the chal 
lenge youolTcrme. Perhaps I maybe 



that your letter furnishes. 

You complain of harshness on my part. 
My letter, to which yours is a reply.' 



restrained from wishing to level a pistol {loubtles=, somewhat bold in its character, 
it the breast of a fellon being, in private i but. believing that iu an affair with yo" 



l&A 



GTEVt^AL JACKSON'S VfOLRNCE. 



it WHS only necpr-sary to hive riphi <>ti 
one% side, in order to obtain aiiprobalioT- 
I had no other care in its comj">!'ition, tli;.- 
to avoid every thing, personally offensive 
85 far .li the truth, nn't :i fnir i\ scu^mou 
of the ?ut'ject wmuUI [lermit; and I 6lill 
re?l j)erf'ii!i led. that the /acf corresponds 
with niy intention. It i? true. lh:it I «poke 
of you. and treated you. as a man. «ilh- 



F.diior of the Kcnturky Rtporter, 
vhich was soon exierded to General 
\dair, and continued, through the 
ummpi of that year. This controver- 
sy related to his censure of llic Ken- 
tucky troop?, at New Orleans, i>iid 
oripinatcd about a matter, with wl.ich 
Gen. Jackson had been for some time 



cm (he petty qualittrations^rcommon ^^^^'l "'■'l"'''''ted. but which he did not 
opuge: l.ccause in adlressin? you. they jtl'ink proper to stir, until that time, 
were then cnn-idered as so many rliminu-j In conducting this coi.troversy, he 
tives; hut 1 am now to apirehend that indulged in great virulence of lan- 
univer«al success and applause have some- guage. towards his opponents, and es- 
vkbat spoil.'d you; and that I shall ult<- pecially towards Gen. Adair. The 



mately be oblieed to fall into the comnmn 
place habil, u^ed in respect to common 
place people, and consiiier you as nothing 
more than u gentleman. 

Permit me lo request, — I think I have 
a ri'^ht to demand, — a sight of the orii^nal 
anonymous letter which has given rise 
to this discussion. If I mistake not. your 



following is given as a specimen. It is 
take!) from a letter of Gen. Jackson, 
dated July '33, 1817. 

'•1 amaslonislied at your impudaice, 
lo talk of fightii!g battle- over again. — 
You well know. Sir, that your misrep- 
rrsentoliou'- and fulsrhoodf, combiM<'d 



correspondent is a greater perso, age than! with those of your colleague and i.ic 
you, perhaps, imagine— nay so high, thai ' editors of a new-paper, have been dis- 
he has once essayed to set himself above { turbing the public mind, by eiideavor- 
the highest in our political sphere Tht- ing to cast a stigma on the well carr.ed 
letter shall be returned as soon as the hand i fame of brave and meritorious officers, 
is compared with that of a certain agent ;,nd seeking to convince the world, that 
of the|iersoiiage alluded to. | men are heroes, who ingloriou-ly tied 

I cannot close this letter ivilhouf ex- 1 l„.fure the enemv." 
prc-ing a belief, that on the return ofj ^,^j. j^ .^ ^^\ ^ ,^ ^,. „,^, ^^^_ 
your wonted magnanimity I shall be re- ^ ^^ j^^jj j^^. ^.^^^^ Jackson to a dis- 
quesled to burn the one that has e ic.led , ^ - ^ citizen, who felt 

it, by way ol apolopy for the inpiry i! does i .,*".. ^ ^ , » . . . , 

me. .accordingly, it has been soon, as yet. > '! !'•* duty not to acquiesce ... .mputa- 
bv but one individual (of my Stan.) and he t'on*' ^'^•I'lch he deemed unjiist, liut 
Lebi in reserve.until a certain time has ! which Gener.il Jack.son iiisisied to ias- 
elapsed— attending that just expectation. I ten upon the Kentucky militia. Its 



In the mean time. I shall have i.'ie honour 
to re.mainjSir, 

Very respectfuly, 

Vour most obedient servant. ' 
[Signed] W. .SrOTT. 
To Miij. Gcii. .\. Juckson, 



mpropriety, indeed to speak in plain 
terms, its vulgarity and i.isolence, must 
be manifest to every one. 

The wide scope given by Gen. Jack- 
son to his inasciblc feelings, and his 
propensity to indulge in coarse abuse, 



I have already remarked , that the! duiing the summer of 1817. docs not 
commencement of the pre-idency o(1 -eem to have allectcd his standing \\ith 
ilr. Monroe seemed to .cmove from j Piesidenl .Monroe. In the spring ol 
Jackson every thing like re- 1 1818, he was engnired in conducting 



Oen 



8train(,u')on the .latunil impulse and the Seminole War. Here he indulged 

. '. ', . .1 ,• 1 ■ 1- • ■ _ ..• 1 1:.._ *„ U! ir I... 



W.y.', indulged violence of hi.s disposi- 
tion. I do not deduce this inference 
.^om the circumstances of his conduct, 



in a violence peculiar to hiinsell. He 
gave full scope to his appetite for 
Hload and carnngr,'" by hanging cap- 



tov^'ards the Secretary of War and ' tive I.idians,a.id by putting white men, 
fSen. Scott. It was in April, 1317, seized as pri;oi:cri of war. to death, 
rliat l.i' commciced hostiliiies against ; upon grounds, a'ike unknown to muni- 
the w.ir department, lh:it led to hi> cipal or to national law. He took into 
\varfaie with Gen. Scott, h. March,! his hands all the powers of Govern- 
;'£!7,hebe;iap a C''''''"'^'''r-v •'■•i;-! •'■'-'"'<•"•■ v.-irc! •■vnv ur-H- Son^fi. and 



GENEKAL JACKSON'S VIOLENCE. 



ICO 



seized her forts and territory. The 
Government disavowed liis acts, and 
restored to Spain all that Jackson had 
wn-jted from hor. But Jaclvson him- 
self was permitted to escape rebuke. 
Whilst engaged in this war of his own 
making, General Jack-^on found occa- 
sion to" indulge his temper upon Gov. 
Rabun. But, as this was fully exposed 
in the last number of the Expositor, it 
is unnecessary to repeat it hers. 

In 1819, the conduct of General 
Jackson, in the Seminole war, became 
a subject of discussion in Congress. He 
visited Washington, and distinguished 
himself by the violence of his demean-, : i. j„ ^„ 

1 1- /• 1- \ • J „,„,; «:«.,o the vear 1819. My aidsde-camp were 

or. and the fury of his denunciations _ -^ , /- n j r^ . ■ r^ . ' rr.L 
ui, anu nil lui^ ".'.'. ... General Call and Captain Easter. The 



slandered you — and Commodore Decatur 
staled that you should not enter the Senate 
door unless over kis dead body In a short 
lime you agreed to desist fiom your pur- 
pose, &c 

Be so obliging as to furnish an answer 
as early as convenient. 

Your?, respectfully, 
FELIX GKUNDY, 

Gen. Andrew Jackson." 

"JVashville Inn, Aov. \5lh, 18B7. 
De\r Sir: — Your letter of this day has 
been received, and i hasten to answer it. 
The statement to whidi you allude is 
wholly destitute of truth. I was not in 
the Senate Chamber or anti-chamber, in 



against those who had the boldness to 
censure him. It was at this time 
that he was accused of forming the de- 
sign of attacking a senator in Congress, 
in the Capitol, and of attempting to 
carry that design into effect. This 
subject was noticed in the first number 
of the Expositor. But it is i ecessary 
to notice it here more particularly. 

The accusation made last summer 
against Gen. Jackson, that he had 
placed himself in the anti-chamber of 



former is still living, and will satisfy any 
person who will inquire of him, that the 
statement is untrue As to Commodore 
Decatur and myself having such a con- 
versation as is stated to have taken place 
in the anti-chamber of the Senate, we 
never had such a conversation there or 
elsewhere. Commodore Decatur and 
myseU were friendly at all times, and no 
harsh or unkind expression ever passed 
from one to the other. So far from my 
visiting the Senate Chamber, 1 was invited 
to do so by several of the members of 



the Senate for the purpose of attacking ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^,j„^,, j^, ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

a Senator, was deemed by his fnends | ^^ j ^^ ^^^^^^^ ,g^ ^y conduct. 
and himself, deserving of reply and re- 
futation from him. This was brought 
about by means of a letter from Mr. 
Grundy. That, and the General's re- 
ply arc here inserted. 

".^"as/iI•^7/e, Aoi>. i5lh, 1827. 



"Deah Sir,— On this day I received a 
letter from a frien<i of mine in Richmond. 
(Va.) requesting me to ascertain from 
you. whether there is any foundation in 
truth, in certain statements circulated in 
that section of the country, respecting a 
conversation alleged to have taken place 

between Commodore Decatur and your | not assert that no such thing took place, 
self, in the anti-chamber of the Senate, in at any time or place. He says, nolh- 



iigned my 

1 am, very respectfully. 

Your most obedient servant, 
ANDt;EVV JACKSON. 
The Hon. F. Grx^ndy. Esq " 

It will be seen that the allegations 
and answer, are confined to the place, 
and manner, and not the substance of 
the charge. No question is asked 
whether the General, at any time or 
place, or in any manner placed hint- 
self with the intention of assaulting a 
Senator, from which, he w-as dissuaded 
by Com. Decatur. The General does 



the year 1319. I understand the charge, 
as made against you, is — That on the last 
night of the session, you, accompanied by 
your tivo aids de-camp, went to the anti- 
chamber of the Senate, and ivhile there. 
Commodore DecUur came up to you and 
enquired, whether you came there for 



ing of the kind took place in the Senate 
cliaml)er, or anti-chamber, that no such 
conversation as was stated took place 
i between the General aid Com. Deca- 
tur. Their conversation, here negativ- 
ed, is thus staled: 



the purpose of chastising Mr. Eppes, &c.? 1 



"Com. Decatur came up to yoti 
To which'you ;epT,edafliVma7i;'elv'; and ' and enquired whether you came there 
after some further remarks, y-u declared ; for the purpose of cha.stizirg Mr. 
your determination to chastise Mr. Eppes I Eppes, tc? To which you replied 
in the '^emio r\nu>hcr. wberr he bad atiirmativelv. ^id alter some f«rlhcr 



I'.O 



GESEUAL JACKSON'S VIOLEXCE. 



remarks yoa declared your determina- 
tion to chastise Mr. Eppes iti the Sen-, 
ate chaml>er, where he had sla'idired 
you, and Com. D'catur slated, thati 
you sliould not enter tUe Senate door.i 
unless over hi.- dead body." ] 

Gen, J.ickson's negative is very 
carcf.iUv confined to this conversation, 
and the place of assault designated in 
it. Trulii may sustain him in thi< de- 
nial and yet the subtance of the 
charge against him exist as a fact. 
That the Getieral was loud and ve- 
hement in his threats, at taverns and 
ball rooms in Washington, has never 
been denied; and that he took a stand 
in sonic part of the capitol for the pur- 
pose of assaulting a Senator, is confi- 
dently bfli'.-vcd, by most of those who 
Were a< Washington at the time, and 
co:;versant with the circumstances. 
Gen. JacljsoM will not venture to deny 
that iie formed the determinafioti of 
attacking a Senator in the capitol, that 
he made his arrangemenis to do so, and 
took his staiid accordingly ; that a friend, 
apprised of his object, applied to Com. 
Decatur, who was with his lady in the 
Senate chamber, to intcrlere: that 
Com. Decatur left his lady in the 
Se .ate Chamlier, and by the most 
urgent persuasion, not by threats or 
rudfuess, did intiuerce tlie Ge-ieial 'o 
desist. 1 say tliat Gen. Jackson will 
not deny the substance of the transac- 
tion liere narrated. Ho cannot but 
ki.ovv that Com. D-catur commuriicat- 
ed the facts to Mr. Monroe, in the hear- 
ing of more than one person, who is 
now alive. He must k -ow that tliev 
arc familiar lo the recolle-tion of Mrs. 
D •calur. 1 speak not of tlie minutije, 
b 'tof the general facts, which 1 believe 
to !ie incontrovrlible. This was in 
1D19, when t!ie Geiteral was so lucky 
as to escape the censure of Congress, 
bv the etl'orts of most iiiduslrinus 
fiends. He returned home, and «e 
do not ag\in hear of him as engaged 
in ar)y new violence, until about two 
ye.irs afterwards, when acting as Gov- 
ernor ol Florida; for such was the de- 
votion of Mr. Monroe to Gen. Jackson, 
that he conti'-ued lo wink at all his 
violences, a'ul confer public eniplov- 
menls npon him. 

Jn ICOl.lhcanny w,-'- ^'^ hv reduc- 



ed tliat no command remained for Gen. 
Jackson, and he was let down from his 
command, by the appointment of Gov. 
of Florida, hi the discharge of tliis 
office he gave a wide range of indul- 
gence to his native violence and iin- 
petuositv of character. 

Before the possession of the Terri- 
tory w ii.- received from the Spanisii au- 
thorities, a good portion of angry feel- 
ing was excited between the General 
and the Spanish officers. Afier the 
delivery. the General was easily stimu- 
lated to acts of violence. One ol the 
parties to an old controversy about 
the est itc of a deceased person, con- 
trived (o enlist Gen. Jacksun in the 
cause. He took sides, in the true 
spirit of a partizan, and under the 
persuasion that he was administering 
[justice, in the character of a Judge, 
perpetrated one of the most unheard 
of enormities. I say nothing as to the 
real justice of the case, about which, a 
good deal may be said. But admit- 
jting that the General espoused the 
right side of the cause, his proceedings 
1 were wholly unjustifiable. He seized 
I by a queer mixture of civil and milita- 
[rv power, upon the person of the late 
I Spanish Governor, and upon the 
i person of others, and impri>oiied them. 
, Judge Fronientin issued a habea> 
corpus, a process at which the Gen- 
eral seems to be instantly transported 
into furious wrath. Instead of regard- 
jing it. Gen. Jackson sent a process 
'citing Fromcntin before him. Upon 
I his appearance an accommodation took 
I pi ice, and Fromcntin was pennilted to 
.retain his libert\. Jackson proclaim- 
ed that Fromcntin had apologized, 
this Fromentin denied, when followed 
a scene of recriminations little credita- 
ble to either. Botli addressed them- 
selves to the Secretary of State. The 



! following are extracts from Jackson"* 
|ow!i letters. The reader is requested 
I to read them with particular attention. 

" The lime when llii- interference was nrnli- 

I r< n lers his cunduet still more n'prt-heiHible; 

f heiliil kiimv tliiit upmisiiion bv lurcc hiij been 

! threalcnoil liy C:i'lnva ;im) liis Spanish olTiei r?, 

to my nuthorily, aiiliil, a* tlie.v Im.l a rinht ti. 

Itt'Iieve, by *onie of ni}' oJlicer>. Tiii* as you 

will iliscovcr, I put iloivn, as itonirhl to Ic>m 

been; ami the lecture I cave t!ii' Jmliie w , i 

he c'lme betun* nic, will, I trust, tor tin- i . 

cause liini to obey llicsi'irit of liis comnr.-:. i 



GENERAL JACKSON'S VIOLENCE. 



iVi 



aid in the execution of thp liiws and ndministra 
tion ot the government, inslciiil ot;ittcnii)ling 
to oppose me, under Spiinisli inllmncu." 

''Judsc Froiucntm wits represented to he no 
lawvcr,'bnt lavorably spoken of as a man ol 
literature; hut I could not have l..rmed such 
an idea of his want of legal knowledge, as this 
transaction. lisplajs. I am, therefore, more in- 
clined to ascribe bis conduct to weakness, than 
any other cause." 

" Cclonel t allava's powers havint; 
here with the surrcndi r of the country, it was 
a display, and so considered by iiie, ol 
in hiselaim- 



• of one 6electe<J 



ceased 



only 



let- 
the 
26, 



pompous arrogance and isnoranco. 
ingthcprivileue of diplomacy, which, m tact, 
he never possessed, his powers having: ceased, his 
commission accomplished, the pretension which 
hesetupwas an insult to the weakest under- 
standing." 

The above are extracts from a 
ter written by Gen. Jackson to 
Sccrctaiy of state, dated Aug ist 
1821. They are quite polite and gentle 
mai.ly in comparison witli tliose whicl 

follow. 

"Thiscxpose furnishes a satislactory view of 
Ihe whole cround in dispute, and incontestihly 
proves that Judge Fromeiitin has hren guilty ol 
wilfully and wickedly fabricating Ihe most 
palpable falseh.io is. The evidcm;e of such un- 
blushing depravity and corruption shuuld be 
placed in the possession ol the President, and. in 
strict justice, deserves to he exposed to tlie exe- 
cration of the whole American people. When 
an officer of such high responsibility, under the 
yederal Governnicnt manifests eiK'h ha-eness 
and obliquity of heart, it ought to excite our 
.-ilarm, ami stimulate the proper authonty to 
nnply the most speedy and efficient remedy." 

"This coui-ie of proceeding may very well 
"omport with the corrupt and in.iuisitorial sys- 
tem of former Spanish t»hunals, but ti.ey are 
clearly and palpably unju-t^nd merit the un- 
qualified reprobation of every honest and intel- 
ligent American. I can assure you that so far 
as 1 have been enabled to collect an expression 
of public sentiiuent relative to Ihe conduct of 
.1 udge Fromeiitin, it has r vi<lcntly rendered him 
o odious and contemptible, that his name is j 
inly mentioned in genteel circles, to be depre- 
cated and de=pised. It is considered so flagrant 
and ilajitious a departure fronijustice and pro- 
priety,"as seriously to impair bis stiindiny, and 
rathe"r to produee'disaffection, than inspire re- 
spect and confidence in the American authori.- 
liesin Tlorida. 

"Situated as Judge Fromcntin was I did not 
.Tiiticipate that he would have had the hardi- 
hood and temerity to revive this transaction, | 
and make it a subject of public investigation. 
Good spnse as well as the best policy, would . 
certainly have dictated a very ditTerent proce- 
dure. After his concession ami open acknowl- 
edgements that he had acted hastily and with- 
out a due consideration of the case, i I would 
not have been expecleil that the most abandon- 
ed and proilijate would have denied Ihe facts, 
particuhirly "when those declarations were 
made in the presence of several gentlemen of 
the most unimpeachable integrity. The man 
who could thus prostitute his signature, for 
theprnpo^ation of such jlarinc; and barefaced 



incompatible with the character „ -- , 

(o administer the laws as Judge of the Unite" 
States. Elevated as he was, 1 had hoped that 
I should meet with a manly feeling and lofty in- 
tegrity corresponding with his honorable sta- 
tion, but 1 sincertlv regret to say, Ibiit he has 
displaced a want "of honesty and candor only 
bccuniing an apostate r-nest, and which is 
enough to suffuse the dieek of depravity itscll 
with a blush." 

These arc extracts from a letter of 
Gen. .Jackson's to the Secretary of 
State, dated at Nashville, Nov. 3, 1821. 
not propose to comment upon 
the tone or the expressions, 
they must all he to 
every reflecting mii d. It should be 
rememliered too, thatthey were employ- 
ed long after the events had transpired, 
and when the General had left entirely 
the scene of action, and had enjoyed 
an opportunity to become calm. 

Whilst performing the othc.e of Gov- 
ernor, in Florida, Gen. Jackson acted 
solely in a civil capacity. He had no 
foreign enemy to contend with. Yet 
he enihroHed himself with every one 
subservient to his will. 



1 do 

eillier 

How unseemly 



who was not 

He organized courts unknown to any 
law, assumed to himself the most un- 
limited judicial functions impri.-;oned 
Spanish 'officers, insulted the United 
States Judge, and finally transported 
a number of Spanish officers from the 
country. Judge Fromcntin, wriling 
upon tiie spot to the Secretary of State, 
Sept. 21st, 1821, thus describes the 
state of things: 

"The portion of the army here, is under the 
orders of General Jackson. The posse commi- 
tatus would be inefficient. If my life was iho 
only sacrif ce to he risked, the law should be 
obeyed. But, under our government of laws 
and fre^-dom. the most revolting system ot lO 
quisition prevails, and I am compelled to desire 
as preferable to what exists here now, evcij^thc 
despotism of Algiers, Tunis, or Morrocco 

ro.^rl.nes with the uiost outraf;eoi.o 

lace 



place re-echoes with the most outrageous and 
impious vocilerations, and that toolrora a pi 
called the bench of Justice, against (very body 
who will dare to question the su|)remacy ol the 
Governor. 1 am credibly iuformed that com- 
missions have been, or ar to be, sent to New- 
Orleans, in order to find out by depositions 
there, the name of the writers here, whose de- 
scription of the scenes which have taken place 
at Vensacoia docs not exactly tally with the 
account given by the General and his friends 
1 write t;> you with a rope round my neck, 1 
can afford protcctioo to nobody here, much less 
to myself." 

Surely, the man, who acting in a 
subordinate capacity, adventures to 

"S^m/^r d"^:ur^:f:::':;:'iXt:^ 'produce such a eondii^ 



i'r2 



GENERAL JACKSON'S VIOLE.VCE. 



here exposed, must possess noordinar> | C'tv and marched apUnst the enemy, on the 

share of ungovernable violence, and • "If^' ?' "j^ "^"^ "' Decembrr, 18I4, I wa- 
conmnplfor pul.lic ooinion. I,, th. I^'^!* '^.iTrJ!.l?.'i™>: '^'•'i '" -"-»-"'. 



contempt for puMic opinion 
latter he was well sustained 



In the having no otbt-r conCcicntial officer tha"l"coMld 

- -. Various be spared from command. A f. w dajs after, 

attempts were made in Conirre". h, r^'"'-. ^^"P«',"'."" per^"". ijppl'fd to m> Aid to 

tlie «p««inn nf iROi i Qoo . I ■ "e informeii what would be my conduct if ilriv- 

thi ,f, r^t f A ' ' J""^ "^' ■ '-" ^'"■" ."> ""•'^ °f •J'-'^""' «"'' compelled to 

miySUDject lor discussion and investi- , "trtal through .\ew-Or)ean?— whether I wouiJ 
gallon, but it was smothered. Gen l ''*'"' ''"-'-"FP'"* '"''the enemy or deUrov tin m» 

Jackson wasa ntvorite with the cabinet. ! t^^J^ ^ Z ^^ll'hir:^,^ 'I^ t^ 'l;:; 
At least ne was so tar a favorite with "'•^''t'on was to destroy them, th.y mi^ht 
the President, that Mr. Adams was re- ^J^H 'f^. "'"^ "'.'' ?-n'--n_!y. Obtaining "no 



^^*V^^*^'' ''■'"" "uy Aid, a Committee of three 
waited up.in me for fati.-laction on this subject. 
I u them I replied. " if I thouirlit the hnir oV my 



qui.ed to exert his high talents in 

vindicating all his enormities. As ■ "'"em ' replied, "if i thouirht the hnir o"i my 

Secretary of State, this was a duty !'!f''!55"="">> 'houirhis,! woul.lcutitoffii.urD 

w.^chM,-. Ad.ms could notdeciini;|;!,;;;^;^r".:::;i;:;'.^rri:l;f^j::;:!,;t;^ 

a.id It is now urged against him. tliat "»te as to be driven from the lines I then occu- 
he approved ail that he thus vindicated, i ?,";''' a°'' com;,elicd to retreat through .New 

It is hideed douhta.1, whether an, ?&:S'-^.;°t^:;-^ -™ -— ;:;^^ 

thing but the elTorts of Mr. Adams, ""til the evenins of the 8.h of January wheu 

saved Gen. Jackson from being over- "' "''■-•■"• -" ' ' - ' • 

whelmed by public detestation. Gen. 
Jackson reward^ him by atitempts to 
bla^t his character, and destroy his 
standing with the people! 

There is another and a more recent 
act of Gen. Jackson's, so unwarantable 
and so unjust, that it is eniitlcd to a 
place in this review. In 1824, whilst 
a Senator in Congress,Gcn. Jackson was 
induced to intermeddle in the appoint- 
nv :it of Post Master, at New-Orleans 
Col. Croghan, and others were candi- 
dates, amongst them Fulwar Skip- 
wiTH, Esq., a soldier of the revolution, 
and a man of well established charac- 
ter. In a letter to the Post Master 
General.dated Wajhingtoii. March 22d. 
1824, Gen. Jackson made an attack 
upon tlie character of Mr. Skipwith, in 
the following manner: 

"It has been stated to me that Mr. Fulivar 
Skijuviih IS an applicant for that office. If'^o, 
I loci It a duty to make kiMwn his conduct du- 
ring the assault on Now-Orleans by the British ' 
army in the late war. 



31r. .-^kipivith ro 'e down to consratnlate me on 
the event, iroai the foregoins"you can jud^e 
how much he merits the bounty oi his Gdvern- 
uienl, to the cxclu-ion oitho'se >vho have real 
claims for imjwirtant seriices niidend " 

Gen Jackson well knew that the 
charges here made against Mr. Skip- 
with were unjust. A full investigation 
of ihe whole matter took place at'^ew- 
Orleans, at the very moment the charge 
was made. A < ommittce of the Legis- 
lature examined into it, traced it to'its 
-■urce, and demonstrat.-d that it had 
originated partly in malite, partly in 
misapprehension, and partly in precipi- 
tancy. I do n^t ?pcak of the spccifit. 
charge against .Mr. ."^kipwith, but oftht 
general one includii g the whole legis- 
l.iture. Of that against .Mr. Skipwith 
no proof was ever adduced, and he has 
repelled it by a strong and indignant 
denial. 

The complaint that Mr. Skipwith 
would not adjourn or prorogue the 
Legi.-lature, is evidence how't'xceed- 
ingly ignorant Gen. Jackson is of the 



consequence thereof, received mine. Krom hi« 1'^"^^"^ prorogue 0rad)0urn the Leg- 
situation I expected much aid from him: you | '"'hiture is vested in tlie Speaker of 

^^?^5^!^??^'^^^"^'^tl : :J:1^ '^••^"^''' '" ^--'- - -3 other 



.... , o, - - ...... ..v.11.111 ueieiice 

til the coniilry, in the then trying crisis, he was 
found wilh those who were enirajied in para- 
lysing my defence, lie would neiiiierproroeue 
the Aspembly noradiourn it to Haton Roi;ue, 
and when Ihe minority abandoned Ihe .A-^em- 
bly, and tendered their services as voluu- 
terrs, at my line of defence, .Mr. Skipwith re- 



The interference of Gen. Jackson, 
a Senator in Congress from Tennessee, 
and a candidate for President, in the 
appointment of Post Master at New- 
Orleans, in Louisiana, manifested none 
nance, which 



.uaim.d wiih those wh7 w^re chj i^ " vUh o ' 1 b / r , f , 

th. d,.M,n to.Miver (he city to. ami make" V ^chcate forbc 

terms Wilh (he enemy. One part of his con- "".-'"t to mark the conduct of a -ivai 

'ttK^tit ,s necessary to dctaU. WhcD 1 idt the ' mail. An unlo-jjided attack upon the 



GENERAL JACKSON'S VIOLENCE. 



IXi 



private reputation of a candidate for -ed with imputations of the coarsest and 
the office, whom he did not favor, most odious ciiaractcr. and is taunting- 
evinced a disregard of propriety and jl) detied to mortal coml)at. 
violence of enmity which ought to Gen, Adair questions the correctness 
discredit any man. Gen. Jackson, in of charges urged by Gen. Jackson 
iiis extraordinary letter, written last against the Kentucky Militia. He is 



July to Mr. Owens, observes correctly 

" As a public or private man, speaking of 
transactions which concern the reputation and 
character of others, evert/ manly fteling should 
remind him that he oujrht to be guided by estab- 
lished fads, not by the hearsay of a party.'' 

How widely he departed from this 
i-ule, in the case of Mr. Skipwith, every 
reader can perceive at a glance. 

This covert attack upon the charac- 
ter of Mr. Skipwith, shows conclusive- 
ly how inveterate and enduring are 
file enmities of Gen, Jackson. He 



catechised for his '■'impudence and futsc- 
hood,'' in terms, only proper from a 
master to his slave. 

Mr. Eppes in the discharge of his du- 
ty as a Senator, censures in respectful 
and moderate terms, some very extra- 
ordinary transactions on the part of 
Gen. Jackson, and he is made the sub- 
ject of degrading epithets, and of vio- 
lent threats, nay, even personal injury 
is meditated against him. 

Judge Fromentin, in the exercise of 



ground for doing so. The nif^mbers 
lepelled his charges, and >j,ave to the 
General explicit evidence that they 
were not afraid to express their resent- 
ment of the injury. A spirit of ran- 
cour was Uuis excited in tlie bosom of 
the General towards the members. 
He wreaked his vengeance, in pari, on 
Loiiaillier, but it still rankled in his 
mind, and, at the distance of nine years, 
he atiain jioured it out upon Mr. Skip- 
witlK in all the distortions of disingenu- 
ous misrepresentation, if not of direct 
falsehood. Were General Jackson as 
much slandered now, as his supporters 
allege, it would be but a visitation upon 
him, of his own injustice to others. 

When a dispassionate view is taken 
of the instances of outrage and violence 
1 have enumerated, it si^ems to me, 
impossible that any reflecting man, 
can believe, that the perpetrator ougiit 
to he trusted with the executive power 
of the nation. In most instances, the 
attack has been made upon Gen. 
Jackson's equals, and co-ordinate func- 
tionaries of the Government. The in- 
justice complamed of in all the cases, 
was, that the party had presumed to 
censure some public act of the General. 
General Scott had but publicly de- 
clared his disapprobation of an order 
issued by Gen. Jackson, which elicited 
very general condemnation. He firm- 
ly and frankly, bui decently and re- 
spectfully, repeated his opinions to 



had denounced the ' Legislature of] his judicial functions, issued a W'rit 
Louisiana, in 1815, witjbout sufficient 

lefore him, lectured and aiscnargea, 
and subsequently villified, in a strain of 
the most disgusting billingsgate. 

Mr. Skipwith had not submitted to 
the imputations, that he, with otliev 
members oi the Legislature, had enteF> 
tained traitorous intentions and con- 
tempi. itcd r.cting upon them. But he 
had joined with his brother members 
to repel them, and to expose tiie out- 
rages committed by Gen. Jackson, in 
closing the doors of the Legislature by 
military force. 

In none of these cases, is any allow- 
ance made for difSirence of opinion, 
or any thing conc(>ded on the ground 
of ernial right To dilTer from Gen. 
Jackson, in respect to any of his public 
acts, and express that difference, oi 
act upon it, is to be criminal and merit 
punishment. And where Gen. Jack- 
son can do nothing more, he gives vent 
to his violence in impotent, vulgar, and 
malicious reproaches. Whether this 
proceeds from infirmity of temper, or 
perverseness of heart, is matter of lit- 
tle importance. It is fraught with 
equal mischief to the jiarly, and 
threatens equal danger to the country, 
should the aggressor be promoted to 
high office. 

There can be no secmily that Gen. 
Jackson may not indulge in the same 
outrages, against all who might dare to 
thwart bis opinions, in any matter ol 
public policy. The bad effect such a 



Gen. Jackson. For this he is degrad- ' temper might produce, upon our for- 



114 



f;ENEn.VL JACKSON'S VIOT.FAtE. — JOHN WOOD. 



eign relations, is incalculable. The 
mii-'cliicf it would most probably dif- 
fuse into our domestic allairs, cannot 
be imat;iiied, muili less enumerated. 
It is idle to talk of wise counsellors, and 
more calm re (lections. Tlie-e, never 
yet controuled a man in l;ii,'li autliorily. 
wliere they failed to co'rtroni him in 
lower stations. Supreme rule inflates, 
rather than moderates an intirmmind. 
It is more likely to i.icrca-e irritnbility 
than patience. Neither i- it the natur- 
al tendency of supreme rule to subdue 
irrascibility, and indure respect and 
deference for the opinions of others. 
It* tendencies are directly contrary. 
Moderate men are apt to become im- 
patient and testy, when clothed with 
power; the violence of tiie violent never 
fail> to increase, 'i'iie evidence we 



adjutant io the most disrespccifui and imubor- 
ilinatr laneu.i^e — tlial ill resist. iiico to aa uriicr 
•o arre-i liim l"..r this ili$obe<!i"iice and <ti»rc- 
'iircl, he Itndbf outfit I his gun to a shooting posi- 
tiin, and IkrraU'-tdti kill .i"v lui/i who attimpl- 
ed to take Uu gu» or lay liatidi on him.^^ 

It is well knourn that in (rials, by a Court 
Martial, the testimony is all reduced to writing, 
and reciirded. Although Parrish copied from 
this record, he has not tiven cither the charges 
or the te>tiiuijii3' He has. in this, followed the 
example of K.aton, and the General's other a- 
pido^i'ts. The)' are all afraiii to (rust tlie pub- 
lic with the fact- proven against Wood. They 
iirefer to rely upon Iheir own ge'icral assertions. 
This conduct ought to satisfy every candid 
mm that they know the truth cannot bear 
the light. 

Col. Parrish gives us a copy of the General 
Order, issued by Gen. Jackson on the day of 
execution, a Idicssed to John Wood, h^ con- 
taining a fair exposition of his case. We in- 



luive before us, of the conduct of Gen. jsert it, that our readers may judge for tlicm- 



Jackson, towards the public me", ,viih 
whom he has been brought into coUisiovi, 
ou(;ht to convince us, that it would be 
tjnwise and unsafe to elect him Presi- 
dent. He is not ma>lerof liimself, bow 
then tan he be (jualified to rule ad- 
vantageous!) over others? 



FROM THE ri.NCIN.NATl GAZETTE. 

.lOIIX WOOD. 

An.ithcr attempt has hern made to gloss over 
thei normity of this execution. Col. Joel Par 
risli, who has already figured as a witness in the 



tves. The General's advocates have been 
cireful to publisli only one side of this question. 
We have preferred t'l give both. It is the best 
posHhle evidence of the desperatn>ii of a cause, 

when its supporters are afraid to present it fully 
and fairly to the people. 

"GE.NF.FIAL ORDER, 
"John Wood: — You have bei ii tried hy a 
Court Martial, on the charges of ilis ibediencc 
of orders, di-res;iect to winr rommaiidiiig olfi- 
cer, ami mutiny : and havt-hem fouml guilty of 
all of Ihim. The Court which has found you 
guilty of these charges, has sentenc«l you to 
sulFer death, by sho.itiiig; and this sentence the 
Comin^inding General has thought proper, and 
even felt himscll bound, to approve, and to or- 
der it (o be executed. 

" The offences of which you have been Tiund 
guilty, arc such as cannot be permitted to pass 



lasc, a volunteer witness too, and who was one „npunishe<l io an army, but at the hazard of its 
oi 1 he Court that passed the sentence, has made ' ruin. This is the second time you have viola- 
a second publication. It is of such a character i ted the duly of a sol.her-the second time yon 
,.,,,., . .. ,, , have been giiilly of offences, the punishment ot 

as to leave no doubt of the true nature ol t'"" | ,vi,ich is death. 



The case is thus stated by I'ar- 



" When you had been regularly mu»tcrcd in- 
to the service of your country, and werrmarch- 
. ed to Head Quartern, umler tlv immediatecom- 



transaction. 
ish :— 

"John Wood having lic<-n once pardoned for ' maud of I3rigadicr General Roberts, you were 
the crime of mutiny and desertiou, was fouid I one of those,' who, in violation of your cnga.;e- 
guilty on the I Itli of March, 18U, of the char- j nient— of all the principle? of honor, andof 
ges "of ilisnbedienre of nrder-, ''isrespect of 1 the order of your commanding General, rose in 
'•' " ' mutiny and ih-serteil. Vou were arrested, and 



Fiis commanding ollicer, and mutiny," by a 
t'ourt consisting ot five officers, citizens of the 
fame stale, and members of the same corps to 
which he belonged. Tiicse orticirs, ns tlie re- 
cord of the proceedings show, were 

Capt. 'I'lios. GiiAv, President. 

Capt. Jon PAKiusn, 

(apt. N \Tii AN Uavis. 

l.iriit. Wm. Kix;, 

Kn^ign Mnn'i. Hoi.r, — 

Mrmhi'Ti of lli€ Court. 

Wyi. R 11fs'=, Judge Advocate. 
** U was proved by tlie lcs*iiiuiny of \\\> iv\ 
low soMiers, and by Ihal of two ollicers, thai he 
had positi\cly refused to obey aii-order from his 



brought back; and, notwithstanding the little 

claim you hail to mercy, your General, uuwil- 

lin; to inflict the s«'vcrity of the law, and iiillu- 

ence<l b> the hope that yon would atone, hy 

your future good conduct, for your past error, 

thought proper to grant you all a pardon. This 

ought to liave produced a salutary iinpre-siiin 

I on a mind not lolally dead to every honorable 

I sentiment, and not perversely and obstinately 

bent on spreailing disorder and confusion in the 

army. It, iinfortiinatrly, proiluced no such ini- 

I prosslon on jours. But a (rvi weeks after you 

I had been brnusfht back, you have been found 

ruillv of oll'tiices not Icel ciiajiaal than thoiu 



jfOlIN WOOD. 



11-3 



lor whicli you had so rccenlly been pardoned. 
aii'l whicli, il'thr liiw liiid been ri;;iilly uiiloiceil, 
woulii bave subjected >im to li-.i'li. I'liis e^ 
viiicts, but too rinnitestly , an iucorrii;iljlc ilis(>o- 
siti.m of bearl — a reheiliuus, an obstinate tem- 
per of mind, wbicb, as it cannot be leclilieil, 
ous;bt nut to be permitted to diffuse ilsinUuence 
amongst others. 

".in army caniiotexistwhi re order and subor- 
diinti.)n are wb'illy di>re£;ard«l— it cannot ex- 
ist uitb nauh credit to itieif, or service to Ibe 
CO. ntry which employ s it ; but whire tbej are 
observed with the most punctilious exactness. 
Tee disobedience of orders and the contempt ot 
olEcers speedily lead to a state of disnisj.iniza 
tion and ruin ; and mutiny wiiicb includes t lie 
others, aima still more iinmtdtateU at clieilisso- 
luuon of an army — ol all these olfciices you 
have been twice trailty, ami have once been 
pardoned. Your General must forj^et what he 
owes to the service he is ensraged in, and to the 
country which employs him, if by pardouiusj 
yon again, he should furnish au example to 
sanction measures which would bring ruin on 
the army he commands. This is an imfiortant 
crisis, in which if we all act as becomes us, eve- 
ry thing is to be hoped lor towards the accom- 
plishment of the objects of ours; vernment, — if 
otherwise, every thing is to e feared. How it 
becomes us to act, we all know, and what our 
punishment shall be, if we act otherwise, must 
be known also. The law which points nut the 
one prescribes the other. Between that law, 
and its offender, the commanding General 
ou^bt not to be expected to iuter;<ose, and will 
not where there are no circumstances of allevi- 
ation. There appear to be none such in your 
case; and however as a man he may deplore 
your unhappy situation, he cannot, as an otE- 
cer, without int'rinsing his duty, arrest the sen- 
tence of the Court .Manial." 

ANDREW J.\CKSON, 
Major Guieral 

Fnrt Slrotlifr, \4lh March, 1«14. 
(Signed) JOKL PARRIiH, Jr. Sec'y. 

This order furnishes itueh matter for serious 
reflection and remark. In the first olacc, it 
makes an ungenerous and unjust accusation a- 
gainst Wood. Tie is charged with a previous 
oflencc, the commission of mutiny and deser- 
tion. The particulars of this oficnce are enu- 
merated. They consist of a desertion from 
head quarters, when under the command of 
Gen. Roberts. This transaction is narrated by 
major Caloii. Let the facts as stated by him 
speak for themselves : 



tion ot which time ho would discharge theoi. — 
N.itwitbstandihg this assurance, with which he 
was instructed to make them fully acipiainted, 
for some niikiiown cau-e, they suddenly formed 
the lU teriuinutiiin to ahan<k>ii their en!.ai;e- 
meuts and return home, without gaining even a 
sight of the camp. To ilie iuiM;onduct of their 
general wasitjiistlv to be attributed. By halt- 
ing them in the neighbourhood, until he could 
go to lie. id ijuirtersand '^ make terms" fur tlieir 
accejitaiue, lie had iiii[.'ressed them with the be- 
lief that Ibeir obligations as yet extended only 
to himself; from which ho prouii^ed to absolve 
tluim, if the terms he should be able to make, 
should be less favorable than they ixpcetcil. — 
And even after General Jackson had assented 
to all that was or could bea'ked in their behalf, 
ind that assent had bctai reduced to writing, 
Roberts, either from not understanding what 
was done, or from a oesire to injure the service, 
hasteJied back to his men, — informed tb. lu 
that he had been unable to eli'ect an accomplish- 
ment of their obji-ct — seriously lamented hav- 
ing iii'liiceJ them frum their liome.s, and conclu- 
ded b\ gravely remarking, that he freely exon- 
erated them from all the obligations they were 
under to him. They, just as gravely concluiled 
they would go no further; and, turning about, 
they commenced their return home T'le affair, 
however, was soon presented ver} ditlerently to 
his uii.id. The careless indifference with which 
he had at IJrst treated it had subsided; and his 
tears took the alarm on receiving from general 
Jackson, an order to parade immediately be- 
fore the fort the men he had repo-'ed to have 
brought into the field. He came forward, now, 
to excuse what h.id hap(>ened, and to solicit 
pcriu'Ssioii to go in pursuit of .he refugees, whom 
bethought he should be able to bring back. — 
Overtaking them, at the distance of twenty 
miles, he endeavored, in a very gentle manner, 
to sooth their discontents, and prevail on theiu 
to return ; but having been discharged, and ab- 
solved fully from the ensagemenfs they had at 
first entered into, tliey lauibed at the folly of 
bis errand. Unabie to effect hi* object, hr- re- 
mained with tliem during the night ; and in the 
morning set out for camp, and his new recruits 
for home. On arriving at head quarters, he as- 
cribed his faiUre to the practices of certain offi- 
cers, whom he named, and who, he said, had 
stirred np a spirit ol iiiutiny and desertion among 
the men to such a degree, that all his efforts to 
retHin them hati prove*! unavailing. Jack«ori 
could not view this incident with the saise care- 
lessness and iiidilI\Ten<-e that Roberts did, im- 
mediately issued an order, directing him to iiro- 
ceed, forthwith, in pursuit of the deserters, and 
li:ive tturin apprf-benjed anil brought back. In 
f this order, he was commaudeit 



I the execution -. 

"General Roberts, who had been ordered [to call to his aid any troops in the United State_ 
back to supply the deficiencies in his brigade, I service within the county of Madison, or in the 
returned on the 27th with one hundred and state of Tennessee, and to exert all his power 
ninety-one men, mustered for three months.— and authority, as a military officer, within his 
Having halted them a few miles in rear of the i own brigade; and in the iv'ent he should not be 
camp, he proceeded thither himself, to learn of j able to collect a sulTicient force to march them 
the commanding gentr.:!, whether the troops he safely to head-quarters, to confine them injails, 
had brought on would be received for the term and make a report theieof, witliont delay. Thi, 
thcv had stipulated, inasmuch as they were un- [ order was accompanied with an assurance, tha 
willing to advance further until this point wasijiUwIio si 



settled. Jackson answered, that although he 
greatly preferred they should be engaged for six 
months, or during the c;:mpaign, yet he hail no 
wish to alter any engagement made with gener- 
al Roberti, and would glad ly receive them for the 
i'ov;.i 1 Ihrv !,a'l b-,-iTi'mi;s'.ert"I- a< '!:■.• "y- ir.\- 



hould return willingly to their iluty, 
exceiit those olTicers who had been reported a- 
the instigators, would he pardoned. Many oi 
the mrn and .several of the officer-, v^ho had 
been charged as encouraging the revolt, learn- 
ing the nature of the proceedings which wet' 
;i'if.iii ti bo enforced against th"'!!- -.-'e-n"' 






JOHN WOOU. 



heir own accord to canip ; and coururred in as- 
cribing Uieir lute miscunduct entirely to their 
general. He was afterwards arrested, and upon 
this and otiicr charges exJiibited against hiui, 
scutciiced by a court-martial to be cash- 
iered." 

Now let it be remembered that Wood was 
but a mere youth, little over eighteen years of 
&ge; that in this mutiny and desertion he act- 
ed upon the suggeition of Gen. Roberts him- 
self, thi't he was ouderno obligation to remain 



Now it if clear from the General Order, ihit 
Wood deserted with many others, and was 
brought back as stated by major Eaton. It if 
clear that he was never tried, and that the par- 
don extended to him wa? a general one to all 
concerned. So much for this lie. 
Miller ?ays again : 
■'Gen. Jack -on iffcred Wood his pardon a sec- 
ond tune, on cuudition he would serve hi- roun- 
tr\ like a true ;ind faithful soldier." — "Alter 
many unavailing efforts to persuade Wood to 



in service, and the world can judge with what i conform to subordination, pointing out to him 
fairness he is accused of previous otfeuce, as an l^^ consequences resulting to the army from 
apology for putting him to death, upon a charge l""*" conduct, ami Wood^^still remaining stnb- 

k- 1, • . • I . <• .u . 1 . r . 'bornandirrcclaimable, and swearing the Conrt 
which it IS evident, from the introduction of 



accusation, the General himself felt did not de- 
serve that punishment. 

When it is remembered that Wood was a ' lie direct No pardon of any kind, or ufjou 
mere boy ; when it is known that the charges of any condition, was offered to Wood in the Gen- 



iwariial dare not execute thrir sentence, the 
General turui'd his horse and rode off."' 
To this statement the General order gives the 



*' ditobedicnce of orders, disrespect of his comman- 
ding officer, and mutiny,^' were all acts of sud- 
den impulse, in a controversy with an officer to 
whom he did not conceive himself responsible, 
and who, no doubt, behaved badly, or the evi- 
dence would be published to show the truth, 
candid men cannot but wonder that Gen. Jack- 
son should gravely assert " there were no circum- 
itatKCS of alkvialiun.''^ The circumstances that 
are so solemnly enumerated in aggravation, pre 
sent no sirch character. The whole case is one 
of trivial consequence. Wood was liable to 
the letter of the law; but to enforce it was un- 
just and cruel. 1 say again, the failure to pub- 



eral Order. On the contrary, the General de 
termined at once that the sentence should be c.t- 
ecuted upon him. 

I understand that this captain Miller is a man 
not much esteemed for veracity, in geuiTdl mat- 
ters, where he is best known. His certificate 
was manufactured for him, by some one more 
an adept with the pen than himself. It has 
been generally circulated in the Jackson pa- 
pers. And there is no reason to expect that its 
falsehood will ever be acknowledged by those 
who have used it. Vet they who thus manufac- 
ture and circulate a notoriou- lie, have the con- 
fidence to talk about truth', \erily tLc.c are 



lish the evidence, is conclusive upon this point. ' queer times, and queer instruments are employ- 
Were it of a character to sustain Gen. Jack- edfor queer purposes. Time was, that to detect 
son, it would have long since appeared in print. : a man in a naked lie, or a man or partv in fa- 

The testimony adduced by the Tennesseean, bricating one, would affect their standing, evcu 
that is, the oaths of four witnesses, is thus dis- amongst one another. Now this seems a re<-om- 
posed of: i mendation. Those who court Gen. Jackson, 

"The misstatements of Dr. Armstrong's wit- i recommend themselves by some such act, and 
nesses arc too numerous to be noticed anil tniir I . , n , , . ,, 

testimony altog.Khcr too vague and unsubstau- J^'.'''"' gravely about repugnance at investi- 
tial to be regarded." " Piling a base act, or being concerneU with an 

This kind of contradiction is certainly too 'nfouious m.-in."' Col. Parrjsh, who sland^-rs 
general to pass for refutation. In just about i P°°'' ^^°°'^ '° subserve the cause of Gen. Jack- 
the same number of words 1 could dispose of '°"' »ho talks about the records of a trial, auLl 
Col Parrish's whole article. It is indeed " too ' ""^ testimony of witnesses which he takes can 
vague and unsub?tautial to be regarded." i °°' '" publish, holds this language. The uii-> 

I cannot cloie this article without again pay- worthy wretch who procured the false certii;- 
ing my rcsj^ects to captain Milltr, the famous I "^atc of Miller, no doubt would put on tbcsamt 
Greene county witness. The General Order, P™'*^'"^'^- -^nd, in the slang nf the party, they 



arc all the friends of virtue, of the people, am' 
of Gen. Jackson: Like a famous band of an- 
cient assassins — ' Ihey are all honorable men"' .'.' 



It is stated in some of the Jacksun prints, 



here published, shows there was some commix- 

turc of truth in his story. Dut it stamps with 

indi'liblc falsehood its two principal allcirations. 
Miller says : 

"John Wood deserted from his post and start- _ _ 

ed for home. On his way he was met by a ; that Gen. Jackson was appointiVrhy Vv.Vsi.Tng- 
cou.panv of men on their march to join the ar- ] ton. Attornev General of the U. States, or ul 
my. Wood on seeing them, hurried from tho ' Tcniiessco. "This was never the rase. We have 
path and sought concealment in a cane brake.- no reason t.> U-lievc that Wa^hinclon ever 
He was taken, however, and brought back to : Jtiifir the "A/<to of (ii-o irorj." It is~ po--«ible 
camp, where he was tried lor desertion, found however, that ho might have hoard of the vole 
guilty, niK, condcmnc.' to be shot. For this of- ■ which the General 5ave. ngainH returning to 
feneehewiupiinUuicdby Gen.Jr.rkson.-' Washington fte Monte »/-<Acnffff>n 



THE Rr.PORT OP THE COMMITTEE OF AV.VVS & BIEAlS'S. 



m 



THE KEPOltT OFTUE 

CO!YliarTTTT OF WATS AND 

IVIEANS. 

Tlie maniresto against the Ameri- 
can S)stcni, brought before Congress 
by the committee of Ways and Means, 
under the title of a " report on the state 
of the Finance?," is a doniment whirh 
we itchoveto lie inrivalle'l in premises 
destitute of truth, and com his^ions en- 
tii'elv ninvarranted: — a document in- 
buhingtotiie understanding, and paying 
Utile respect to the knowh-dge, of its 
readers, [ts undisguised object is, to 
sacrifice the interests of a vast majori- 
ty of the American people, to the 
sordid a;id avaricious designs of an 
aristocracy, consisting of some of the 
soutliern planters, and a small number 
of thfe Anglo-American merchants. 
The latter class does not include those 
merchants tliatare real .•] nierirons, who 
havea general interest in tlie prosperity 
of the country, hut it consists of yerv 
few besides tho-;e who locate them- 
selves here, solely with a view to amass 
wealth, which they take care to keep 
in such a state as to be able, at any 
time, to transfer it to any othercou'itiy. 

This report like most articles of the 
kiiid, is so dry in its details, its mean- 
ing so involved, and so ditficult to be un- 
derstood by most readers, that it is 
very seldom, and but bj- few, examii)ed 



men infinitely wiser than themselves, 
by the meml)ers of the committee, are 
sufiicient to characterise this report as 
oi the Ir'jc Jacksoiiian sciiool. desigiied 
to promote the election of the military 
cliieflain at whatever sacrifice of honor, 
of interest, or of our liberties, it may 
involve. 

The principal blunders of the com- 
mittee on this occasion, appear to us 
to arise from the datum they have 
assumed, that " the selli;rs of grain, 
wool."(i.e. the farmers generally,) "and 
manufacturers, constitute a minority of 
the people in every state in the uiion, 
and a very small niinority in the union 
at large." An assumption so much the 
reverse of the tact, & so well known to 
be so, that the impudence of asserting 
it is really astounding. The commit- 
tee could not possibly be ignorant that 
the sellers ol wool, grain, and manufac- 
ture*. constitute so great a proportion 
in a majority of the states, as to com- 
prise nearly all their inhabitants, and 
in all, except some of the southern 
states, they comprise a vast majority of 
llie people. And yet the statement, 
above (juoted, is assumed as unquestion- 
able, and the weigiit of most of theii;' 
arguments (that have any weight) de- 
pends upon its correctness. 

The opposers of American industry 
have devised a number of cant phrases 



with such care as to enable them to ! for the purpose of gulling the people, 



comprehend exactly to what it tends: 
and tlie evil to be apprehei ded from 
it, is, that many may look over it curso- 
rily, and to avoid the labour of under- 
standing it, merely glance at some of 
its sophisms and be led astray by them. 

It is so "lengthy and tedious" that on 
tilt present occasion we shall not have 
room to review the whole of it, but 
shall endeavour to give an idea of its 
rliaracterand tendency, by a notice of 
M much of it as our limits will admit. 

Ti)c first feelings excited by this 
document, arc those of humiliation and 
shame, tliat men capable of forming 
fuch an instrument, should be fouid 
among our statesmen and leaders of 
parties. The stupendous falseiiood- 
adduced as facts,' the ridiculous in 
fercnces, in many instances, and the 
outrageous misrepresentations through- 
t>iit: with t!ie impudent n.-^sauits upon 



airxmg which, that of "taxing the con- 
sumers for the benefit of th(; mariufac- 
turers," seems to be quite a favorite. 
And it is used in such a way as to con- 
vey the idea, that the efforts made and 
making by the friends of the American 
System, are for the exclusive benefit of 
the few manufactories already estab- 
lished. That men of mature age. and 
ordinary understanding, should be 
gulled by such cant is extraordinary; 
but such appears to be the case, and it 
is requisite to inform many members of 
the community, that the persons whom 
those that are laboring to establish 
liie American System propose and ex 
pect to benefit, arc not a few individu- 
ds, but a large majority of the people 
of the United States; all who chuse to 
profit in any way, either by establi?h- 
ing factories, or oMierwise. by the gen- 
eral prosperity wliicb wHj flow frfTw 



J78 



tifE REPORT OF THE COMMITTEK OF W AVS \ MEA^S. 



the increased indu<trv of the nalion. ; commilee that the wealth of a nation 
There are indeed, a ft?\v who would, is dimini?!ied precisely in proporiion 
derive no henefit from it; men of|as the pricjs of cioihin^ and lo^d 
wcnlth, who?e income is derived from! are increased by the artificial means 
governnfjcnt stocks, and those living on of Ic^islaiion,"" (p. 13) would he to us 
lixed salaries — but this class is Hnall, very astonishing, if we could be as- 
nnd it is always more benefitted by the toiiished at any assertion of such a 
impoverislitneiit, than the increased committee. That an increased price of 
weahh o( the communitN. For in the j the produce of our farmers, who con- 
foimer case, their iiuonies, which are stitutc nine-tenths of our citizens, 
aJwavs the «ime, will command more should make tlie country poorer, is to' 
of (he fruits of the laliours of otheFS, in us in Oiiio, an entirely novel doctrine, 
proportion as tiiat labour is discour- and we doubt whether it can be com- 
aged; and it appears that tlie s\ mjia- preliended by any but our Jacksonian 
thies of the committee arc chicliy ex- menibers of Congress. The wiititisni 
cited for tills ckuss of men. while the whith concludes the para^^raph con- 
fnmifTF, the manufacUirers. in short all tainingthis profound doctrii^e of politi- 
who live hv their own indu*tiy, are to cal economy is worthy of ihe authors of 
be tivaied -a^a very small minoritv" those publi.-hed a few yours ;ii,ce, upon 
and not worthy of any of the cares of Cologne water, liiicstring dresses and 
our Let:i>lat«r'. Thi'V arc, however, decoctions of oak hark, for the use of 
the men who are to i)e benefited hv duellists. 

the American system, ai:d they are the ' The author of the report, proceeds 
same men who arc to be taxed for that to speak of increasing "tlie dilliculty of 
hiMHlit, iiitlie same way that a farmer. obtaining bie;rti," with as much self- 
taxes him-eif to ciearand impi-ove iiis complacency as if he had been previ- 
farm, and to m ike roads to enable him ou-iy stating faels,. and drawing- cor- 
to transport his produce to market. i rect inferences. It appeai-s very 
"It may," say tiie committee, (p. 11) strange, that any man should be igno- 



••be asserted, indeed without any quali- 



ant that the evils under 
do not 



which the 



fication, that duties upon foreign country labors, do not .irise from the 
merchandize can allord protection to didicurty of oi<((i;t(;i^ bread, wool, &c., 

but iVoni the difficulty of getting any 
thins for those ai'ti( les. 
1 in (his cil\ during the past year, 



tlu" rival pnxluclions of liomestic in- 
dustry only i)y prohil)i(ion.&c."' Now 
that tliis assertion, unqualified as it is, 

isuntrue.rnay be seen bv the lollowingisome hundreds* of slieep have been 
quotation, from page 32 of the report. I slaughtered, and their Hesh thrown 
''We exported in 182G, domestic cot- away, the skins and (allow constituting 
ton mai.ufactures to the amount of all their value. In such a state of 
.$1,1 38.1 -'5, and re-exiKirted British things, to be apprehensive of tliedaiiger 
mannlactures of the saim kind, to the of raising the price of bread and wool, 
amount of ,"s2.'22G.0y0." The object j is too absurd for a serious rejjly. 
■of the friends of the American Svstcm, ' "The committee regard it as a clear 
is not to exclude, entirelv, loreign | proposition, that the wealth of a nation 
fabrics, but to prexml them from ijc/w/- i cannot be increased by enhancing the 
i/iif our ^jnimnwifa-lurr!! front 0!<r onvr price of any of its productions, except 
miirkiii:; thi? has" l^en done in regard ' tl>e great staples of exportation." This 
to our cottons. Our manufacturers of I proposition is indeed, aliout as " clear"' 
(his article have been protected, and I a* most of those advanced !)y the com- 
al the same time we import large jniiUoe, witii such perlect conlidencc 
quantities of cot(on goods, bo(h (or pind apparent .admiration of their own 
consumption and exportation; then- -airacity. It is oneof (hemost universal- 



by, proving clearly, that dcnit^tit 
manutbrtures may l>c prot(!cted by 
duties on ("oreign merchaiidize, v ilh- 
out prohibition, 



'\\ known and establisbed (acts, among 



low i( can posMbly "?<:cm to the nuantiiy. 



*The writer lias bpcn informuil, ttiut the 
wliolo mioibcr 14 about 4IK1<l; he bas not, 
hinvcvpr, beeu ab'c to aajcrtniji the prccUr 



THE nEPOnr of tick fiOMWITTKE OP WAYS & 5IEANS 



119 



all classes, learned, or ij;.iorant, tlial the 
cau.-cs whicli incrensc the prices of our 
products, whether at home or ahioad, 
ill periods when such products are 
uiiu'idant, arctliose wIiK-h increase ti\e 
wealth of the country;* and ;i5 no 
poivcr exists in our eountry to raise 
prices arbitrarily, we all, i^xcn the 
most ignorant, know and feel that when 
prices rise, — hi the common mode of 
parlance "limes are gettini; better; 
and whether that rise is occa>ioned by 
a demand for tiie maniifacturiiig towns 
in New England, or for any other 
country, tiie etlect i-; tlie same,. 7'hose 
who hayc lived in Cincinnati from 1819, 
to the present time, have had an op- 
portunity to obseiTC the etfect of manu- 
facturiiiE; industry upon society, which, 
altiiotigh n|)on a small scale, is c;dcu- 
latcd to give as correct ideas upon the 
su'jject, as perhaps any course of expe- 
rience whatever The idea advanced 
with so much confidence, and maintain- 
ed with such pertinacity throughout 
this report, and upon whicli so large a 
proportion of its deductions are Inised, 
viz: ihat wo can iiave no increase of 
wealth, except what wc obtain from 
foreign commerce, may, perhaps, not be 
loo moi:strous and ridiculous for some 
pans of the southern states; — we have 



committee have said generally, to the 
people of the United States. 

'•But it is obvious," (says the report) 
" that the scheme of the Secretary of 
the Treasuiy proposes to <"nhance the 
price of manuliictures, of .g-iaiii, and of 
raw wool in our n'ari<els O: ly." Jsow 
tliis i-so farfrom iiciiigolivious that with 
respect lotlie principal point it is the re- 
verse of the livct. Tlie Secretary pro- 
poses tQ ^nc^)easc the price of our pro- 
visions abroad as well as at home, and 
every one who possesses sulVHiciit 
capacity to perceive fliat a givcQ 
(luantity of produce divided between 
two markets, is not so likely to glut 
either, as crow'ding the whole into one 
would be to glut tluat one, will under- 
stand his proposition very ditlerently 
from tiie commiilce. The profound 
supposition, which follows in the next 
paragraph, is worthy tlie rest of tlie re- 
port, and it betrays a perfect contempt 
for the understandings of the people, to 
suppose that they can possibly imagine 
it to have any hearing on the case. 

"The just criterion" say the com- 
mittee, "of tlvc wealth of a iiation, is 
the facility with which its citizens can 
obtain the necessaries and comforts of 
life." This is one of the few truths we 
meet wiili in this report, but it is fol- 



some ignorant men among our farmers,! lowed by a remark, made no doubt with 
but not one so extremely low in point S'l^-'t ^c't comjilaceiuy and admiration 
ofintellcci, as that we should venture "' the writers own wit, "and tlie corn- 
to tell him, that he could not increase i "littee have yet to learn, th.U an en- 
his wealth by clearing and improving! '>^'nfcnient of the price of those 



his land, building fences and barns, by 
thelaboiirsof iiimself and his sons, and 
having his clothing made by his wife 
and daughters, from his own wool and 
flax; and yet if we v.ere to treat any 
individual so mucli like a simpleton, as 
to tell him this seriously, and expect 
him to believe it, we should only be 
saying to him individually, what the 



*Thcrc is an anecdote very froqnnntly re- 
pealed here bv thn hiboiiriri? clnss, illustnitinr 
41ie corrcctni-55 of their ideas on tlii> mbji-ct. 
It h of nn Irishman, who, upon his fir^t lamlini^ 
in America, was onqiiirin? the prices of differeiit 
articles of provisions, and exclaiming against 
Iheirenonnity-'-What:" says he, "half a dollar 
lor that quantity of potatoes, why in Ireland I 
could get thimfor sixpence," — "Why then," 
he was answered, "did yon not stay iii Ireland, 
where you cofild live "so cheap" — "Because I 
could not i;et ttie sixpence there, and I can get 
-^he half dollar Ucre," 



articles will increase tlie facility of 
obtaining them." The committee 
have a great deal to learn besides this, 
before they become competcat to teach 
others, and we t.ecomniend. thtini to 
abate some of their flippancy and dog- 
matism until their learning i« some- 
what increased. Now in this commu- 
nity every one knows, that it is much 
easier for even the poorest individual 
to obtain the necessaries and comforts 
of life, at the' present time, than in 1820, 
wiien tlour wa- at -SI 50 per bbl. and 
and other articles of food in like pro- 
portion; and they know as well that the 
causes which have raised the price of 
our products, are the same that enable 
them to olitain them with more facility. 
To the supposition that**"the govern- 
ment had the power to promulgate and 



J80 



THEnEPOUTOFTHKcn.M.1HTTEE OF WAY<*&.MEA\S. 



enforce a decree rai?ing Ihe price of; 
grain from one to two dollars a Ixisliel," 
we reiterate, that it is not fhod that 
our country wants, but the meai.3 of; 
making our surplus food procure us the 
ot.ier necessaries and <om(i)rts of life. 

The statenwnt that follows, viz: ' 
"thaf capital has always controuled i 
this branch of legislation," is as false in I 
premises and conclusions, as most of 
the others contained in this precious 
document. The fact if, that capital 
do(>s not, .'md has not contronled this 
or anv other branch of our le<;islatio'! : 
if i( had done so, we should have had 
no cmbaigo, no non-interrom"se, no 
war. But as the committee arc pro- 
posing a mode of legislation for the 
benefit of the British nation, perhaps 
they forget themselves here, for a mo- 
ment, so far as to imagine tliat thev 
were in Groat Britain, and 'peakin<iof 
that country and govcr-imrnt. That 
tliey are proposing precisely such 
measures as would be dictated b}' 
Great Britain, had she the power to 
dictate tothecommittec.and the knowl- 
edge (hat tliey were such treml)ling, 
fa-Viiing slaves, that none ot' he;- dicta- 
tiois would be oppo^od. is clearly mani- 
fest from the tCjiidency of the whole re- 
port. 

The committee say, '-it strikes them 
as being a paradox almost too extrava- 
g-ant foi' grave cossidcraiion, to say 
that we shall increase llie cap.-fcity of 
the people to purchase luxuries by 
compelling them to pay a higher price 
for the two cardinal necessaries of life."' 
The reason of the committee's bein?so 
puzzled with ttiis astoundinti paradox, 
is t'le fundamental error with whirh 
they commenced, and on which they 
reason throughout, viz: that of sujipos- 
ing the American people to consist of 
the imporlers of British goods, in New- 
York and Boston, some of the South 
Carolina and Georf^ia planters, aiid a 
few dandies to whom Inle-tring and 
Cologne water are the most iini)orlan( 
comlbrtsof life; and (he farmers and 
manufacturers instead of being the 
Ameriian |)eop'<'. a small body of men 
against who>e cupiditv it is necessary 
to be ronslanllv on our guard. 

The (-ommillee next proceerl to their 
arjjumcnts in favour of, our returning 



aiiain to a state oi vassalage to Great 
Britain; and in this they display an au- 
dacitv of impudence which scarcely 
any Briti-^h politician would dare to as- 
sume, and which is worthy of such men 
a- in tiieir anxiety to be thouglit 
duellists, once insulted the public 
by several publications of their own 
shami.'I'ul and ridiculous conduct, unlil 
they became a bye-word aiid a proverb, 
a laugnii.K stock and theme of satire 
throughout the United States. The 
amouit of their argument (for it 
IS too tedious and disgusting to be 
quoted) is, that if we exclude British 
manufacture-;, they will refuse to j>ur- 
ciiase our cotton and toI>acco. In their 
reasoning on this subject, they display 
(or suppose in their readers perhaps,) 
an ignorance of the policy of Great 
Britain, of the causes of the present 
slate of things, and of the naiural 
course of trade. t!iat is truly contemp- 
tible; and what is worse, they mani- 
fest a slavish, truckling disposition 
which it would he flattery to call con- 
temptible. Tiie committee sa\, "it is 
e<|u all\ true tiiat the reaso*. whv it is 
her (Great Britai.i's) interest to pur- 
cliase from u>, aid why s'lc takes iVom 
us double the <|uanlity she lakes 'rom 
the whole world besides, is because we 
have hitherto been her best customers. 
As long as we continue to take her 
m.inufactures, it will he her interest to 
take raw cotton (rem u», but :io lon- 
ger." Now everyone who knows any 
thing about trade, knows, that Great 
Britain does not take our cotton cit'ier 
because we arc her best customers, or 
for any other reason but the plain, ob- 
vious a: d ~imple one, (hat she ca'iiiot 
get it ;is cheap (rom an\ other source. 
The purchasers of cotto:i in Great 
Britain never think or care vvheti er 
it comes from their '-best customers*' 
or their worst enemies, tmd would iis 
soon purchase it from the one as the 
other. And as to the British goverii- 
ment, they h;>ve always miuleit a rule 
to prohibit every thing which they 
themselves, or their colonies could tur- 
iiish, without stopping in the li'ast to 
enqtiire how their measures would ;il'- 
(ect their best cu-tomcrs. So far have 
tliey been from showing us anv partic- 
ular Javortind taking our cotton to the. 



I'HE REPORT OF TIIE COM.inTTEE OF WAYS AND MEANS. 



181 



exclusion oflliat of other nations, thati 
tlicv Ikkc done what the commitlce 
are so fearful tlicy mm/ do, — endeavor- 
ed 'o raise up rivahy to us i:i this ar- 
ticle in South America, in Eirypt, in 
the East Indies, ai.d in the Mediterra- 
noa;; Isles- Indeed, for our siatesineti 
to pretend that Gr.at Britain has ever 
favored u? in aiiy thine, wlicn her own 
interest did not compel her to do so, is 
to calculate entirely too larsicly on the 
weakness and ignorance of the Ameri- 
ca'. People. Where the jealousy of 
American rivalry exists to such a de- 
gree as (o pervade all classes — to exhih- 
it i'self in every thinir.from (hemo>t im- 
portant governmental rciinlalioiis down 
to the rocepiion of a pla\er, it is real! v 
loo mortifying to liave (he fear of losing 
Brilish patro'iage iirousht forward to 
Eanction a most suicidal course of Icg- 
Isl.ition. It is ccrtaii ly as much for 
the interest of our cit'zens that Great 
Britain should take otir hread stuffs as 
cur cotfbn, atid yet when has the con- 
sideration of our iieing her "best cus- 
tomers" influenced her in this respect, 
in the smallest degree. But it is too ab- 
surd to talk of favors done us by Great 
Britain in taking ourcotton or any thing 
else.* 

The limits of this tirticle do not allow 
ns to go further with the report at this 
lime and we propose returning to it 
hereafter, — but we cnniiot dismiss it 
without noticing the monstrous assump- 
tion, '-•that very nearly as many per- 
sons arc employed directly and indi- 
reclly in the importation of a given 
quantity of cotton and woollen ma'su- 
factures as are employed in the fabrica- 
tio I." It certainly employs a irreater 
Jiumbirof persons to transport goods 
across the mountains from tiic Atlantic 
cities to tliis place than to import them 
from Europe, yet wc doubt whether 



* With rc5pect to ourcntlon, all the Le;i!-la- 
tion that can be deviled will not .ilter its course. 
We po^^css 5uch an extent of tirritory favorable 
for i's cultivation, and so iiiiich ciitrrpriac wl'icli 
has been called forth hy its profn.ihlcncf--, that 
its riiltiire would (from the rliaracter of our 
pcoide) be increased until all the markets of the 
worlil were plulted, if we hatl the innnoply o! 
thiiii all, — the business then bic^niin^ unprnfi- 
tabh-, the idanters would turn liieir allcntioo 
to sonjelbirgclse. 



the most hardy Jacksonians among tis 
would veiiture the assertion that it 
gives employment to a greater number 
of persons to l)ring our merchtii dizc 
across the motii'ttiins than to m;inu fac- 
ta re it oursehcs. 

There is perhaps no place in the 
Ujiited States, l>etter situated to illus- 
trate the advantai'ges i>©th of com- 
merce and manufactures than Ciiicirt- 
nati, ai^l we see here that they mntu- 
j ally benefit each other,;ind the aLiricul- 
i rural i'terest also. In every country 
I where neither commerce or manufac- 
I tures are in a flourishing slate, agricul- 
:ture I;mguishes; where commerce a- 
lone flourishes, it is sometimes pros- 
perous ai.d sometimes ot lerwise; btst 
where maiiufactures flourish, it is al- 
ways prosperous ar.d must necessarily 
be so whatever be the prices of the dif- 
;ferent articles of trade. For at what- 
ever prices they may be lix^ d, tlie real 
practical result is an excha.ge of one 
kii;d ol labor for another, a^d wherever 
people are tree to cIkxisc th<'ir eniploy- 
iments the value of the dilKrent kinds 
of labor will find its level a- naturally 
:as water. In our city every i^ew man- 
ufactory gives employmer.t to an addi- 
tional number of families — these fam- 
ilies require ati additional qnantilv of 
provisions, which cDaldts ;'.m additio:^;il 
number of farmers to cultivate an ad- 
ditional quantity of land, and all these, 
require ;m additiontil quantity of goods 
from the merciiant, and various fibrics 
from the mechanic. There is tilsu the 
r;iw material to be furnished by the in- 
itervenfion of th.e merciiant in one way 
I or other, and a portion of the manufac- 
itured article is distributed by him to 
various parts ofthe counliy. Our pe- 
culiar misfortunes have enabled every 
one among us to observe i; is course 
I of things more phiinly, than u.-ually 
occurs to any community. When e\erv 
tliii'g was paralyzed by the destruction 
[of trade, Seethe pres-ure of poverty 
jwas universal and so heavy that every 
slcj) by wiiich it was allevitited was 
'seen and felt by all. It «as |>erceivtd 
that every mar.ulat luring establish- 
'meiit. — every etTort that gave employ- 
jmeiit to industry, — contributed to res- 
tore to us life and animation; and n? 
. spQn a^ labour became in demani},- 



SS3 



THE III-RO OF TWOtVARSb 



prosperity returned, and the most ig-l 
noiaiitof all our citizens became bet-' 
ter versed in the printiples of |K>liticuI [ 
economy than l!u- Committee of Ways j 
and Means, of til e Congress of the Uni- ' 
ted States. 1 



Further ErtfocU from the Drama of lit'. 

iii:i{o or TWO n ars. 

Act II — Scene 2n(l. 
The Hero's study in the Hermitage. 

[Hero much digitated holding TnUJt's .3dio 
rate tn his hand] 

Hero. Although our fuulU mav slocp from 
year to year, 
Perchance unhoarci of, yet thcy'r chroniclwl 
Deep ill the memory, from which thiy burst 
Like the volcanic llauie long smothered in 
The womb of earth, and blast our blooming: 

hopes. 
This book announces to the piping v.orld, 
Oinncps I had vniidy ho|«"d fori;otten; 
And like (he blood hound tracks my winding 

step-. 
Through the wild mazasof illicit love, 
And scenes of violence in riper asc; 
Nor pauses there, but still piirsiiei me down 
The vale of years, and =t>imps with verity, 
\Vhat loud-tongued rumour had proclaimed be- 
fore. 

I am depicted a? a man of blood. 
Devoid of temperate and cool discretion; 
As if the (Inij-star's fiery pestilence 
Poisoned my birth, and centered in my breast. 
The vile compound of ev"ry vengeful pas=ioii 
That renders man ferocious. — And wherefore? 
Secause 1 dar'd to execute the laws 
Of savage life, on ,=avagc man ; because 
I dared exterminate their skulking band. 
Oh had I but the power strong as my will, 
* I'd lash the ra-cals naked through (hi' world'" 
AVho dare expose me thus. Succeed or not. 
They yet shall feel the weight of my revenge: 
And circumspect Buchanan too shall feel 
At least, the chilling frown of my contempt. 
Had he but played his part as I designed, 
Nor paused at coward coi»sciencc as he did, 
I'd lieen secure of my gn'at enterprise. 
Let moralizing fools say what they will. 
None are for me who boggle at a lie. 
" I'vcset my ife upon thecast," nay more. 
My martial fame is blasted if I fail. 
Were all my oilicers like Gi ncral Dufl", 
We'd gull the simple and confound thewisr, — 
Vrt'ss iraud and ctrciiinvention in our cause, — 
Pii'on the I ublic ear 'gainst (hose in ollice, — 
And in the sequel push Hum from theirseats. 
(^The cluck strikes ) 'Tis midnight, weary na- 
ture chilled with age. 
Invites me to re ose, where for a while 
1 may forg'-t the bustling world. 

[Jhro Vtrotvs himsrlf upon a rour/i, vvikc heard 
nt ndistanrr^ Itecomcs imirr distinrl until the fvt- 
iiiring words arc heard sun;; In/ mani/ loices] 

"When midnight o'er the moonless tkies, 
Her pall oftrancient death hatli spread. 
When mortals sleep, and spectres ri-e. 
And none arc wakeful hut thedrad," 



Then horror brings in dread review, 
From lonely in:iiisions of the grave. 
The >heeted forms of those he knew, 
Whoec lives he luighl, but would not save; 

Let hissing snakes ami wild dogs howl, 
Thtir direst music ouhitenr. 
Commiiuleil with the boding owl. 
And wrin;; his ?iunibcring soul with fear; 
Alecto. with thy snaky hair. 
And torch, and whip, torment his dreams, 
And daiDiK'd spirits of despair. 
Awake him with demoniac screams. 
[The iHusic ciases. Ghosts enter and st'iiti 
around tlie slfrjiitii; Hera's roiirh.] 

Ghost Is/. The memory of Woods distarb thy 
dreams. 
Think of my tender years by thee cut short, 
And 'remble at thy crimes. 

Ghost ind. The (laming sword 
Of retribution fla'h upon thy mind, 
Then think of Lewis, whose frail thread of life. 
Thoii didst ill wanton cruelty cut off. 

Ghost o</. The blood of Linsey rest upon thy 

head. 
Gliosl 4th. "Waking or sleeping, let tho 
shade of Hunt 
Flit throneh thy iiiiml and call the Homicide: 
Ghost oth. Look if thoti duTcrt npon depart- 
ed Webb. 
Ghost eUi. When death shall lay his icy 
hiind on thee, , 

Thcnthiiik of -Morrowi's fate, "despair and die.'' 
Cfi:osi ~tk. It is no marvel that thy sleep i- 
re^tless ; 
A fearful inctibii' of gloom and horror, 
Bp'Oils o'er thy sense and banishes repose. 
Know'st thou the shade of Harris? Ah! that 
start 
■ Proclaims that conscience still performs her of* 

lice. 
; Yet I in vain invoked thy clemcncv. 
In vain mv wretched wife, and helpless babes ; 
My age, misfortunes, and my sacred calling; 
i My honesty of purpose, my repentance 
! For error- which were stigmatized as crimes. 
, Wci-e urged a- pleas for pardon and forgivene" 
My frail and wasted tenement of clay 
Was sacrificed, tho victim of thy power. 
' Nav more; in afttr (inies tocxcuse thedcrii. 
i Reproaches loiil, by thi e. wi re cast upon me, 
Reckl<v-s of truth, .lishonoaring my name. 
But I reproach llic" not, — rather forgive 
The wrongs thous'l done inc, than requite wit?i 

wrong; 
Rither wonhl point thee to the sacred font, 
\ Wh( re all thv bloody ileedr may he washed out 
jThat blood, which toab=olvca guilty world, 
I Poureil out ('or man, by man's uiijiist decree, 
I .VIone can wa-h thy blood-stained sins away- 
' This warning is a heavenlj visita»t. 
! Oh, pass it not unf.ecded by ! It comes 
1 To chasten, not inflame thy desperate spirit. 
{The Ghostsvanish. He rn starts from his murli. 



Hero. Spare! oh, spare! — Soft! — I did but 
-ilream . 
Great God ! wlia( mean these nichtly visitants : 
That haunt my dreams, and with their "trum- 
pet tongues" 
Proclaim me homicide! One thero ivas, me- 
I thought, 

I The shade of Harris, (hat did counsel mc 
' To penitence. Med.inks 1 see him yet, 
I Sianiling before me, robed in spotless wlii(e, 
) Wi(h one hand poin(ing to th' Eternal Throin^ 
• And v.i(h the other donii, to — yawning hell. 



THE UERO OF TWO WAKS— GEN. JACKSON'S LAND SPECULATIONS. 13& 



OCouscioncc,— ConsciMicel— liow tlij mad- 1 i.KiN. JACKSON'S 

ilei.iMi: stin- I lAND SPJiCUX-ATlONS. 

Tif-rrcs my heart. Hcinorsc still lollows me, ■ , , , r , i . ^„i 

Or slii-piiie, or awalu-, >till liauiit* my soul. One |inncipal objoct of tin, work, is to col- 

\auiitiiii; ambition goaili nie up the steep , led and embody authentic facts, with respect 



orHMrkllv^'anie, while conscience whisper* me, 
Beware!— The dangerous hiiv'ht ihoci canst not 
climb. {Knkr Toady.) 

Toadv. What, Chioftain! — 

III CO. Whose there ?— (»<a.<in?.) 

Tiiady. Know you not your friend, 

Anil counsellor! Hi-toriaii !— orati r!— 
And pedneoi;uc ?— but must start alrri^hted 
As I apiripaeh \ou; Wiiy this early walchingl 

Htm- IJriams,— horrid dreams! have wrung 



the soul of Hero.— j ^^ always wishes to be judged, 
What think yo"'— 'hat iny iricnds are lallin- . ... ^ J ^ . . „. 

off! 



to the character and conduct of Gen. Jackson, 
"i'he dissemination of these throie^h the coun- 
try, may enable the people to di oide for them- 
selves, what is the real character of the man. 
It is ni his private relations, in his dealings 
and intercourse with his fellow ^iiien, that u 
man usually devclopcs the true bias of his 
mind. And it is by these, that every honest 

He who 
hriidis from this test of integrity, subjects 



-no ! Your | himself to suspicion. 

Major Eaton, inhis eulogy on Gen. JacUson, 

informs us, that he squanderfd rather wililly, 

jhis little paternal estate. lie emigrated to 

1 Tennessee, as an adventurer. He is now rich. 

If his wealth has been fairly acquired, it does 

him credit. But if chicanery and fraud have 



Toady. No, mighty cJiicftain, 

friend' are lirm | 

.Vs ocean rocks, iouikI which the surje may dash i 

And foam, hut cannot shake their deep ibuuda- | 

tions. 

Hero. Yet I fi ar— yes, I fear— foreboding 

dreams — 

Toady. Bah! chieftain. What! does Hero [ ^ 

fear * Do dreams — I . ,^-. i,.i.- 

J/iro.Bvtheimmaculate:-Dreamslastnightibeen the instruments of its accumulation, his 

have struck ] wealth dishonors him. He has been accused ol 

More awful ti rr.ir to the soul of Hero more than one effort to obtain property, by in- 

Than coul.l the belching roar of (he volcano, | ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ important facts 

ThouL'henrth =hr)uldgapctoswall.)Wupiiiy foesi ,,.,.. , i r .u v„ 

And sink me with them in the general ruin. on this head, in the second Dumber of the Ex- 

Oft have 1 braved t!.e niifscd front of war, • positor, which related to the pretended Crecli 

"VVIicn, if I 'd thought a iiair upon my head I donation. 'We now present to our readers, the 

Was touched with fear, I'd plucked it out.— | ^j^^^,^^ ^f another speculation. It is copied 

V.ach fibre oi my"frame has ta'en th' .larm, ) from the .Kentucky Reporter, and was furnish- 

And 'hakes with terror. i ed for publication, by Ur. Armstrong of Ten- 

Taady. Hero, thou art unwise I nessee, wliose character has been assailed by 

To let ihy vagrant. dre.;im.^ distress thee thus. ] ,„ ^rtcrs of Gen. .lackson, but with very 

Htro. Methoueht pale spectres stood around , ' I ,t- , . ■, r r . • , . 

iiiv couth, Uttle success. His detail of facts, is supported 

Forcboi1;ii'i ray defeat, and threatening rcn- ' by authentic documents. It will be seen, that 
geancel Gen. Jackson was an ageiit for collecting a 

^'""'*"firm" ^^^^ °"" "^°"'' "'^' ^"^"''' "'' I large sum of money, secured by mortgage upon 
The ndnions'of thy foe as well might change I lands. That he became interested in the pur- 
The orbit of the' moon, or, with their bri'atb, ] chase and sale of the mortgaged premises, and 
Blow cut the burniD!; sun, as shake tlu^ l:rm nyttyn application, asserted tho title to be good. 

Resolves thy friends have made. Or right, or ^f^^,„,j„j,^ he engaged in a speculation to 



They will not alter now. Ortiue, or false, 
Nothing believe, thy foes can say; yet all, 
However false, thy leading friends promulL'ate. 
Hero Had he,the Northern Hercules but lived, 
On whose strong arm Irested for -upport. 
My cause had prospered. But, alas' hi; 
Are now with mine no more idenlified 



purchase a better title than the one ho had as- 
sisted in selling under the mortgage, and com- 
menced a suit to recover the lands from those 
who purchased them under the mortgage; and, 
friends ! in P»>"'j ft least, upon the faith of his verbal as- 
surance that the title was gooil. This specu. 



There 's not a soul of them cares aught for Hero, i^jim, he gave nj), upon receiving'the sum of 
But forwardrd .Mif cause to forward his. . ^^^^^ dollars! It seems very imj.robable, that 

' Jackson could have recovered these lands, in 



1 10 000 ('( 
Kow, that they can no longer serve their chief, • . ' . 



rill v 'llleave metomy late. Oh, desperation 
Tvady. Great Chieftain! well thou know'st | equity. My opinion would be, upon the case 
the love I bear thee, ! hcrepiesented, that he could, not have recovcr- 

.A,nd will forgive what honesty compels j g^^ ^^ ^^,j ^^^ ,.^,j k, oqo dollais, 

That Ishou dsay to you. ' I is downright mad- I . . 

ncss. ' w'>'ch is certainly a pretty penny for giving 

Thy dreams have touched the soundDQ.=e of thy t up a vejy desperate claim It is hoped the 
reason. read r will peruse attentively, the narrative and 

Go court repose. Thy eye looks wild, and , ,„,, j^at follow : 

glares i 

\s if upon the spectres of the night. EDITOR KF.XTUCKV REPORTER. 

I '11 to the the post house ; whence I '11 bring gy,. — ^\ , ] „ 5,5 neither brought up nox 



184 



GENERAL JACKSON'iS LAMJ SPECULATIONS. 



of vulgarity, the puMick need not ex- on the same grants to this very lain! — 
peci .-ne to uS" the languai^e conimo:i and endeavored to convert the wliolc 
lo liis pupils a;i^l retainers. ]M\ (j'lj'ct of it to his own use, and his associali>. 
is to give inform itioii to the cnnimunity. A:id let it be distinctly understood, that 
touchii g the cliaiartcr, history and if GencralJacksoii had done the husi- 
morat fitness of an individual, who asks iness correctly in the first instance, in 
nothnigii-ss at their hands, than the the foreclosure of the Mortgage, there 
highest office within tiieir gift. I will never would have hecn any foundation 
therefore neither tunt to the right hand, for this second claim pretended to be 
nor to the left, to bandy epithut^i with houglit from the heirs of David Allison; 
any of iiis inao.t,- — nevertheless- I will and if so. will it not be manifest tiiat 
cheerrully answer them, when I tliink ; General Jackson took advantage of his 
' ' own wrong, to ruin those who had 

plaeed confidence in him? 



they act under tiie instruction and in- 
fluence of the General in denying mat- 
ters of fact heretofore slated by nie. 
I cannot even permit myself to animad- 
vert on the r(/>r production of a "Mr. 
Jo'ni G. Anderson of Nasiiville,"' re- 
puplished in the '• Wiiig ai'd Bannei 



That David Allison, before the vear 
ISOO. gave a .Mortgage Deed, to Nor- 
ton Pryor for 8j,000 acres of la d on 
Chirk River, to secure the payment of 
S'21,S00, with interest, will not be de- 
of the nth inst. but will take for grant- jnied; therefore the first document to 
cd that he has authority from General i which I shall refer is the articles of 
Jackson to pronounce the facts slated ' agreement entered into, between Nor- 
iii the 2d number of the "Tenne-sean" ^ toi^ Pryor of Pniladelphia and Joseph 
falfe, relative to the Duck River land Anderson of Tennessee, bearing; date 
speculation. I rely more especially the 9tl] May, 1800, and witnes-ed by 
on this contradiction as being author- W, C. C. Claiborne and William .Ahis- 
ised by the General, because I under- sey. This instrument gives Joseph 
staiid Mr. Anderson is the *lcp-son of | Anderson power, as aliornev. "to tile a 
the sister-in-law of Gei'.eral Jackson, a bill in Chancerv for the purpose of 
a-.d a frequent inmate at the Hermit- .foreclosing the equity of redemption, 
age; and because he asserts that he 'in and upon the said ^Mortgage."" "It 
knows the narrative of facts therein: is therefore herebv agreed by and he- 
staled to be ''false"' of his own know- , tween the said parties, that in case the 
ledse. This being the case I will now jland so mortgaged as aforesaid, shall by 
introduce some documentary cvidiMice virtue of a decree in chancerv. be ex- 
in support of my former allegations, posed to sale, that then and in that 
Thi' pleadings are made up, and issue lease. the sidd Anderson shall purchase 
joiiR-d — now for the proof. |the said land tlir the use and benefit of 

1 wish tile public to bear in mind the I the said Nortor Pryor, and said Joseph 
<ex/, from wliich tiie inference has iiecn j Anderson and their heirs." There 
drawn, that General Jackson has been are other considerations in the agree- 
guilty of '-frand and corruption" in re-!nKMit which I need not mention, 
lation to tliis land speculation — to wit: j On the '2(1 dav of October, in the 
That he was employed as agent and 'year 1 800, General Jackson and Jo-eph 
counsel, to foreclose a Mortgage, a^.d , Anderson entered into an agreement 
secure a title to certain land* therein 'relative to this same mortg:ige and 
named, unless the money was jiaid. — 'lands — from which the following is an 
That afler doing, and liaving the bu^i- lextract — "whereas Joseph Anderson 
ness done, and receiving a very large |hal!i made a special agreement « ith 
fe", and alter frequently coun^elling Norton Pryor oflhecilv of Pl.iladel- 
and telling oliiers that the title wa- [iliia. to cau^e to lie l'l)reclo^ed the ('(|ui- 
Jiood — he f'pund out, or !-u]ipo-ed thai ty of redemption upon a mortgage 



hf^ had discovered (or perhaps knew it 
from the fir-l) tiiat the court had not 



which the said Norton Pryor has upon 
sundry tracts of land, which were the 



juris. lirlion of the case; — and that then property of David Allison, amounting 
he toi'l; .'.dvanlagt" of this, his o:i-n (.'c.'. | lo ei^^'ity fiv(' thousand acres, Ivinc; np- 
and I'ouglit up auotlier claim. f'Xinded 'on Duck River in (he state of Tfsv 



GENERAL JACKSON'S LAND SPECULATIONS. 



18$ 



ncssce." "Now this article witnesseth,. 
that the said Joseph Anderson doth 
a^'reL• to let the ^aid Andrew Jackson 
liave the one fourth part of the said 
one half of the eigiity live thousand 
acres, upon the terms and coiiditionss 
which the said Joseph Anderson is to 
have it from the said Norton Pryor.'" 
Upon the same day General Jackson 
received sundry title papers from Jo- 
seph Anderson, and gave his receipt 
therefor, of which the following is the 
closing sentence — " which I acknowl- 
edge to have received for the purpose 
of placing into the hands of Coundl to 
have a Morlgngc foreclosed given to 
Norton Pryor by David Allison on the 
above mentioned land which I promise 
to do, or cau-e to be done. 

(Signed) ANDREW JACKSON. 

Agreeai>ly to the foregoing agree- 
ment, and promise, the bill in equity 
was tiled, and proceedings regularly 
had thereon between 

Norton Pryor, Complainant, 

vs. 
■I.i.in Allison, Will. Allison,1 
Alexander Alli?on, Pegsy In Equity 
Allison, SiiUy Allisun, Is- y 
bc!l Allison, and Jane Alii- J Decree, 
son, heirs and devisees ofj 
David Allison, doc'd. Dcfeniiants. 

The decree was entered up by 
"Harry Innes and John M'Nairy, 
Esqr*., two of the Judges of the Court 
of United States for the District of 
West Tennessee, at October term, be- 
ing the 21st day of October.l 801." In 
which decree it is set forth, that " in 
consideration of the Mortgage Deed 
and Note '.erinvith tiled, it is decreed 
and ordered that unless the said De- 
fendants do on or before the 20th Jan- 
uary next, pay unto the Comjilainant 
the sum of twenty-one thousand eight 
hundred dols. with interest," &c. '• the 
said Defendants and their heirs and all 
other persons claiming by. from or un- 
der them, shall be thenceforth barred 
and foreclosed, of and from all right of 
Equity of redemption."' The decree 
then specilirally mentions seventeen 
grants of 5000 acres each, in all 85000 
acres — and then goes on to direct the 
marshal, that in case of failure in the 
Defendants to pay the debt, interest 
and cost, "after giving sixty days pre- 
vious notice thereof in the Tennessee 
Hazette, to make sale of the before 



mentioned tract or tracts of land, con- 
taining in the whole 85,000 acres, in 
the town of Nas'aville, at the Court 
House, at public Auction, for ready 
money, &c." 

I have not at hand the return of the 
marshalVsale in obedience to the be- 
fore recited decree; but reference to 
that returti will prove my i'ormer state- 
ment on this point correct. T!io fol- 
lowing extract of a letter from Gener- 
al Jackson to Joseph Andeivon, daicd 
25th May, 1802, will also prove it:— 
" The conveyance to Norton Pryor 
shall be made by the Marshal agreea- 
ble to the numbers in his letter men- 
tioned. Number 35 agrcenb/e to vour 
letter and number ?A that adjoins it, i 
shall have conve)ed to me and my or- 
der. The Ballanrc to yourself, and 
when we meet we shall aceommndalc 
the Ballanee due me." "'The land 
sold for fifteen hundred and fifty dol- 
lars — The above and within is a roush 
statement of the business relative to 
the land sold under the decree of Nor- 
ton Pryor in conformity with our agree- 
ment. (Signed) 

ANDREW JACKSON." 

If the foregoing recapitulation, end- 
ed the history of this unpleasant trans- 
action, my pen never would liave been 
employed to tell it to the world. But 
when I feel conscious that scenes of 
tniqiiily followed, in which General 
Jackson bore a conspicuous part; and 
when I see thousands of my lellow citi- 
zens bowing down, and proclaiming 
him a fit person to preside over these 
United Stale." — ought 1 to have remain- 
ed silent? Every feeling of patriotism 
says, No. 

Before proceeding any farther, I ask, 
if there is any candid or honest man 
who will say, that Gen. Jackson could 
voluntarily, and honestly, place him- 
self in a situation to exert all his energy 
and influence, to do away the effect of 
the foregoing decree and sale, to the 
prejudice of Pryor and Anderson, and 
those who had bought under !hcm; 
especially when he had advised such 
purchase? Or will ni^y person say, 
that a lawyer and Agent, is under no 
moi-i.l obligation to his emplover. or 
client — but in jmtice may appropriate. 



186 



GEVERAL JACKSON'S L.IND SPECTLATIONS. 



all the proceeds of the matter in con-' fore the sealing and delivery of these 
troversy to his own use? Surely not. presents," 'vlo barfjain. sell, assis;n. 
^Vas not General Jackson the Agent transferand sel over, unto said A. Jack- 
and attorney of Pryor and Andor>ou?, son, all their rifjht. title, claim and in- 
1 answer em]iliatica]ly, yos. Then i terc?t. ei.hcr in law or equity, in and 
why was our Court Docket crowded (o all laiids, tenements and heredita- 
with suit? in the G'lururs nonu, to up•lm^•nt^or other estate whatsoever with- 
set their claim? I in the limits of the said state of Ten- 

Ahout the years lS06-7and 3, Alex- ! nesse," "which were liolden or claim- 
ander Outlaw, the father-in-law . of i ed h\ said David Allison, either by 
Judge Anderson, and lames Patton ; grants, entrie?, or convevances of any 
and Andievv Kiwin, became largely in- 1 kind, or in any other mai.ner whalso- 
terested in these lands, — the former by | ever, and .-111 E/^uiliis of Ridaiiption. or 
purchase from Judge Anderson, and [other equitable claims for lard, or any 
the latter by purchase from Pryor and j interest in, or proceeding from lands, 
Anderson. Colonel Erwin, one of tetiements or hereditaments, and also 
tliese individuals, bcfoie his purchase, ' lo all land warrants and certificates ioT 
had consulted Jcnkin Whiteside, as lost lands, orlands that cannot be identi- 
well as General Jackson, in reference ' tied,' &c. signed by all the heirs of 
to the title, and was assured by both David Allison. 

that it was good. I am aware, that | Did any person ever read such 
this fact has been controverted by Mr. sweeping clauses, and such caution to 
Whiteside as to himself, i)Ut with what keep out of view the real quaititv of 
truth I tliink wesliall see in the sciiuel. land, and other claims said to be held 
It was also about this time that many by the deceased in any other Deed? 
other individuals consulted both Gcti- 1 /Vnd ail for the pitiful sum of .S500, 
eral Jaclcson and Jenkiii Whiteside i (and it is stated by one of the heirs 
about the title of those land>; but be-i that even that sum was never paid) 
fore I introduce their testimony, I [besides some stale old namcle--; debt--, 
think it proper to show why it became The ground work of the •• fiaud" is 
nece?sarv for tliem to refer lo these 



consultations. 

In tlie year 1812, after the innocent 



now laid: lichoid tiie super>li ucture. 
Soon after thi- time, the General w:is 
called lo command a detachment ol men 



purchasers had been in possession of I from Tennessee, "for the defence of 
the lands five or six years; and after the lower country;" and it is presuma- 
the land had become four fold more , ble that having now buckled on his 
valuable, General Jackson pretended Military Armour, he could not attend 
that lie had discovered that no legal in person to this weigiity matter. Or 
process could run to sell lands not re- perhaps his own h\;al taleiis wire not 
linquishcd by the Indians; or when sullicient to carry him through such a 
neither of the parties lived in the state Isuit — nor was his j)urse stroi g enough 
— although such lands might have been to pay the money calKd for in this 
granted, and witliin the chartered limits "K((uily of Redemption." Be this as 
of the state. Sucii was the situation 1 i' may, on the 9lh dav of Januar^ , 1 81 3. 
of the land ai)ove described. In the I after the troops wcie organized and in 



month of Augu>t, 1812, we find the 
General in the stale of (Georgia, wheed- 
ling the heirs of Da\ id Allison out of 
these same lands. Tiie Deed of pur- 
chase, by Gen. Jackson from those 
heirs, hears date, 3d August, 1812. And 
as a consid'Hilion it is ftatcd, "That; 
said David Allison was largcls indebt- 
ed to said A.Jackson in his life lime. 
and died so indebted; and of the sum 
of five hundred dollars to them in hand. 



camp near Nasiu ille, and only a few 
days before the General sailed to 
Natchez — 1\ partnership was formed be- 
tween him>elf and James Jack>on, a 
very wealthy merchant, aid the be- 
fore mentioned Jcnkin AN'hiti'^ide. who 
was said to be lhegreate>l land lawver 
in the state; by which agreement and 
partnership, the Gi'iieral let each of 
lliem into an equal share of his pui- 
chaso, from (lie heirs of David Allison. 



paid by Ihe said Ji. Jack-on. at or be- Tlic special part to be acted by 31j 



I 



fcENERAL JACKSON'S LAND SPECUI^TIONS. 



181 



doubt communicated the information 
to otiiers. 

lliader, suppose you were foemploj- 
a lawyer, and pay l.im a very large 
fee, to bring suit for tlie rcco\cry of a 
tract of land. The business progress- 
ed, and judgment fnialiy rendered in 
your favour — your lawyer then (old 
you that the title, was good, and thai 
you might settle on it, or sell, and 
mak(; warrantee deeds. \ ou arc not 
acfiuainlcd with tiie tcclniical niceties 
of the law, and put faitli and credit in 
the honour and judgment of >our 
counsel. You settle on the land your- 
self, and sell part to otliers: alter years 
of labour and toil, iu which time, the 
land has become ten times more val- 
uable, your lawyer then thinks he has 
discovered that the business was at first 
wrong done — goes to your former ad- 
versary, (without apprising you of the 
facts) and buys up the claim tliat he 
had once defeated — comes back and 
brings suit against you, and those to 
whom you have sold. ^Vould you 
think he was an honest man? Or 
would you think he was a fit person to 
be President of the United States? — 
Such you will discover, was the con- 
duct of Gen. Jackson. 

I .icknowledge, that 1 am not pre- 
pared to give a correct history of tim 
first acts of this comhiiiation^ but it will 
be sufficient to state, that in the year 
1813. tliey commenced some kind of 
suit for the recovery of this land — and 



VVhile-iide, as declared in the agree- 
ment, was to "commence and |)rosecute 
all suits and actions, either at law or 
in Equity, that may l)e requisite for the 
recovery or security ol said lands, &LC. 
After stating the duty to be performed 
by each partner, and the obligations 
they were under to each otiier, tlie in- 
strumeiitgoeson to say, that "said A. 
Jackson further covenants, &c.,to and 
with tUe said James Jackson, and 
Jenkin Whiteside, that he will convey 
one equal third part of all the lands, 
land wananls, aarl other pioperty so 
assigned to him, that may be secured, 
recov red, or redeemed, to said J. 
Jackson, his heirs, ice, and one other 
equal third part of all said lands, land- 
warrants, &c., to said Jenkin White- 
side," <fcc. The articles of agreement 
from which the foregoing extracts are 
takcii. «as signed by the confederates, 
0,1 the said 9th day of January. 1813 — 
and witnessed by K. S. Hall, and S. 
CantrelU jr., — registered in the Regis- 
ter's Office, Davidson Co. Book J — 
page 398. 

We have row seen formed, and 
ready to burst on the defenceless heads 
of more than one hundred innocent 
purchasers, a powerful combination of 
influence, wealth and talent; and all of 
these purchasers were brought into 
this dilemma by the previous act of 
General Jackson himself. How fear- 
ful was the odds, and how appalling to 

the fithers of families, many hearts in J soon found out that they had taken a 
Tennessee can testify; and perhaps j wrong start; for in July, 1811, they 
some of these victims were then ( commenced the business rle «oro, and 
marching to the defence of their coun- j filed bills in equity in the name of A. 
try. I have said that this dilemma was Jackson, against every known settler 
hrouiiht upon the innocent purchasers, on the land, (except one.) The fol- 
by the previous act of Gen. Jackson j lowing extracts are taken from one of 
him-elf In saying this, I do not posi- those bills, to wit: 
tively assert, that the General com- "Your orator, Andrew Jackson, of 
mittcd an intentional fraud in the first! Davidson county, in said circuit, re- 
instance, when the equity of redemp- 1 spectfiilly repre. cnts to your honors, 
tion was foreclosed; but I do say, that i that, on'the 27th day of June, 1793, 
the effect was the same as if hehad— ' 85,000 acres of land, lying in what was 
because he had been relied on, and j the territory south of the river Ohio, 
had pronounced lhebusinc-= well done. [ now stale of Tennessee, on the three 
Neither do I say, that all the purchas- 1 forks of Duck river, in what is now 
ers consulted Gen. Jackson before i Bed u-rd county, was granted by the 
they bought of this land; but it is a j stale of North Carolina, to John Gray 
fact, that some of the most prominent I Blount and Thomas Blount, by seven- 
persons had consulted him. and no teen patent- of 5,000 acres each, bear 



188 



(.ENEKAL JACKSO.N'S LA.\D SPECt L-iTIOXS. 



ini; diite the same day and year, which j ajietit of Norton Prvor, and before the 
patents, describe the respective tracts [said lands were conveyed to thes^e dc- 
as follows.'' Then is addi-d. a com- 1 fendants, or said purchase made, — he 
plete description of the land — after- 1 was informed and advi>ed hy Jcnkius 
wards the orator proceeds: ''And the Whiteside, Esq. that he believed the 



said John Grav Blount and Thomas 
Blount, afterwards, on the 9th day of 
October, 1794, sold, and bv indcntun 



title of the said Norton Pryor, a good 
title to the land acquired as aforesaid, 
under said mortgage, decree and sale. 



of l)argain and sale, conveyed said i And at. or about the s:mie time, he 
• 85.000 acres of land, to David Allison, was informed by complainant, A. Jack- 
then of the city of Philadelphia — your ■ son, that he considered the said title in 
ora'.or further shews, that the said N. Pryor, as good a title as any in the 
David Allison afterward^;, on tlie first state — said Jackson informed liini at 
day 1795, being indebted to one Nor- that time, that he had heard of John 
to!! Pryor, of the said city, in the sum I G. Blount having some equitable 
of 21,800 dollars, gave his note of that | claim from the hi;irs of said David Al- 
dale, to said I'ryor, for the payment of; lison, for the whole of said 85.000 
said sum, 90 days after date, and the] acres, but that he claimed a part, un- 
better to secure the payment of saidjder a similar title to that of Pryor; 
sum, said David Allison, by indenture, that he had sold, and made general 
of barp.ain and sale, bearing date the j warrantee deeds, and would continue 
same day and year, bargained, sold to sell the balance which he owned in 
and conveyed to said Pryor, his heirs the same manner — and that said Jack- 
and assigns, in fee. said 85,000 acres, hon then infonned him. that the mort- 
so granted to J. G. Blount and T. g'''ge had been absolute more than. 



Blou;it." We have already seen this 
orator engaged in fore closing the 
equity of redemption on the above 



/■even years, w-hich would bar an 
equity of redemption, and that the 
tatute of limitations would be a bar, 



moitgagc deed, for Norton Pryor — and that no writ of error could be then 



now he is swearing for himself. But 
the bill also says — " Your orator fur- 
ther represents, that by some agree- 
ment or assignment, from said Norton 
Pryor to Joseph Anderson, Esq. of Jef- 
ferson county, Tennessee, said Ander- 
son set up a claim to a part of said 
85,000 acres of land, included in pa- 
tents 218, '220, 22.', 230, and parts of 
s;iid four tracts are now claimed bv 
William Finch," &c. And is it Gen- 
en«l Jackson who intimates that the 
claim of Judge Anderson is a mvstery 
to him? How could this man ever 
charge ••bargain and cijrruption" on 
Mr. Clay, wiien he is so deeply involv- 
ed himself? 



Iirought to reverse the decree — and 
that there was no danger of Notion 
Pryor's title. And the said Jackson 
then encouraged this respondent to 
purchase the said lands from said Pry- 
or, and after ( did purchase, continued 
to assert his confidence. Whereupon, 
this respondent, A. Erwin, for himself 
and Jamc< Palton, contracted for the 
same as above set forth, and obtained 
said deed therefor." 



The following is extracted from the 
answei of Stephen Booth, one of the 
defer.dants: "Sometime in the year 
1809, this defendant went to the resi- 
dence of the complainant in Davidson 
county, to purchase from liim a part 
We will now attend to the answcrsj of one of the tracts of land w iiich he 
of part of the defendants to General had bought at the IMaYshal's sale, allu- 
Jarkson's hills in equity, and sec whali ded to, in the answer of Patton &; Er- 
they say on this matter. Andrew Er-{ win. That part, complainant had 
win, one of the late firm of Patton fcj promised to convey to a female rela- 
Erwin, after staling at large, the na-| lion, who would not consent for it to 
tureiif his title, a^ derived ftom Ni)r- be sold to defendant on his arrival 
ton Pryor and iuiige Anderson. re|)re- there. Complainant seemed much ir- 
sents, - that while the defendanl. A. ritaied at her refusal to sell, as he had 
Erwin, was in T'-iine?see, actii-L' as (he before promised it to defendant, and 



GENERAL JACKSON'S LAND SPECULATIONS. 



189 



proposed to the latter to let him have 
part of the same tract where one Cof- 
iVe Hvcd — defendant said he would 
look at tiiat land, but it was proi)ai)le 
he would i!0t like it; that he had been 
olRred Some land which pleased him 
very well, by Alexander Outlaw, 
claiming under Anderson, but that he 
had been afraid to purchase it, as he 
had iieard that Outlaw' was insolvent, 
a.id t^iere were fears with some re- 
sjiccling the title; that he wished com- 
plainant would inlbrm him whether he 
could be safe in buying that land- 
Complainant answered that he would 
be perf ctly ?a!'e in purchasing it; that 
Outlaw's or Anderson's title was as 
good as any in the s;ate, that there was 
no doubt of the title. This expres- 
sion, or the same in substance, was sev- 
eral times repeated, and sworn to by 
CDmnlainant. He said tiiat tlie busi- 
ness had been coiidu'led l)y him, that 
he had the management of the fore- 
closure of the equity of redemption, 
and that he knew it was correctly 
done."' "He xvcnt home, endeavour- 
ed to purchase from Outlay.-, and fail- 
ing in that, afterwards purchased said 
six liundrcd and twenty-two acres, 
from said Patton and Erwia."' 

"S/a/e of Tennessee, county of Bedford. 

Agreeably to a bill filed in the 4th 
circuit, Andrew Jackson rs. Whitehead 
and others, John Whitehead doth sol- 
emnly swear, that in April and May, 
1 806, 1 met with Gen. Andrew Jackson, 
and asked him whether he knew the 
title to the land on Duck river, claimed 
formerly by John G. and Thos. Blount, 
but then owned by Alexander Outlaw 
from a title derived from Josepli An- 
derson, was a good one ; upon which he 
was answered by the said A. Jackson, 
that it was as good a one as any in the 
state, and if that claim would not hold, 
none in the state would. And upon 
the faith of the representation of the 
said Andrew Jackson that the title was 
a good one, I purchased four hun- 
dred acres of Alexander Outlaw, 
sometime in April or May, of the same 
year, a kvf days after the conversation 
with the said A. Jackson (but that I 
have since lost 100 acres of it by a 
claim of T. Dixon's) and that I have 



had peaceable possession of said land 
ever since. And alter I had purchased 
the above named land, the said A. 
Jackson was at my house where he 
gave me the same assurances of the 
goodness of the title to said land. 

JOHN WHITEHEAD. 

Sworn to and subscribed beJbre us 
this 11th September, 1819. 

NoBLK L. Majors, J. P. 

John Scott, J. P." 

'■^Slatc of Tennessee, Bedford cmtniy. 

This 17th day of April, 1823, per- 
sonally appeared before me, M, D. 
Mitchell, a justice of the peace for said 
county, Henry Conway, and made oath 
that either in the year 1806 or 7, he 
called on Jenkin Whiteside at Nash- 
ville, and enquired of him, as to Col. 
Alexander Outlaw's title to the lands 
granted to John G. and Thomas Blount, 
about the three forks of Duck river, 
which Outlaw held urder Joseph An- 
derson, who held under the marshars 
sale on the foreclosure of Norton Pry- 
or's mortgage, under the decree of the 
Federal Court, some years previous to 
that time. Said Jenkin Whiteside as- 
sured him tiiat Outlaw's title w^as per- 
fectly safe; as good as any in the state, 
and he believed one of the best in the 
state; and as a proof of his opinion, he 
said he had made himself largely inte- 
rested in part of said claims, having 
l)ought 2,500 acres of it. (n conse- 
quence of which advice, 1 did purchase 
1,250 acres from Outlaw, at two dol- 
lars per acre, or thereabouts, which 
was then a fair price for good titles. 
After I had bought, I think in the year 
1808 or 9,1 rode in company with 
Gen. Jackson and the late Col. Benj. 
Bradford, from Jetforson to near Ben- 
net Smith's, and on the way Gen. Jack- 
son stated that the title under the mar- 
shal's sale to Anderson, Pryor, and him- 
self, were as safe as any titles in the 
state, and it was imi)ossiI)lc it could 
ever be set aside. 

H. CONWAY. 

Sworn to and subsciibed before me. 

M. D. Mitchell, J. P."' 

'•George Strong, another defendant, 
corroborates the statements of Booth 
and Whitehead, and Benjamin Brad- 
ford and William Norvell corroborate 



190 



GENERAL JACKSOJTS LAXD SPEeri^TI05S. 



the oaths of Col. A. Erwin and H. Con- 
way; and if it bi'comes necessary, their 
stalpments, oil oath can he produced. 
I \Tiil now add an extract from the cer- 
tificate of Alexander Allison, one of the 
heirs of David Allison, relative to the 
General's purchase. 



'•'■Georgia, Green County. 
"1 certify, that in the year 1812,1 
was infornned by my brother Will. Al 
lison, that my deceased brotlier David 
Allison had left considerable lands in 
Tenncsfsee, which might possibly be 
recovered, and that Gen. A. Jackson 
of Tennessee, had offered to procure 
and recover said lands, upon beiii"; l<t 
into an interest in the sam':>, equal with 
myself and brothers; and that in order 
to do this it was necessary for me with 
my brothers to sign an instrument in 
writing to Gen. Jackson, operating as 
I then thought, as a power of attorney, 
authorizing him to transact the busi- 
ness. It was my understanding at that 
time, that General Jackson was to do 
the business, and on the final settle- 
ment of it, that Gen. Jackson was to 
come in for an equal interest with me 
and mv brothers, in the land secured. 
Under this impression, I put my name 
to the instrument with my brothers. 
At the time of doing so. I was not in- 
formed by my brother William, or any 
other person, that my brother David 
had died in debt to Gen. Jackson, in 
any sum* whatsoever; — neither did I 
then know, nor for a long time after- 
wards, that n)y brother David in his 
lifetime had mortgaged the lands in 
Tennessee to Norton Pryor, or that 
such lands had been foreclosed, or the 
land sold; nor did I then understand 
or know that my brother David AHi?on 
had made a will disposing of his prop- 
erty. 1 further state that I never re- 
ceived one single cent for signing that 
instrument ofwriting. 

ALEXANDER ALLISON.' 

'•DifficuKies continued to accumulate 
on the side of the Generars comiiina- 
tion,as the suit progressed, but it was 
formid of mettle not to be overcome 
without attempting a dernier resort: 
and accordingly we find Jenkin White- 



side, (one of the parties) on the 21st 
, day of March, 1320, relinquishing all 
1 his right, interest, and claim, lo all this 
I land, for the trilliiig and inadequate 
sum of one thousand dollars, including 
; his services as a lawyer for seven) ears; 
and this was done for the purpose of 
getting his testimony in favour of ::is 
former partners. The deed of release 
bears the a'jove date, and was acknow- 
ledged in open court, January term. 
1821, before R. M'Gavock, clerk. 

"It was about this time, that P. H. 
Darby, Esq., having risen high in the 
eslimtition of Gen. Jackson, was ap- 
pointed by him prime mi i?ter, in tlie 
management of this Duck river land 
speculation, over the heads of his other 
counsellors, G. W. Campbell, W. L. 
Brown, A. Hays. O. B. Hays, and Jen- 
kin Whiteside. Esquires; and lie ac- 
tually took him into pdrtnership, as 
will be shortly seen. The apponitment 
of this gentleman to his lolty pre-emi- 
nence, is pul)lished in the Nashville 
Whig of April 18th, 1821. 

" NOTICE. 

Being about to leave the State, for 
the Florida, I have regularly empow- 
ered Patrick H. Darby, Esq. of Nash- 
ville, to transact my business relative 
to the estate of David Allison, dec. — 
All persons having business to transact 
with me relative to said Estate, will 
please call on said Darby during my 
absence. 
Signed ANDREW JACKSON.'' 

'' Having accepted the al)ove agen- 
cy, the business will be regularly at- 
' tended to i)v me. 

1 Signed " PATRICK H. DARBY. 

( ^ 

I Not long after this time. Mr. Darby 

'became the Editor of the " Constitu- 
tional Advocate," at Nashville, and wc 
find his paper frequently hllod with 
lengthy essays and investigations rela- 
tive to this land speculation — exhibit- 

I ing the novel sight of a press devoted 
to the examination of a law case still 

I pending, and all on one side, in order 
to prejudice the minds of the commu- 

1 nity. This took place in the year 1 822. 

I or 3, and no doubt under the eye, or by 

' the consent of Gen. Jackso'i. What 
could a set of 

' a desperate combination? 



farmers do against such 



tJEN. JACKSON'S L.\ND SPECULATIONS—CHARACTERS & CONDUCT. 1«» 



1 shall not enlarge in reference to | 
the Documents which conchide the 
liistory of this transaction. In the fall 
of 1 823, a compromise was eflbcted, h} 
which tiic defendants agreed to give 
ten thousand dollars, and pa) certain 
<:osts;&thecomplainant, A. Jackson with 
J. Jackson, agreed to permit a decree to 
be entered at the next court, and give 
a quit claim deed, ^^'hen tli". decree 
was about to be rendered Mr. Darby 
objected, and was about to (ile his bill 
to prevent it, alleging tiiat he was 
equally interested with the others. 
The consequence was, that Mr. Darby 
received S'o.OOO of the compromise 
money, and joined his worthy partners 
in signing the deed of quit claim,which 
is now on record at Shelbyville, Bed- 
ford county. 

[ am aware that the apologists o*" 
General Jackson, have attempted to 
screen him from the moral turpitude 
attached to this proceeding, by plead- 
that Da\ id Allison, (before his death) 
was legally indebted to him, as well as 
to Norton Pryor, and that therefore, it 
was not morally wrong to make him] 
self safe. Will not this plea prove too 
much? — For if such was the fact, and 
the General did not put in his claim at 
the time he was transacting the busi- 
ness for Pryor and Anderson, does it 
not argue a presumption, that he com- 
mitted an intentional error in conduct- 
ing their business, in order to benefit 
himsell at a future day? 

I know also that the General is laud- 
ed by his partizans, because he com- 
promised these suits for ten thousand 
dollars. Who of us thanks him? I 
can assure the public, that nothing but 
a split in our ranks, and the desire of a 
secure and certain home, together with 
his weight and influence, induced the 
settlers to accede to the terms of com- 
promise ; as many were firmly persuad- 
ed that he had become convinced that 
the case would be decided against him. 
Besides, the General had just before 
been nominated by the Legislature of 
Tennessee, for the Presidency, and he 
did not wish this matter to weigh him 
down as a dead weight — as did the 
ghosts of those murdered by king 
Richard, in his battle with Richmond. 



CHARACTERS AND CONDUCT. 

The evijs, anticipated by many, from 
the election of General Jackson to the 
Presidency, have been gradually devel- 
oping themselves, in the progress of 
the canvass. His incapacity is not the 
most serious objection to his success. 
Much greater mischief is to be appre- 
hended from the examples he may set, 
and the company which must naturally 
collect around liim. Mr. Benton cor- 
rectly anticipated results, when he 
said that Jackson, if President, would 
be surrounded with desperate naen, 
and that Congress would have to leg- 
islate armed with dirks and pistols. — 
Tiiis may be made manifest noiv by a 
few well attested facts. 

There now resides at the Hermitage, 
a man of the name of Henry Lee, with 
his family. He occupies a building 
near the residence of General Jackson, 
and is engaged in daily intercourse 
with him. His business as avowed, is 
to write a biography of General Jack- 
son. He attends, however, to other 
things. A long article criticising the 
Virginia Anti-Jackson address, has 
been written by him. He accompan- 
ied General Jackson to New Orleans, 
and the public newspapers noticed him 
as escorting Mrs. Jackson, to the boat, 
as she embarked to return home. He 
was toasted at the Murfeesborough din- 
ner, and the supporters of General 
Jackson, in Virginia and elsewhere, 
begin to commend him as a man deser- 
ving encouragement. It is proper to a 
correct exposition of General Jackson's 
character, and of the means employed 
to sustain him, that this Mr. Lee should 
be known. This %vork was established 
to speak the truth, whenever the pub- 
lic good required it to be spoken — 
and to speak it plainly and without 
fear. This shall be done iu respect to 
Mr. Lee, because his association 
with Gen. Jackson, and with the sup- 
porters of General Jackson for the 
Presidency, gives him at this time a 
factitious importance which could not 
otherwise attach to him. 

Mr. Lee is the son of Henry Lee of 
Virginia, distinguished as an officer ol 
the revolution in the war of the South- 
em department. He is a man of finf 
talents and superior attaiwnents as .. 



19:: 



CHARACTERS A.ND CONDtXT. 



writer. But he is a man without mor- 
al iiitegrit}', or hoiiorabie principles. 
He has been guilty of perpt'traiing one 
of' those eiiormities,whitli is never tol- 
erated ill society, and which alway? 
overwhelms llie perpetrator with dis 
grace. Mr. Lee seduced his wileV 
sister, an inmate of his own house, as 
is aliened, I'y a series of deliberate acts 
practised upon lier, a young and inex- 
perienced temale, who regarded him 
in llie light of a brother. For this 
deed he was driven from the society 
where it was perpetrated, and for a 
time couched beneath tiie general odi- 
um that it fastened upon him. In the 
present struggle to make General Jack- 
son President, Mr. Lee's talents have 
been considered as of some account. 
It is not uncommon to recruit an army 
from the prisons, thus converting a con- 
victed felon into a hero, and a cham-j 
pion of public rights. Just so, the sup- 
porters of General Jackson seek for 
rc( ruits amongst those men of talents 
whose misconduct has rendered them 
suspicious or infamous. Swartwout was 
sunk into deserved oblivion, from the 
period of his discharge from imprison- 
ment upon an accusation of treason, 
until General Jackson selected liim as 
a correspondent, and thus again gave 
him character. So Mr. Lee was ex- 
cluded from society until General Jack- 
son received him into his service, and 
gave him countenance. 

It seems to me tliat there is a disre- 
gard of moral obligation to society, 
and of decent respect to character, in 
this association, that ought to alarm, if 
not shock the minds of upright men. 
If youthful passion, or other circum- 
stances may be pleaded as an apology 
for General Jackson's own transgres- 
sions upon the marriage rights of oth- 
ers, he ought not, in his present con- 
dition, to encourage an enormity so 
much greater than his own, lest an in- 
ference be deduced that he has really 
no moral sense on the suliji'ct. \Vhat 
arewe to say to it? Our President se- 
duced his neighbors Avife, and lived 
witli her in an adulterous intercourse 
until she became his own! — He takes 
to his society and confidence, under his 
patronage and protection an adulterons 
and incestuous seducer of virgiu iiuio- 



cence! And the public men of the 
country, their wives and daughters, are 
to as-ociate with this leprous fiend in 
nuaian form as nitli a genili'nian! His 
talents are to be prais'd, his wriii.igs 
admired, his crimes to be forgotten, 
whilst, on his part, liiere is no toke of 
penitence, not even that which delect- 
ed guilt usually inariiiests. And for 
what is all this humiliation to ' e en- 
countered and endured? For the sin- 
gle reason, and no other, that this protii- 
gate can be made useful. So, in other 
countries, can bravos and as.-assins.— :- 
But even where such instruments are 
used, their cmplo\ers do not degrade 
themselves by associating with them as 
equals. 

This employment of Lee. at the 
Hermitage, is in character with other 
matters in transaction at VVashinglon. 
Dutr Green is certainly less infamous 
than Lee. But who tliat looks hack 
upon his course could wish to see him- 
self in connection with him. Then 
there is Col. Jarvis, also a political 
adventurer, who, as well as Green, 
seems to have been employed, pretty 
much on the principle already stated, 
of enlisting recruits where ever they 
can be got. from the stews or the pris- 
on, with or without reputation. These 
two men are the champions of General 
Jac*on at Washington, and they ap- 
pear to be so completely inflated, with 
self importance, at their present posi- 
tion and elevation, as to promise no lit- 
tle trouble and prejudice to their em- 
plovers. Both of them have sought 
occasions to commit a breach of the 
peace, within the walls of the capitol 
I itself; and in ca-es where the disputes 
originated in p:uty politics. Men of 
decent maiuiers. and correct feelings 
would have avoided such courses, for 
their own sakes, and for the credit of 
their party. But these two men seem 
to have thought it would be a recom- 
mendation to liiem to attempt that, 
from whicli ccntlcmen would shrink 
with an intuitive disgu-;!. 

When Green assaulted Sparihawk. 
the Senate treated the outrage as a 
matter that did not concern them, l! 
was said it would he as proper to inter- 
('ere in an atl'ray between two Dray- 
men. The perversion of correct judg 



CHARACETRS AND CONDUCT. 



193 



ment whicli induced this sentiment 
ouglit tlien (o have been exposed, and 
those who acquicscd in its correctness, 
or witlioul so acquiescing, permitted it 
to pass, iiave found tli.e consequence, 
in the attempt of Green's ("ellow labor- 
er to attach an equal distinction to him- 
self. 

The assault upon young Mr. Adorns 
is one of those preconceived and delib- 
erate outrages, which calls for loud and 
decisive reprehension. The proceed- 
ings of the majority of Congress with 
respect to it ought to tix on the mem- 
ber the stigma of continued reproba- 
tion, such as is described, by making a 
man an o'oject for "/Ae hand of scum to 
point its sioic ami movitu; finger at." 

Jarvis, who has devoted his talents 
to the reprobation of Mr. Adams, per- 
sonally and politically, and who aids in 
casting upon him tlie most degrading 
reproaches, neverdieless feels himself 
at liberty to visit Mr. Adams in his 
own house. Because it was an occa- 
sion of public visiting, Mr. Jarvis seem- 
ed to su|>pose that he had a right to 
present himself, and that he was en- 
titled to civil treatment. His right 
was that which w'ant of correct feelings 
confers upon an impudent man. — Ci- 
vility of treatment the President owed 
to himself, and to the nation, whose 
representative he is. — But the Presi- 
dent had a son — a youth, and probabl}' 
nota very di>crect one. This young 
man made >ome improper remarks, 
very natural for a young man to make, 
whose feelings were easily excited, as 
every deserving son's ought to be 
wlieii his parent is insulted. How 
would a discreet man have acted, placed 
in the situation of Mr. Jarvis? Either 
he would have been deaf lo tlic imper- 
tinence, or he should have made it 
known to the President, whose dutv it 
was to correct his own household, and 
make proper atonement for a wrong 
committed, iipon such an occasion, by 
any member of his family. But in- 
stead of pursuing this course, whicli 
propriety and decency diclated, Jar- 
vis sought a private (juarrel with the 
younger Adams. The answer he re- 
ceived, that no answer or explanation 
would be given, was, most likely, what 
he wished: it was ceriainlv what alone 

U 



he could expect. He then sees Mr. 
Adams, in the House of Representa- 
tives, delivering a message from the 
i'resident to Congress. He goes out 
of tlie Hall, and attacks hini in another 
apartment, ttirough which Mr. Adams 
passed on his way lo the Senate wi h a 
m-.'ssage. — He assaults Mr. Adams with 
blows — And what lollows? For the 
honour of our common nature, for the 
honour of our public men, for the hon- 
our of our country. 1 wish our aniials 
were not to be disgraced with a narra- 
tion of what followed. 

The assault was \ ommitted on Tues- 
da)-. Neither House of Congress took 
any cogniz-mce of it, on that day nor on 
the next. On Thursday, the President 
communicated tlie fact, by message to 
Congress. In the Senate, the message 
was read and laid on the table. In the 
House, it was referred to a select com- 
mittee, which was appointed on Friday. 
On tlic same day, Mr. Jarvis addressed 
a letter of explanation, to the Speaker 
of both Houses. It, too, was read and 
laid on the table! This letter avowed 
the knowledge that Mr. Adams had 
brought a message to Congress, which 
he had delivered, asserted an intention 
to assault liim in tiie Rotundo,not to in- 
jure him, but (o pull his nose and slap 
his face; — in other words, to disgrace 
him. Such arrogance as this is surely 
without parallel in the history of legis- 
lative bodies. The organ of commu- 
nication between the President and 
Congress, known to have just delivered 
a message, is assaulted, lor the purpose 
of disgracing him. The fact is asserted 
to those who participate in the dis- 
grace, by way of apology, and is by 
them received willi conii'la'ency !!! 

Few readers of the present day are 
not conversant with the entertaining 
and instructive Wavcrly novels. The 
penalty in which poor Nigel irixolved 
himself, by committing an assault, with- 
in the roval precincts, is familiar to the 
recollection of •■"any. Yet the law 
that iiil'icted the penalty was founded 
in salutary prii ci|)lcs. Its great ob- 
ject was to secure the public peace, in 
the vicinity of the sovereign. In our 
country, the legislature represents tiie 
•iOverei<;n power, and discharges its 
fujictioii'. And, when the legislature 



194 



CHAnACTEns ANDCOTJOrCT. 



is in session, it is a higli offence ti. fhis country and himselQ as to assa.ilt 
per|>i't rate any kind of outiagc r aim- or insult the Presidoiit. 
lu'i-J 10 disturb or inllucnce their d ■ The assault committed upon Mr. 
li lie rations. It is called a breach of Adams was a gross breach ofLegisla- 
priviluge, as in the famous case of! live privilege, both in respect to the 



Jiiha Anderson, who was subjerted to 
the jurisdif tioii of the Hou-e, for a 



person assaulted, and the place where 
ihe assault was commiiled. Aiid the 



su|)po>ed attempt to tam|)er with the i reason alleged for it, greatly aggravates 



integrity of a member 

To assail a member of the Legisla- 
ture, or at'y of their otlicers, or persons 
in official employ connected with legis- 
lation, is a brcaih of privilege. So it is 
to raise disturbances and riots, in their 
vicinity. And, in all these cases, there 
is an inherent power in the Lcgisla 



the outrase. It was intended to de- 
grade and disgrace the individual that 
constituted the organ of communica- 
tion between the President and Con- 
gress. And it is mere affectation, not 
to assert at once what everv one l»- 
lieves, that the individual rela'ion is 
which the person stood to the Pri-i 



ture to puni-hU.e offender, as for a '(^"^"^ V' °''^ ^""'"^^J^.''' '-"\"""'T.'' 
co..to.npt of privilege, in a summary ^a^e the attack.-The (eeln.gs of tl„ 

. „ ■ . I father were to be outraged as well a- 

mauner. & 

those of the patriot. 

Now, this privilege does not exist for Xhis relationship constituted a 
the personal security of the public of- |rpj,so„^ ^j,,. Congress should have art- 
ficers alone— And when It is violated, .d promptly and upon their own mo- 
punishment is not inllicted to avenge or ijo,,, Xhey should not have impo-ed 
frdress Ihc individual wrong. It ex-^pon the President, the delicate re- 
isis for the preservation of the public sponsibility of submittins; tamely to an 
safely, the public morals, the public outrage on the public service and 
honor, all that is us.ful and dignilitd character, or of incurring the imputa- 
in national character. \\ '"en it is tjo,, of |,pi„g^(.,u;j,pd l,v ppr^p,,.,! f^^.j. 
tram|)Kd upon and set at naught, every iiij^s.and a desire of revens;e. Magnani- 
ma;. in the nation is insulted. A great ^o,j^ ^pn, thoash political opponents, 
p.i'dic wrong is committed, which can- io„^ht to have felt what was due to the 
not be redressed in the ordinary man- : president, and have relieved him from 
ner, but which must be instantly : tijjj unpleasant responsibility. The 
puiisbed, so as to restrain others from course pursued evidences a bitterness 
a repetition of it. of feeling, and an obliquity of judgment 

During the session of Congress the sirkeningand disheartening to a dispas- 
Pr'sideiit is a component part of the , sionate mind. Every step taken, up 
Li>gislature. He communicates to! to Sunday, April 20, seemed to wear a 
them, the subjects that, in his opinion, ' studied aspecfof asgravated insult. — 
require legislative provision, and all The insulting letter of Jarvis was laid 
legislative acts arc submitted to him ' i|uietlv on the table, bv the side of the 
for approbation or rejection. Tlu- ; Pre--idi'nt"s message. No sleps were 
same privileges, therefore, extend to taken to vindicate the outraged laws- 
him and his organ of communication , In the Senate, both rested like a bad 
with Congress, as it is extended to the penny nailed to the counter as counter- 
members and their officers. When feit. In the House, t.ic select eommii- 
Coiigress is not in session. Ihe President ' tec nesjli'ded taking any steps. Thus 
being a mere ministerial officer in | deliberately manifesting a total in- 
cxecutintj; the laws, has no pri\ilegf I ditference to their own characters, and 
attached to him. No provision has i to that of the country. Asa party 
been made to protect him or thosi- man, wishing to see the followers of 
whom he employs from insult, because, j Gen. Jackson exhibit, by pregnant 
heretofore, it would have been con- proofs, their principles and foeliiiirs. I 
sidered a caliimi.y upon our country- am well pleased at tlie cour-e thev hav( 
im-n. to all.ge that anyone of them, i pursued. The pei^ple can see, though 
could solar forget what was due to ihe leaders at Washioston are blind — 



CHARACTERS & CONDUCT.— JOHN HAKRIS. 



195 



Aiid tlie people will not sanction this 
kind of insult lo the national character, 
to indulge the Kditorsottlie Telegrupli. 
iti lining that with impunity which 
would cover a man ol" good characier 
witli in/amy. Had the Jackson men 
promptl\ denounced the outrage, had 
they immediately called Jarvis to ac- 
cou:it. and inflicted summary pulli^il- 
ment upon liim, they might have turn- 
ed Ihe thing to some accouiit. Tneir 
adherents might have said — There 
was too much magnanimity to let party- 
predilections inllui'nce the Jacksonians. 



By this example, the apprehension that ' foim 
the Jacksoaiaiis would indulge in, or 
encourage violence, is put to tligltl. — 



The letter bearing dale 4th of Sep- 
tember, 182G, was lirst puijlished in 
llie Bahiinore Repiudican. The sub- 
|i)ined extracts .tre ciijiied iVoni Miles' 
Register, June 23nl, 1827. p. -'S'i. 

"Truth is might} and sliall prevail. 
Intrigue and management, iiicapal)le ot 
blind-lijlding tiie virtuous yeomanry of 
m\ country, will fail of their ends; nor 
can tliey impose any otiier ta>k on me 
than that ol defending myself against 
tlieir imputations, whenever the au- 
tiiois cIioojc to unmask thenu-elvos — a 
task which I am' always ready to per- 



" The cause that you allude to might as 
well be ascribed to tlie President o! the 



As it is, the converse of these asser-^ United States, as commai.der-in-chief 
tions may be justly proclaimed. All i of the land and naval forces, as to me; 
is given up to party; and the present; but as you ask for a statement of facts, 
instruments, are not ordy used, but i I send tiiem in a concise form. 



countenanced, protected, and cherish- 
ed. 



JOHN HARRIS. 

Tolhc editor o[tlu. (Ktnlxu.k;i) Riporler. 

1 deem it necessary to make a true 
statement of the case of John Harris, 



"In the year 1814, Col. Pipkin at the 
head of hisdrafted militia, was charged 
with the defence of fort Jackson, in the 
heart of the Creek nation, and within 
my mililary district. Whilst thus in 
command, part of his regiment muti- 
nied. At the head of this mutiny was 
a Mr. Harris, a preacher, and, as my 
memory now serves me. of tlie Baptist 



one of the six militiamen who were , prof(^ssion. He broke open tlie corn- 
shot at Mobile. I slionid not have missary stores, knocked out tlie heads 



troubled the public but for th'; com- 
motion many niistatemenls have thrown 
our country into. 1 did not know this 
was the case until lately, and it seems 
to have been by accident that I heard 
tl. \\ e had declined taking anv news- 



of the flour barrels, taking what he 
wanted, and destroying wliat he pleas- 
ed — proceeded then to the bake-house, 
and set it on (ire, and marched olFiiv 
open defiance of the Colonel, leaving 
the garrison without provisions, and so 
papers, and were surrounded by Gen. | weakened by desertion, that it might 
Jackson's friends. M\ brother James i have fallen a sacrifice to the Indians, 
was enipiired of. if lie was the so.n of j I was then at Mobile. Informed of 
JMr. Harris tliat was executed at Mo- this mutiny and outrage by express, 1 



bile; and if he had heard what .'ack- 



ordered the mutineers and deserters to 



son and others were S"ying about him be pursued, a|)prohcndcd. and brought 
in the public prints. } baik for trial. The ringleaders, Har- 

I determined to see what had been ; ris at tlieir lit^ad, after some time, were 
-aid, and was favored with newspapers apprehended and bniugiit to Mobile in 
by mv friends. i irons, after I had left tiierc for New- 



Of all the statements that 1 have 
seen, those made by General Jackson, 
in a letter to a gentleman in Balti- 
more, and in a letter to Mr. Owens in 
Keiitucky. are the most de-titute of 
truth. The first letter is a pack of in- 
famous lies, that a heathen would shud- 
der to tell; and part of the otiier 1 can 
prove to be false. 



Orleans, and had charged General 
Winchester with the command of that 
section of the country. They were 
tried by a Court Martial, and condemn- 
ed to die — live were shot and the bal- 
ance pardoned. The others who had 
deserted, before they reached home, 
became alarmed at their situation, re- 
turned before Harris and his party 



iga 



JOHN HARRLS. 






Were arrested, joined me and were for- 1 he ought to be guided by establislied 
given — were witii me wiicii [ marclied- facts, not by the hearsiiy of any lioiiv.'' 



to Pe:.sacola in 1814; followed me, 
thence to New Orleans, wiien they re- 
gained their former good, character by 
their valorou> and soldiery cotiduct. 
and were honorably dischartred. 



The bakehoufp was thrown into the 
river four or five weelcs hei'ore they left 
tiierc, or had any thought of coming 
home; nor did my fatiier have any 
band in it, or know of it when it wa: 



These proceedings are on tile in the | done, 
department of war, where those who Late in the year 1813, my brotlier 
wish for truth, can be informed by ap-j James cnrolhd himself; he was then 
plying to the record. | 16 years old; and shortly after our 

"It is for the public to judge, whether house was burnt, and we moved on tl>c 
this professed embassador of Christ,! Indian la d, about eight miles from 
did not well deserve' death for the i where we lived, to a t-alt peirc cave, 
crimes of robbery and arson; and this where my father had a fur. .ace to make 
outrageous mutiny, which jeopardized! petre. Not long afterwards, James 
not only the remainder of the garrison! was drafted in his old company. — 
from its exposed situation, but the' Father, thinking him too young to go 
safety of our country — and whether ^ without protection, took the place of 
this wolf in shee|)'s clothing was not aj Samuel ^herrel, and went with him. 
fit subject of example. Harris whenj After thev had fer\ed three months, 
condemned to die, acknowledged the | my father, believing their time was out, 
justice of his condemnation, and stated land getting no satislaction from his of- 
he had no hope of a pardon here, but jficers, came home, not '•»« open defiance 
that he had of forgiveness hereafter — of the Colonel" but nfler giving up Aj? 



which I trust he obtained, through the 
mediation of our blessed Saviour, and 
a sincere repentance of his i rimes that 
broiight on Irim his condemnation. 

"Let it be recollected, that this mu- 
tiny occured at a period «hcn every 
nerve of our country was strained to 
protect it from ihc invasion of an over- 
wlielniing Bi itisli force, whose agdts 
were then engaged in stirring up the 
Creeks to the indiscriminate murder of 
our defenceless border citizens. These 
are the facts of the case, for your in- 
formation." 

1 set out with Jackson's motto — 
"Truth is miglnyand shall prevail."' 

1. Gc'i. Jackson says, Harris '"broke 
open the conunissary stores, knocked 
out the heads of the Hour barrels; 
taking what he wanted, and destroying 
what he pleased — proceeded then to 
tlie bakeliou-e, and set it on fire, and 



gun and lifting his receipt. 

Soon after he got home, he learnt 
that Gen. Jackson had ordered them 
back by express. He stayed at home 
three or four days, and started back of 
hii oun aceord. Many of his neigbours- 
tried to prevail on him to keep out of 
the way; and every means was ollered 
him to iiave done so, till tlie heat of 
passion had subsided; hut he rciused, 
and frequently s;iid, that lie was con- 
scious for what they had done they 
could not be hurt, and that he feared 
notliing even before the most preju- 
diced court martial, excepi one thing; 
that was a paper on which he li.id talcen 
down the names of th.ose that wore 
going home, though he had no fears 
from ihol. if they would give him /u.v/^rr. 

Col. Pipkin had told some of the men. 
if they vtould go home wiiether or not, 
and would give him tiieir names, he 



marched otf in open defiaiice of the I would make provision for tlum to draw 

rations. If I had any confidence in the 
Coloners oath, I would ask him if lie 
ever made any such statements or not. 
This is the paper above alluded to. 
^Vhen mv liiher started to trial. I 



Colonel." Now, not a word of this 
is true. See John May's certificate 
below, and the charges lor which he 
\v;is tried hy the Court Martial. Gen. 
Jarksoti ought to ha\e recollected. "As 



a public or private man, speaking of; went with him ton or twelve miles. — 
tran-actions which concern the rejiuta- 1 AVe passed the house o( op.e Salmon, 
tion and character of others, every who said he had come hack for the 
oianlv feeling should remind him, that men. My father stopped and fold him 



JOHN HARRIS. 



107 



he was going back; and Salmon told 
mv father if ho would wait a diiy or 
two at Wiiicliester, which was about 
fourteen inibjs from there, they would 
go togetlier. My father waited a day. 
Some of his friends ])er.«uaded him to 
enli>t; hut he-refused to do it, because 
he tliought himself in no danger. — 



of forgiveness hereafter." And in his 
letter to Mr. Owens ol Kentucky, that 
this man (Harris) never wrote but one 
letter to me that 1 ever saw or beard of 
boiore this publication, and in that he 
acknowledged himself guilty of the en- 
ormous crimes charged against him, 
and stated bis willingness to meet the 



They tlien went on to Fort Jackson, i just sentence of tlie court." It is in- 
when they gave up to Col. Hart. I i human to suppose this to be true^ and 
have lately been told that Salmon gave ill so, why docs he suppress the letter? 
him upas a prisoner, which I do i;ol' My lirother James was with him all 
believe: But 1 will be able to state; the timt;, and of course knew the se- 
explicitly before b.r.g. Col. Hart was crets of his breast; and he licard of no 
on piiradc and about to marcl) for Mo- such acknowledgment nor saw any 
bile when they arrived. Tliey went such letter. 

■with Hart, who, to add to the fatigue j Read the words of my father in a 
of mv liither, I am ti>ld, had him hand-! farewell letter to my mother: Dear 
cufled. In two or three days.as I un- wile, I take this opportunity of writing 
der-tand, they were taken off. Aftertoyou (or the last time. / «;;rrf .... 
the\ got to Mobile and had tiieir trial, / (•/)'(/ 7iot expect to have had this mcful 
and they knew the decree of the court | iiejcsto 7cntc to you; but my sentence is 
martial, my father was advised to wiite! come, to-morrow, by 12 o'clock, which 
to Gen. Jackson himself, as he was ac-| is an awful thing to think of."' 
quainted with the General, aiid tostate After 1 saw the statemenis of Jack- 
the circumstances under which he was; son, I wrote to him, requesting him to 
tried and the situation be left home, j give me his reasons for making them, 
and pray him for a pardon or at least ' ar.d to send n^e the contents of tiie let- 
a new hearing. Afier he wrote liis , tors addressed to him by my father. — 
first letter to Gen. Jackson, his friends As vet I have received no answer or 



wrote another, petitioning for a re 
prieve. 

Gen. Jackson, in the most unrelent- 
ing manner, ctiarges my father ''of 
robbery and arson." I have previous- 
ly di-^j)rovcd this savage charge. He 
audaciously asks "whether this wolf in 
sheep's clothiiig was not a fit subject 
of example." "Idid hope, that a liber- 
al and ffencrous feeling on the part of 
Gei'. Jackson, "would show" the char- 



satisfaction. This seems to be a 'task' 
that he Is not "always ready to per- 
form." 

1 am a citizen of Lawrence county, 
Alal)ama. If any one wishes to scru- 
tinize what I have said, he can call 
and he shall have satisfaction. 

JOHN HARRIS. 

I do hereby certify, that some years 
before the last war, I was acquainted 
with Joiin Harris in Franklin county, 



acter of mv deceased fatlier, "at least"' ; Tennessee, and that he was tliere elect 
as far as "those assaults which slander jed Coroner of the said county, and 
and lalsehood delight to inflict. In I served in that capacity; and that as 
that I have been"' egregiously "dis- 1 far as I knew, he supported a good 
appointed." IMy father was an honest j moral character. Given under my 
man and a kind and protecting father; hand, this 18th March. I82f5 



which can 1)0 proved by many of Jack 
son's friends. [See a certificate be 
low.] And 1 boldly say, if he had jus- 
tice, he would be "o fU subject of ex- 
ample.''' 

Jackson has the eflfronlery to state 
in the face of the world that " Harris, 



JAMKSM'CORD. 

Sliite of Alahnma., L,(mreitce county. 
This day personally appeared be- 
fore me, Samuel Irwin, an acting just- 
ice of the peace in and for said county, 
John May, and after beingduly swore, 
deposeth and sayeth, that as much of 



when condemned to die, acknowledged General Jackson's statement in Niles' 
the justice of his condemiiation, and Register, June 23d, 1827, as relates to 
stated he had no hope here, but he had Harris' breaking open the commissary 



10* 



JOHN DAItRIS.— THE tXRIFF. 



store and knocking out the heads of the 
flour barrels, and taking what he w;iiit- 
ed and deslrojiiig what he pleai-id. IS 
FALbK; that he ncitliir took nor dtf- 
troyi'd; and as for burning the bake- 
house, it is ALSO FALSE- and tlie 
said John May further slates o'l oath, 
that he belonged to the same company 
and was there at the time Harris kfi 
there, 

JOHN MAY. . 

Sworn to and suhscribcd bclbre me, 
this the 2Glh of February, 1828. 

Samuel Irwi.v, J. P. 

JOHN HARRIS'S LAST LKTTER 
TO HIS WIFL. 

(a literal copy.) 
February 15, \S\ 5, Mobile, Fori Char- 
Me. 
Dear wife. I Take the oppurtuniU 
of Writing to you for the Last timeas'l 
exspcct and is well at present thanks 
Be to God for his Mercys and I Hope 
these Lines May find jou and all the 
rest in helth 1 Did not exspect to Have 
Had this awlul news lo awrote to you 
Bui my sentence is Com and to Mor- 
row I have to encounter Death to Mor- 
row by twehe o'clock whitch is an 
a^vful thing to think of and I Know 
from your Tenderness to me as a wife 
to a Husband Has been so Greale that 
it must be a Gieaf to you anil as such I 
yyish you to Meet it witli as mucii foiti- 
tude as posable I !iope we >liall meet 
again in tlie worlds above I wish you 
to Do all y ou Can to Keep my Children 
to gather if possible James lias promis- 
ed me that He yvill Stayyvith you and 
I flope that my other Two Sons 
Charl -s and Joim" will Do all they Can 
to Keep IlierLiitle Sisters and Broth- 
ers from suthriiigl wish you as soon as 
Jame> Return- to Mooye into the set- 
tements and Do the best you Can for 
yourselves it Grieves me Hard lo part 
yvilhyouall Bull must IU>i>rn to God 
and wo Have to part some time and as 
such I H<»pe you will Bring mv LiKle 
son up in the learofGod and my Little 
Daughters also whitch from vour Con- 
duct I have no Reason to i)oubt But 
my Little sons you arc yongand Cirow- 
in up into Life Be ccarfull of \yhat 
kind of Company you ki'cp and never 
Brjiig yourtcUes to any ])isgracc 



j Learn in time of youth to Ix>ve Boalh 
1 Gi-iceaid truth my mi iHs pestired a d 
I Can not write as I would wish R. m m- 
ber me to all inquiring friends so my 
. Dear wife and Children I h^d you a Due 
t^;is from your Loving Hu>band and 
Father untel Death 

JOHN HARRIS? 
Mrs Polly Harriss. 



THE TARIFF. 

The Tariff Bill, prupan-ii by the Jacksoi. 
pretended tariff uien.of Xiw Vi.rlt and Heun- 
-vlvania, pas>etl the House of UeprL>eniati\ei 
on lUe 21st, by a vote ol 105 to 94. 1 be 5>.ulh- 
ern anti-tarill" men all voted against it, and 
«ora<- lew frienilf ol' ll.e AJuiinistrution, who 
conceived its provii-i.-ns too unjust and ui.eijual 
to warrant them in fu;.poitiiig it. 

Our reader.- rccullect, thai at the laft fes.<ioB 
ol'CoDgress a bill was before that boily for pro- 
tecting the growing and munufactunnK ol wool. 
It was 0|)pose<l bj the South, and finally de- 
feated by their votes. Certain Jacksoniaus, 
»f Pennsylvania and New York, also lent a 
hdpinir hand to kill it. This brought (hini in- 
to trouble, anil a eomplaiiit was made that the 
measure was cast into Congress a- an apple of 
discord. The fnenils, however, ol dome-tic in- 
dustry, detetmineii to inake an effort to pro- 
cure iroin Congress p<iual and efficient pruttc- 
tiou for woollens mamifactHres, wool, iron and 
other articles. To insure unity of obitctnnd 
c.>ncerl in action, they determined to bold a 
eoiiviiition, that the wanU and views of till 
might be the better understood by communica- 
tion with each other. The convention at Har- 
risburgh was proposed: but the Jacksoiiians 
immediately took the alarm, and denounced 
the mea-ure .is a mere party trick. Th« ir con- 
duct in Cincinnati »vas a spe-cimen of their 
doings every where. They broke uji, by vio- 
lence and noise, a meeting contencd to chusc 
delegates. Kinding they had gone too lar, they 
called a meeting at a distant day. They met, 
agreed upon a ranting and fusti;in n port in fa- 
vour of protecting manufactures, proposed some 
plan of a tariff, that none, who understood (lie 
subject, believed feasible, agreed upon a nieiuo- 
rial to Congress in support of it, appointed com- 
mittees to obtain suhscriber>, and there the 
thing end 'd. Nothing more was done : and all 
this " trtar and tear of braiiu"' w as iindergunc 
for the pur|>ose of putting a deceitful face upon 
their real views, which were to court Southern 
support for Gen. Jackson. 

\Micn Congress met, the .'acksonians from 



THE TAniFF. 



IM 



fruiu lU ancient and 6rm friends; and the hue 
and crv was sosn raised that tbe administration 

The ef- 



.. A-Yor , PeoDsjlvan.:., Kenluckj and Ohio, , .lumtd Vike tamiot to haxtil ionenow and be ta- 
uniTed m electing a Jack^oniai. Anti-Tanii *«" ""'"'*;»"'-'•' , . .. 

Speaker: who appomted a Jacksonian Coma^t- >otw.lt^u.nd..^ these open and undisgn.aed 
te^ of Manufaclures pr. UM...in< to De favora- evidenct-s of settled hostilitj , the pretended ta- 

. . Ti ;. i--.r..,...ii/.«. rpru.rip.1 -^ riH" Jaf^ksoiiinns of New York, Pcnc«}lTania, 

blf to protection. 1 bis l^omiinltee rcp<'rieo t . , ~. . . ..i 

bill ..y no means agreeable to the views of tbe | Kentuck, and Ohio, conunued to vote with the 
real fnends of protection to Domestic ludustrj . j eue.i.ies of tbe system against everj proposition 
Tbe object of this bill wis well uad T'tooit. It i 
was intended to compel a larse portiui. of the I 

true fnends of the svsteio to v,.te ;.ga.H-t it, an.l ' tad determined to destroy the tanff. 
thu. defeat a Tariff =ind cast the blame ujK)n | ''ront"}' *''h which this assertion was made was 
the friends of the admin.straUo.i. \ i" character with Uie whole proceeding of the 

In tbe proCTPss of the bil ,thi5 object became ] party, 
obvious and manifest to th. most ordinary under | The Telegraph started the accusation, which 
standing. Every amendment, proposeu bj Oie ! -^as re-terated in regular progression, in every 
supporters of th.- .dm.Mstraiion, was voted •"rectio" ''""> t^^ capitol. We bad the follow- 
down, by tl,c combine.! and unile,! f.rces of tbe '"f «l't""> °f " '"''■« '" Cincinnati : 

r 11 T s- c.^ ik,..^....!!. <ifiH ih» "It 15 njw reduced to a moral certainty, that 
enemies of all Tann, from Ihetuuib, ana tne . . , . - . ■ r^ '.V .l 

'^" " .^ a- r I, I the -Xdministration party in Congress, With the 

Jack«jniaii pr. teudeil-Tanff mcn,^m tXh" : ,riu„virate Adams, Clay and Webster at their 
states. In thecourseofthedebate, tlvp^llowi.j jjj.a,l^ are deierminetl to defeat the tariff bill 
language was openly held on the floor of the now before the Jialional Legisl.tiin "' 
House of Represontatiies, by the avowed op 



pooeottof ttie pm.ciple: 

" Mr. Gii-MER said that he voted, and should 



A'at. Repvi. 



The following in Baltimore : 
" A friend writes me iVom Washineton, that 



vote, to keep oi. the ihjties en herai-, iron, rum « ^jje Adams jarty mean to kill the Tariff,"' 
and molasses, to Uacti Uiote trlio are for a Ta iff that "there is no doubt nl it,"' and (hat our Mr. 



the nmetfuenctt /it. He sain that uiisi'jutd 
fiiialiy T'lU aaainst the :thole bill — that hr had 
found itrli.licult to briiif hi* min.! tn |.urst:e this 
s>-leiii of It-.islalion; buldsthe^ wanted a Ta- 
riff he wa^ for makiDsr it ge eral, aii'l il it wa' 
all made uniform and consistent, it a-as lite b< tl 
vay in deftat il. 

"Mr. Cii!BEEi.E>G said that ke thiywd nolrole 
for Vie bill, but be wished it to bf fill mail parLSi 



N'lles ir tliere j leldjng them all the a'si^tance in 
his power.'' Bait. Rcpxii. 

The letter writers from Washington gave 
their assistance. The following is a specimen, 
which is copied from the American SeiUirul of 
Philadelphia. 

" Exlrarl of a lelUr to the Editors., doled 



of tlie country that wire for 1 Tar:ir. He trotdd \ Washi."sctos, April 16, 1828. 

rok to hare U as obnoxious as it could bet: Mon, j „ .j,^^ ^^^^^^^ .,j,^^t j. j^at the admin.slra- 
and in that way to let those understand what il ; ^j^^ ^^^ ^ .^.^ ^^^^^ ^^ j^^t j5,^ tariff bill, 
was who were •" f^vor of the schem.^. The ^^^ j^__^ ^^^ .j,^^^. ,, „ ;„ ^,. a,„,rta.ned short- 
prmciple be thought It fair to be gov. rued by. | ,y ^„ the S-w"England 6o»oin friends of the 
"Mr. Livingston said thnt he wouM not ^ prj.;i,],.„t are against it. Should the bill be 
make his peojdi- alone the vi tims nf the tariff ;„j^ some of theadmini'tratiiMi men who voted 
pol'cy, and as the hill might pass the Hou-e, ,-„fj,„.,i) have to c/tan^f tA/ir cn/our*. If they 
be woulil vote to tax every thing that could should kill th. bill, it will not be the first time 
be raistd in the country, an.l let tho=e in lavor | jj^p fia^i .':ave voted in oppo-ition to the .Ameri- 
of a Tariff see th" effrctol thesystem. If the | ^an ;'dic* of encouraging our home in lostry. 
— : — :.!„ ,„.,^ _„..,! r»..»r,o.> ..-1= „«,.,! iv^r^ll — ; ., j, j- /.,i,^ thpre i- a great tr.iublf- in tbe wig- 
wam, and all because ti.e Yankees are unwilling 



principle was^o"d for one it was good for all — 
He should act on this principle, and by l/ial 
■iiirse the uhole must be de/faled. 
•• y\r. Mitchell, of South I 'arolina,said that 
lUc more ojxprtssire the duties iccre to the great 
mass of Utr people^ Uie boru and sineir of th-- eouit- 
tri,; the more ann'ovs he teas to tnte for tfiem. — 
He voted on that principle. We want no pro- 
traction in South Car.'lin I — haiid> uff — keep 
Toiir distance. He should not rtmsenl to lessen 



to sop their bread, on oniy one side in Foreign 
molasses. The .irntri an Hyslem is bad, when 
applied to jVcir Ens.land, but goo<i, very good 
inde.d, when it operates "exclusively upon tbe 
South"' 

Notwithstanding all these schemes and pre- 
dictions, the administration m.'n have voted for 



any of the duties in tfie bill, for that might aid to I Ihe bill. And the wolves in sheep', clothing, 
pass it. ! from New \''ork, Pennsylvania, Kentucky and 

'•Mr- Weems said that tbey wished it to be Ohio have been reviled and abused by their 
made » bitter a p,ll U'at it conld not be sv-allou- j^^^^, g,,^^^ ^.ith„,., „ercy. 
- He said they were, he thought, about to ^^^ ^^^^^ .^ .^ ^^,_^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^., ^^ ^ 

derstand this matter. By the people we do not 



But he should vote against il all. 



fd. 

succeed in it. 
at last. 

Mr. Camereleng, in reply to Mr. Dwiebt, 
of Massachusett-, s aj'l that, if the increased dut 
on molatset Itad net berii at last struek o« of the 
bill nf 1824, ire should hare bad no tariff of '\S-2A 
that it wa- finally arranged -o as to get that <lu- 



mcan tbe noisy bablers that lay exclusive claim 
to that title. We mean the industriou-, the 
peaceful, the thoughtful people — the farmer a^ 
bis plough — the mechanic working at his trade. 



t of fhr V-ill.'andit wfl-pnsse'l— that "tw"" Thev cannot, we trust, fail to understand the 



300 



THE TAR1FF.~.A NEW LIE. 



tnat'er. litre is a tariff bill prepared by tbt 
8De[uie« ot the tariff, and adopted by deceitful 
and prelcoded friend?. Here is a bill avowi dl_, 
madt as exceptionable a! poFsiblo, avowedly 
intended to be oppressive, so as to make protec 
tioii cost more than il i-> worm, and pre<ervei. 
to this form, by the joint cff'.rts of open oppc 
nents, and liollow hearted supporters, in th. 
hope that Ihf true friends of the country would 
defeat it. Hire is an open assertion of this dis- 
hon.-stand di-lionorable mode of legislation, to 
effrcta polit'cal purpose ; and au equally open 
ttenipt, bv a false and unfounded accusation, 
to produce tlie intendctl re-ult. We have he.in: 
much oC'-coalilion,-' '• rorruption," '' eonspira- 
art!,"' without proof. Here they are openly a- 
vowed and boasted of :— Surely the good sense 
of the real prnjite must see through this piect of 
political patchwork, and visit upon those con- 
cerned in it their "lue reward. 

Although the hill is by no means what it 
should be, and niight have been, the friends ol 
the adniiiiistration considered it something bet- 
ter than the existing law, in a few ( articulars; 
and preferred it to no alteration. They there- 
fore voted for it In so far as it falls short of 
what it outht to have been, the whole blame 
rcst=; upon the Jacksionan members from New- 
Fork, Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Ohio. The 
people of these states will have an opporlunit), 
in due season, to pa?? upon the condurt of their 
BUfaithful representatives, when no doubt ment: 
tektl will be written upon most of them. 

After the bill passed, some debate arose about 
its title. Mr. Rnndolph su^<;ested that its title 
ought to be " a bill to enable the people of a cer- 
tain portion of the Union to rob and plunder thf 
other as much as they pleased.'''' Such is the o- 
pinion entertained by the Jackson leader in 
Congress, and out of it too, it would seem, of 
this measure. Yet can men of that '■'■portion of 
the Union,''' thus slandered, make of themselves 
toolsfor this man and his southern compeers to 
work witlill — Cin. Gas. 



A NKW HE. 

ThcNcw-YorUJacksonianshavcgol npa new 
lie, on the stale story of the bargain between 
Mr. Adams on one part, and Mr. We. stcr in be- 
half of the Federalists of the other pari. Itw:is 
started at BulTilo and consists of an extract 
from a letter said to have been written by the 
late Richard Stockton of New-Jersey. The ex- 
tract i" as follows : 

" Von inquire of me in relation to the pledge, 
fiven by Mr. Adams, through Mr. Webster, to 
the old federal party. Vn unsophisticated 
young man, like yourself, unused to the chi- 
canery of politics, might woU enough q'loition 



whether a propotitiou of that nature, from aii 
apostate, woulil have bscn accepted, or relied 
ujjyu, by one in my situation ; whom he had a- 
t>iu 'lined, and denounced as plotting treason 
:iLainft the public. Vou do me tuo much tion- 
'•r, however. That pledge icat made and accep- 
ted, and, I icill add, relitd on, too. In truth, we 
never had any laith in the apostacy of .Mr. -Ad- 
ams — liis principles remained unchanged. For 
one, I doubled not thai his altachnieut to the 
men uf our faith remained unshaken, unlil af- 
ter his preference ul a noted deiuocrat for the 
(iifice of <'i-trict i'ldgu was made known. You 
know enough . f Ncw-Jersey, tiowever, to know- 
that the av'pointmeiilof an wM federalist to that 
uliice, would havcbi-cn fatal to his then dubious 
interests here ; and perhaps my friends were ask- 
ing too much, w!.eu Ibey demaniled Ibe fnilil- 
ment of a Vi.luntary pledge. The letter was 
showni me at ISisbaiu's, in Trenton, in presence 
of iMr. Hupkiiisou and one or Iho others. 1 
know Mr. .A.'s hand wri'ing well, anl was per- 
fectly siitisIJed of its being genuine, by its txing 
interlinedbjj him. Ti.e substance of the pledge 
hak b.-en correctly given in the papers. I have 
thus rrinkl\ an.-wert.d, in detail, the qne*;lion3 
yuii Live pro, sunned ; and, whatever inlhiurice 
tlie?e avowal? may Irive upon >our mi'ul, I am 
=Hre of being exonerated by you, of inconsisten- 
cy, in having changed ground.'' 

The late Richard Stockton was an honorable 
man, aiid it is certainly a great reproach upon 
his memory to suppose him the author of so base 
a letter as this. It avows, the reader will perceive, 
the dishonorable conduct of having been party 
to the allege<l bargain with Mr. Adams, and of 
having abandoned him and joined Gen. Jack- 
son, because -Mr. Adam? did not appoint him 
District Judge of .N'ew Jersey, instead of an old 
Democrat of good character. Though this is 
not avowed in terms, the letter cannot be read 
without so interpreting it: and it is tlierefore 
very natural that the friends of -Mr. Stockton 
should wish to rescue his memory from the im- 
putation. The following is copied from the 
Trenton Emporium, a Jackson paper of New- 
Jersey. 

"The followins note, accompanied with the 
name of the author, has been handed to us for 
publication. \Vc have only to remark that wc 
have not seen tlie article alludtil to. — Ed. 

"The extriet of a letter, published by one 
Wood, editor of a oew^paperat Uutfalo, in the 
I State of -New Yi'rk,and by him alleged to have 
J been written hv the lale Mr. Stockton, of Prince- 
' ton, is und.iiihledly a forgery. The friends of 
I the deceaseil hope that the public will not be 
I imposed on by so inf.imnns a proceeding. .Mr. 
I Justice will please to insert thisnnte, written by 
I one who leaves his name, that he may be an- 
swerable for ils contents. 

.J near connexion of tlie deceased.'''' 
I Trenton, April 18, I8i3. 

This lie is started now and going full speed all 
over the union. Like that, about Washington 
appointing Jackson attorney lor Tennessee, 
which it seems originated also in New York, it 
will be repealed and stuck to with determined 
pertinacity.— tfr. 



TliUTll'J!^ ADVOCATE 



AND 



MONTHLY ANTI-JACKSON EXPOSITOR. 



CINCINNATI, OUIO, JUNE, 1828. 



UTERATURE & PniNCIPLES. 

The following letter iVoin General 
.Tackson', was writien in 1812, before 
lie had become a great man, except ii; 
'rcnnessec. It exhibits him a? he realh 
i>, illiterate, vulgar and violent. As a 
piece of composition it would be dis- 
creditable to a school boy of twelve 
■years old. We speak of the ortliogra- 
phy, of the proper points, and of the 
use of capital letters. The grammati- 
cal errors in concord, government, and 
punctuation, cannot be noticed by any 
distinctive mark. The ordinary read- 
er cannot fail to detect many of them, 
as they arc of so gross a character. — 
The spelling is more easily exposed, 
and we have accordingly printed in 
SMALL CAPITALS, the words that are not 
spelt correctly. Our readers are thus 
enabled to decide at a glance upon tliis 
matter. Although the General may 



sary to extend our comments upon a 
document, which, in almost every 
word, speaks so loudly the desperate 
and reckless character of the man who 
wrote it. 

The Honorable 

George W Campbell Esq 

Sir 

You will receive herewith inclosed, 
the certificate of John Gordon and 
Major Thomas G. Bradford editor of 
the Clareon on the Subject of the card 
bearing date September 1 Ith 1 812 pub- 
lished in the Clareon on the 26lh of 
Sept. 1812 from Silas Diusmore united 
States agent to the Chocktaw nation 
being in the proper hand writing of 
the said Silas Dinsmore you will also 
receive enclosed, the paper of the 2Gth. 
Sept. containing the card of Mr. Dins- 
more which I bog you to lay before 



not spell Congress with a K, it will he i the Sf.cratarv of War, as soon as the 
seen he reverses that mode of spelling, j re;ich you, and I beg you to conimuni- 
by spelling Kaskaskia with a C. jcate to me wittiout delay his determi- 

Tlie illiteracy of Gen. Jackson is nation as it rf.spect tiic remov;il of Mr. 



now so fully proven, that the most in 
telligent of his supporters give it up 



Dinsmore. When I rf.cd your letter 
of the 10th of April last inclosing me 



But by way of apology, they have tlis-'an extract of the Sf.cratary of ^Vars 
covered that the great Duke of Marl- 1 letter to Silas Dinsmore agent to the 



borough, who foiled and so often de- 
feated the armies of Lous the XIV, 
could not spell, consequently they 
seem to infer that ignorance is proof 



Chocktaw nation, I. nor the citizens of 
West Tennessee, hesitated not, to be- 
lieve that Silas Dinsmore would cease 
to exercise over our citizens such law- 



of greatness. So much for that. It {less tyranny as he had been in the hab- 
comes however, from Virginia. But litof, and tliat our peacefull and hon- 
wc jiresume it will hardly be swallow- 1 est citizen* would be left to enjoy the 
ed by the people of the free states, j free and unmolested use of that road 
who have taken so much pains, and as secured to them by treaty — you can 
spent so much money to diffuse inform-! easily Judge and so can the [Secre]- 
ation by establishing a system of free Itary of War, our surprise and indigna- 
schools. The principles'of this letter ition, at the wan[lon iiijsult offered to 
are as wicked as its composition is! the whole citizens of West Tennessee 
wretched. It threatens murder and by the publication of his card in the 
ar-on with as little ceremony as if they iClarion — in which he boasts — that he 
W( TC mere ordinarv events. He would !has set at defiance the Solfm treaty that 
"/(i-.o/re Silris Din'smor' in thfjlamca f/j secures to our citizens and those of the 
hif own nfrency hmisc."' This would be United States the free and unmolested 
taking the law in his own hands with | use of that road as well as the express 
1 vengeance, fnitwe hold it unneres-l inptriicHon= of the SEcnATAnv of Wttt 

V 



HKi 



LrlTEK.l'rURE AND PRINCIPLES. 



of the 23rd of March last, acid boast 
liis detention of ;i defenceless woin^nii 
;uid her property — and for irliiil ! the 
waiit ofa passport — /"and mij go(l\ is it 
come to tlii:- — are yfcfrte men or arc a- 
Slaves is ihis real or is it a dream — lor 
what are we involved in a War with 
great Brituiti — is it not for the Support 
of our ri};hts a? an independant pcc;ple 
and a nation, Secured to us by nature 
and natures god as well as Sollm 
treaties and the law of nations — arid 
can the Secrat\rv of war, for one mo- 
ment retain the idea, that we will |)er- 
mit this petty Tyrant to Sport with our 
riglits secured to us by treaty and 
wliicli by the law of nature we do pos- 
sess — and Sport witli our feelings by 
publishing his Inwkss lyranny exercised 
over a helpless and unproleeted female — 
if he does he thinks too meanly of our 
Patriotism and galaxtry — were w<» 
base A\ouGH to Surrender our indepen- 
dant rights Secured tons bv the brave- 
ry and blood of our lore fathers, we arc 
unworthy the name o( freemen — and wc 
view all rights Secured to us by Solem 
treaty, under the constituted autiiority, 
rights Secured to us by the blood of 
oar fathers and which we will never 
vield but with our live.-, — Tiie iiidigna- 
tioiiof our Citizens are only restrained 
by assurances lljat gove"nincnt so Soon 
as they arc notified of tnis utiwarraiita- 
Lle insult, added to the many injuries 
that Silas Dinsmore has h'.-aped upon 
our lioncsi and unofevdixg Cifiz.'iis, 
that he will be removed — Should we 
he docieved in this, he fran/c with the 
SiXRATARV of war that we are free 
men, and that v.e will Sui'Ort the su- 
premacy of the laws, and that the 
wrath and indignation of our ciiiizens 
will swELi'K from the earth the inva- 
der of their b'gal rights and involve 
Silas Din'imore in the ihuiios of his a- 
geiii-y house — we love order, and noth- 
ing but a SupoRT of our legal and ina- 
lienable rights would or could prompt 
us to an act, that could be construed a^^ 
wearing the ajipearancc of rashness — 
nut Siiould not the Source of tiie evil 
be removed, our. rights secured i)V 
tr('a[ty ristjored to our citizens — the 
agent, and bis houses will [bej demol- 
isiied — and when government is ap- 
plied to- and 60 oftcu notified of the iii- 



I juries heaped upon our Citizens and 
;hcy will adhere to the agent who de- 
Ights in treading under loot the rights 
'ol the Citizens, and exults in their dis- 
I tres.-es — the evil be upon the goveru- 
inent not upon the people who l.ave So 
lofien complained without redress — we 
nally hope tliat tiie evil will be cut otT 
I by the root, by a removal of the agent, 
I should this not be done v.e will have a 
right faiilv to conclude that the admin- 
j istration wiidis at tiie agents conduct 
under the rose, iiotwithstanding the iii- 
. structions of the Secratary in his Ict- 
' ter to Mr. Diismore of the 33id of 
'march — the right of nature occurs — 
and if redress is not afforded. I would 
, despise the wretch that Slumber ia 
i QUt-T one night before he ruTT up bj 
, the roots the invader of his Solem rights, 
reguardless of consequences — let not 
j the Secratarv of AVar believe that we 
want more than Justice, but both .Vom 
iDiA.vs and indiaii ngents, we will enjoy 
tlie rights secured to us Solem treaty 
orwe'nill die nobly in their Support, 
we want but a bare fulfilment of the 
treaty — we neither under Stand the 
Tyranny of the agent in open violation 
of our rights Secured to us by treaty 
— or the Creek law, that takes fronj 
the United States the right guaran- 
tied by treaty that the ii;dians who 
commit murders on oar Ci'izens, shall 
be delivered up when demanded, to 
I be tried by the laws of the united 
! States & punished — the Creek luzv so^j 
! the Creeks xcill punish thenu, ihemsehes — 
These innovation without the consent 
of the constituted power of the gov- 
jernment being tirst had our citizens do 
not understand, the information of 
Colo Hawkins U. S. agent for the 
Creeks and the information of Genl 
James Robinson agent of the Chick 
asaw Nation, to the contrary notwiih- 
I standing neithei can we the citizens of 
I Tennessee believe without better 
raooPF that the hair of the head of 
one of the nuirderere of Maniocs I'lm- 
ily and Crawleys at the mouth of 
Duck river are disturbed by the creeks, 
when we have proof that they lately 
jiassed near to Caskaskia fifteen in 
number to Join the Prophet — In this 
parlicluar we want and do expect the 
murderers delivered up acrkeable ta 



IITTIR ITtBE A rniKTCIPtES. GEN. JACKSON & COt BlfKR. 



203 



leagues or tools of Burr, also excited 
some surprise, and when, in 1817, he 
provoked tlici'olJDwing retort from Gen. 
Adair,meiiof caiidorcouKl notbut recoi- 
led and admil liicrc \va< Mimetliinc of 
suspicion attached to him in that busi- 
ness, 

"Extract of a letter wiitten by Gen. 
Adair of Kentucky, to Gen. Jackson, 
1817. 

''Wliatever were the intentions of 

Col. Burr, I neither organized troops, 

nor did I superintend ilie building of 

,.,.,,. . boats for him; nor did 1 write confi- 

Uvo Subjects that has for some tm.e ^j^,,,^;.,, ^^.^^^.^^ rerom.nendiMg him to 

my tViends; nor did I think it necessa- 



treaty — this is only Justice this we ask 
of Government — this we are entitled 
to, and this we must (Sooner or later) 
and will have — This may be thought 
strong lar.guage — Init it is the lan- 
guage that freemen when the are only 
claiming a fulrilment of their right> 
ought to use — it is a language that 
TUF. ought to be tought to lisp from 
(iieir CREDLES — and never when they 
•ire claiming rights of any nation ever 

to abandon 

Pardon tile trouble I have given you 
in this long letter — it relates to tlie 



luiTATED the publick mind, and is now 

readv to burst Ibrth in vrxcENCE — I 

am Dr sir with due regard 

Yr mo ol) sent 

^Signed) AiNDREW JACKSON. 



JACKSON AND Btnn. 

During the late Presidential canvass 
1 suggestion was made that General 
Jackson had been engaged with Col. 
Burr, in his conspiracy, whatever it 
was, against the uiiioii or against Mexi- 
co. At that time very little was known 
of General Jackson, especially of 
his history before the commencement 
of his career, in tlio late war. The 
public were unwilling to listen to anv 
suggestion of this nature against him. 
But the events that have since trans- 
pired and the developemcnts which 
have taken place of previous transac- 
tions have produced great changes of 
opinion as to the character of General 
Jackson. 

One of the first circumstances tliat 
excited surprise was the f ict that Gen- 
eral Jackson should be upon terms of 
intimacy with Samuel Swartwout, who 
was notoriously one of Burr's agents 
and instruments. It was to this per- 
sonage th;il Gen. Jackson poured out 
his complaints, as to a bosom friend, 
upon the subject of being disappoint- 
ed in obtaining tiie Presidencv. This 
naturally excited remark,forMr. Swart- 
wout had not been in very favorable 
odour, with the public, from the day of 
his discharge from an arcu-ation of 
high treason. The assimilation of 
General Jackson, with many of the col- 



ry, after his followers were universally 
known, tornisf myxrlfhy lurning'ivSorm- 
cr or slate witness." 

The accusations here conveved are 
too obvious to be mistaken. Tiscy a- 
mount in terms to the charge of build- 
ing boats, organizing troops, and wri- 
ting contidential letters recommending 
him. These charges our readers must 
remember are made by Gov. Adair. 
Tliey are corroliorated by various 
pieces of evidence vviiich we shall here 
publish. We give first an exti-aclofa 
letter recently received in this city, in 
which names are mentioned with so 
mucli confidence as give strong indica- 
tion of truth. It is as follows: 

"The following is a charge made by 
bv Judge AViltiants, oneof the (Jircuit 
Judges of this state, of undisputed ver- 
acitv; viz: OCr THAT GENERAL 
JACKSON WAS ENGAGED IN 
BURR'S CONSPIRACY, & THAT 
HE OFFERED HIM (V\illiams) 
THE POST OF CAPTAIN IN 
BURR'S AR.MY, and said, I will live 

OR DIE KV THAT.'' 

"The rumor reached Virginia and 
has created strong excitemf^nt with the 
friends of the General. Mr. Donald- 
son, his lackev, passed through Cai<- 
tliage o:i his way to Judge AVilliams' 
Circuit, to get him to contrarlict tiie re- 
port, but failed as it was whispered on 
ids return." If in these surmises and 
extracts we have done General Jack- 
son injustice, '-the gentleman can ex- 
plain.''' 

The fact that Colonel Burr was on 
terms of intimacy with General Jack- 



^ot 



GKN. JACKSO.N AND tUL. BUiCK. 



son is proven by reference to an ex-j let his conduct in Richmond show, 
tract from :i Nashville paper pulilisli-i where, during Burr's iria!. every body 



ed at the time, stating that Burr wa;; 
on a visit at the Hermilage, afier sus- 
picion had been scattered far and wide 
against him. We give this extract aisn 
as recently publi^llc•d with comments in 
a Staunton paper. 



knows the elfort Jaclcsoii made to 
shield him from cojiviction, and throw 
^11 tiie guilt from tiie shouldei-s of Burr, 
on those of General Wilkinson. 

These things arc suspicious at least. 
Let the people look to it. 

CIVIS. 



The correctness of the extract is in- 
disputable, because it purports to be 
copied from the Richmond Enquirer, 
which would ti</iD be ready enough to 
correct its (alsehood, could it do so. 

On the nth of December. 1306. 



From the Stattnton Speelalor. 
t;E.\. JACKSOX i COL. AARON BURR. 

Every body has hcaidof Col. Aaron 
Barr, the daring conspirator who once 
.-limed at the subversion of our repub- 
lic. Every one knows that he was 
guilty of tl'.e charges alleged against 
him by 'lis country. But everv bodv <^«Pt»'" ^^""^5 Read, wrote a letter 
docs not know that General Jack=-on,Mroni Pittsburgh to the Secretary of 
whom hispartizansare now endeavor- "''»'■• '^''f'.' ""P'"^''''"'g Gen. Jackson, 
ingtoscat in the Presidential chair. P*^*-^ following extracts are from this 
was, while that conspiracy was carrjing ! 'ctter. 

on, the friend and associate ol Burr. I "Although it maybe impossible for 
Tliat while all good and true patriots me to produce evidence of any one of 
were in a state of alarm for the safety ; the following circumstance: yell de- 
of their government — while every ef-|clare to you upon my honor, that I am 
fort was making to apprehend the trai-jmost finnly persuaded of the truth of 
tor and briiighim to merited justice, he i them." 

was softly reposing under the shades of' "'The associates of Burr are from 
the Hermilasje. enjoying the friendship jdiirercnt parts of the Union, ryumy of 
and ho-|)itality of our would-be presi-j/Afm zcealthu and ciiUrpmiug njoi, and 
dent. 'J'he following extract from (he his friends arc incalculable. Generals 



Tennessee Gazette, taken (herefrom 
into the Richmond Enquirer of the 'JOth 
January, 1807, a paper published then, 
as now by Thomas Ritchie, will sen'c 



Dayton and JACKSON of Tennessee 
and or.c other person not named to me, 
arc said to be his chief officers; and 
Daniel Clark, of New Orleans, a Mr. 



to demonst!at(! as well the relation in I Bleiihcrhasset of 0!)io. and a Mr. Al- 



which he stood lotjeneral Jackson: as 
the relation in which he stood to the 
country. 

"Col. Burr arrived on Sunday even- 
ing last, at General Jackson's about 
9 miles from tins town; and has been i 
in this place several times this week. 
He appears to be preparing for some 
movement, we know not where. — 
Should he attempt a-iy hostile move- 
ments we will make it knowe."' 

Thus it seems that wliile Col. Burr, 
'•appeared preparing for some move- 
ment," and while the |)eople of Ten- 
nessee were every day expecling him 
to attemi)t sonic ''hostile movements,'" 
he makes General Jackson's house hi* 
stopping place, and tlience visits Nash- 
ville. Was Jackson a partner in Burr's 
conspiracy? We do not sav that. — 
But that he was a friend to the traitor. 



ston Ills son-in-law, all men of wealth, 
.ire among his bankei-s. The states of 
Kentucky and Tennessee are entirely 
devoted to Colonel Burr, and from 
these stales he will acquire considera- 
ble bodies of troops to he headed h\ 
Gen. JACKSt'JN, of the latter, who iiu 
doubt before this has marched with a 
body of militia under the pretence of 
co-operating with General Wilkinson 
against the Spaniards on the Sabine. 

*'At Natchez they join Col. Burr, 
who will, either then, or at some other 
point on the !\lississip|)i, raise hisst and- 
ard .ind proclaim his intentions, if he 
has friends about him. They then de- 
scend the river to New Orleans, where 
Colo'icl Burr will be joined by Colonel 
Swartwout." 

The facts asserted hy (hose various 
pieces of testimony deduced iVom dif 



i;KN. JACKSON AND COL. BITRR. -JACKSON .VND LIVINGSTON. 205 



ferent witnesses, in very distant parts 
of the country, and at ditfiM-cnt periods 
of time, are certain)}- of no light or 
trivail character. They affix strong 
suspicion on tlic General, and certainly 
require explanation. The (|Uostioii 
may be asked why was !iot General 
Jarkson implicated at the time, aiid 
j)roc(?edi'd against by the Government ? 
Ge!i. Adair gives the answer. He 
turned "informer or State untness.'^ — 
He saved himself as Wilkinson did. 
But remembers still his old asociates, 
in that "high emprise," with afti'ction- 
atc regard. Hence his intimacy with 
one of its principal agents, Samuel 
Swartwout, Esq. And hence the sym- 
pathy for him, felt by so many of the 
ardent spirits, who iti that day, as in 
thi-, were disgusted with ihc" /nil pur- 
stiils of ckil lifc.^' This is a case that 
calls loudly for the intervention of the 
white-washing committee, of Nashville, 
who, ^vhen they cannot prove a fact by 
witnesses, can certify it themselves. 
The public will form their own opinion 
of the evidence here submitted; and 
determine what must be 'he inference 
should it be passed over in silence. 
As ihithful chroniclers of the deeds of 
General Jackson we have collected 
and presented the facts, just as we have 
found them in print: To us they pre- 
sent a case of strong, and as we think, 
well grounded suspicion. 



JACKSON & LIVINGSTON. 

[Thn letter adilresscd to Ednaid Livingston, 
■which is inserted at length in this number of 
the Expositor, is a documcMt of more than 
ordinary interest. It supplies a key to much 
that lias heretofore appeared ainhiixnous in the 
chaiacter of Geniral Jackson. We learn from 
it, not only that .Mr. Livingston was the writer 
of Geu. Jackson's despatches, orders, and de- 
fences, but that Mr. Livingston was also his 
military and civil adviser. The violences of 
Gen. Jackson are traced to the antipathies of 
Mr Livingston, and the characters of those 
who were the Geni-ral's applauder5,arc fully de- 
picted. The whole bears intrinsic evidence of 
the truth. The reader will p<rceive. by an at- 
tentive perusal of it, how entirely Gen. Jack- 
son's character has been misconceived. In- 
stead of a man reposing upon himself and con- 
fiding in his own powers, he appears a mere in- 
strument in the hands of an artful and skilful 
manager, who can make him say and do, 
whatever interest or revenje may dictate. We 
especially request our readors to note the na- 
ture of the effiploymeots of Lalitte and hie 



band of piratical aesnciatcg. Their absence 
would seem to account lot the failure of at- 
tention to the General at his recent visit to 
New Orleans. What asso'-iales! what follow- 
ers for a President of the United States I] 

LETTIiR TO 
EDW.VRD LIVINGSTON, ESQ. 

Sir, — There are professions ar.d vo^ 
cations in lilc which indispensably re- 
quire the aid of certain essential qual- 
ities, and without which their follow- 
ers never would find out the avenues 
to even temporary succe^s, much less 
ensure that species of it which is the 
landmark of their amtiilion. The 
pickpocket who would fail of dexter- 
ity, the soldier who is deficient in 
courage and intrepidity, and t^ie poli- 
tical aspirant who attempts to carry 
his schemes into execution, unaided 
by a!)ilities of the very first order, 
must sooner or later sink into nothing- 
ness. Insignificance, if not oblivion, 
or the contempt of their contempo- 
raries and rivals on the road to pre- 
feimcrrt, is their inevitable lot. If the 
profession of the law has ever exposed 
its practitioners to the iniputation of 
sligiit of hand tricks, the charge of a 
want of dexterity cannot, assuredl}", 
be laid at your door; and as volun- 
teer aid to Gen. Jackson, during the 
invasion, you have yourself, (the most 
expert penman among his satellites, 
and the usu;il writer of those official 
despatches for which lie gained so 
large a share of credit) taken good 
care to place your short-lived carecf 
as a soldier on record, and at consid- 
erable distance from the suspicion of 
cowardice, by making the old General 
thank his \oluntecr aids for the display 
of 'Hheircool bravery and intrepidity." 
Without, however, pretending to scru- 
tinize your claims to distinction on 
these two scores, it is impossible to 
overlook the richness of those acquire- 
m«^nfs, the splendor of those talents, 
which, as an orator and as a writer, a 
pleader and a juris-consult, have ever 
entitled you to that peculiar admira- 
tion, which, in the ordinary phraseolo- 
gy of the day, would have been called 
boundless, had not the abuse of those 
shining qualities, and their misapplica- 
tion to purposes of political prostitu- 
tion, marked its limits. 



200 



JtAUKSO.N' Ji^D hlVVmSTOS. 



The good and bad folks of Louisiana, i 

whom you are so well pleased to call 
your constituents, can have had no 
dirticulty in discovering a fresh in- 
stance of your extniordinarv endow- 1 
ments, and of tlie still more cxtraordi-l 
nary depravity of taste, of judgment,! 
nay,of principle, that has ever directed ' 
their combmed exercise, in the speech] 
held by you at Washington, at the cele- ■ 
bration of the " glorious 8th of Jan- ! 
nary."' This speech, by no means one] 
of the weakest links of t!)at long chain 
of political deception and intrigue, the 
forgery of which commenced in your 
hands, has been circulated in the Un- 
ion, by the Gcncrars partizans, with 
great industry; and even the respecta- 
ble and highly gifted editor of the >Ja- 
tional Gazt-ttc, in selecting the great- 
er part for the last page of his No. 
1065, (22d January) suffers himself to 
be betrayed into an allusion to the his- 
torical importance of your testimony, 
merely because you were an eye-wit- 1 
ness of what you have related. It is j 
time to arrest tlie progress of so pal- 1 
pablc an error. If to the brilliancy of i 
your eloquence, to the (luencv, polish, j 
and refinement of your language, to i 
the pithy preciscness of your narrative, i 
the praise of historical accuracy, of un- 
questionable veracity, could be added, [ 
then indeed, would the speech deliver- 1 
ed by you on the 8th of Januaay, pos- ] 
sess historical importance. But altho" j 
the consummate artifice and skill ; 
which lies at llie bottom of this speci- ] 
men of your oratory, may escape the ' 
eye of ordinary scrutiny, it cannot fail' 
to strike one, who like myself, has been 
for nearly twenty-five years a dispas- 
sionate, an unbiassed, and an unsus- 
pected observer of your private, pub- 
lic, and political llounderings. In the 
trancjuility of agricultural pursuits, in 
the indulgence ot the utmost indilVer- 
cnce towards the petty political squab- 1 
bles and party intcigues of this section 
of the Union, (in which, by the bye, i 
you have never fiiilcd to take an ac- 1 
tive and conspicuous part whenever ' 
you had a chance of doing so) and in ' 
the retirement of the clo>et, the eye of | 
constant, acute observation was not 
shut — F have followed you through all 
the sinuosities and ramilicatione of 



your political ■wanderings with att' . 
tion, with interest — with increasi' . 
admiration at everv fresh display 
your talents, and with increasing r 
iiret at every additional prostitutji 
and departure from the path of rei 
tude. I am able, I am willing, 1 :. 
bound to tell the truth. 1, too, 'h;n ( 
been an eye-witness of all, of much 
more than you have, than you could 
have related from personal experience 
and obsenation; and I owe it to the 
land of my nativity, to the country in 
which I did not to be sure, receive my 
education, but in which my most im- 
poitant interests arc at stake, to tear 
the veil from that deep laid plot, 
wliich as 1 have said before, oriajinaled 
entirely with yourself — the plot to 
raise Gen. Jackson to tlic Presidency. 

The consummate artifice and skill 
which lies at the bottom of your ora- 
torical display on the 8lh of January, 
might be matter of easy di>rovery 
where you are known, sufliciently 
known to be understood. But not on 
all occa-ions did you wear that holi- 
day garb, in which you are wont to 
appear at Washington, and which, un- 
til your great object, the elevation of 
Gen. Jack-on to the presidency, is at- ' 
laiiied. you will continue to wear. 
"Dans les grandes c'loses (says that 
profound observer of human nature, 
Cbampfbrt) les hommes sc montrent 
commc il leurconvient de se montrer; 
dans les petiles, ils se montreat comme '. 
ilssont."' This applies no less to your- 
self than with greater force still to 
your idiil. All the |)ufrs and f ilsehoods 
of party and partizans notwilhstandi. g, 
there remained with the reflecting, so- 
ber minded part of the great American 
community, a deep impression, .an in- 
ternal conviction that, setting intre- 
pidity aside, all the other qualities of a 
great, of a high-miMded man, had been 
denied to General Jackson. This you 
seem to have felt — this was the blank 
that required Idling up. Vet the best 
of declamations, the highest colouring 
of eloquence will not give a man that 
which he does not possess. What ox- 
(raordinarv quality of the head and ot* 
the heart did this bu<h-figliting, butch- 
ering Indian warrior evince previous 
to the defence of Ncw-Oi loans ? Yon 



JACKSOJf AND IJVINOSTOJf. 



207 



have not even attempted to cite one 
solitary instai ce ol the kind, although 
more than twelve lus^trcs liad passed 
over the Gen<»rdrs head when he ap- 
peared in tliat city. Have all those 
great and distinguishing qualities 
which you have patched together in 
jour speech "prudence, humanity, 
creative genius, wisdom, courtesy, 
sheerful submission to the laws,"' &.C. 
been lying dormant; was there no 
symptflm of the existence of any of 
them, during so long a period? No, 
sir! there was not. But. were your 
account, yuur testimony entitled to 



long remain in the path which histor- 
ical truth would hid you follow; the 
moment you attempt to raise the mer- 
its of your idol, you deceive your hear- 
ers, for it is impossible to think tiial 
you could have deceived yourself. — 
Not you, indeed, to whom a great part 
of the credit of the defence of New- 
Orleans is due. From what I have 
stated already, you cannot suspect the 
sincerity of the declaration, that if 
Gen. Jackson was entitled to the praise 
of boldness and intrepidity, every sub- 
•^equentstep, which had the stamp of de- 
liberation, of reflection, of calculation, 



faith, the conclusion would be inevita- 1 was your own, wholly and exclusively 
bh>, that they had shown Ibrlh all ofa|yourown. It was you. sir, who made the 
sudden, in an ctfulgence of glory, dur-Gen'l. familiar with Ihe motley mixture, 
ing the defence of New-Orleans — i which is called the population of Lou- 
ueithcr before nor after. Every in-|isiana; nor have I forgotten, although 
jtancc of prudence, of humanity, ofj others may, that Gen. Jackson's lirst 
creative genius, and of courtesy, which' and leading measures were adopted on 
you relate, is taken from that short the strength of your advice. The two- 
period of the General's life, and fromj fold motive of crushing your old an- 
no other; and this is done in the true tagonist (Governor Claiborne) and bit 
style of an able pleader, to complete p^'rty, and the far nobler one of dis- 
the parallel between Gen. Jackson's; charging the duties of a friend to his 



electioneering days, and the times 
when the immortal author of the Dec- 
laration of American Independence 
was raised to the presidential chair — 
two men, who have not one single 
point of affinity between them. 

One part of your eloquent discourse, 



country (whicli your aberrancies not- 
withstanding, I sincerely believe you 
to be) equally influenced your coun- 
sels. I am, as you perceive, not dis- 
posed to withold from you this passing 
tribute of justice, and the impartiality 
which it bespeaks, will I trust, offer 



and the only one, is entitled to the | the best justification of the necessity, 
praise of the' utmost historical correct- j •''nd the best apology for the severity 
ness — it is the account which you give of my censure of }our polilical frauds 



of the state of our defence at the time 
of the appearance of the British squad- 
ron in our waters. But that it is not 
easy to recognize, in certain expres- 
sions, the writer of the General's offi- 
cial de>patches, you will not deny; 
and the very allusion to national pre- 
judices, which, among the sundry in- 
habitants of this country, of different 
nations and origin, "were converted 



and artifices. That the 1500 men — 
the only disposable force of the coun- 
try — who hastened to meet the enemy, 
on the 23d of December, 1814. march- 
ed gaily and cheerfully to the rencon- 
tre, is true; but it is not true, that they 
had "a perfect knowledge that they 
were about to attack in tl»e field three 
times their numbers." — five hundred 
men had been seen about Villere's 



into the nobh-st emulation,'' is only a plantation — this is all that was known 
repetition of the production of your ''nd said on the subject. And when 
own pen in Gen. Jackson's general ad- vou «ay : "that none but such a lead- 
dress to the army on the ::ist of Jan- er couid have planned such an attack,'' 
uary, 1815.* You cannot, however, you seem to ibrget (and indeed you 

onlj seem, for you well knew to the 



• Thpse are llic words ; "Natives of variou* 
oountrics, for the Cr-t time uiiiti-d in one ami 
the same cunip, as different from each other ir 
Habite a^ in lauguage, tkc«e very cir^amUia- 



ece which seemed to contain the ^ccds of dii- 
I rust and divi-ion, only became the source o.< 
tlic noblest emulatiun.'' 



L 



aoa 



JACKSON AND LIVrVtiSTOK. 



contrary) that there existed no other! 
plan than to meet the enemy, a'nd ; 
figlii. Here is Gcii. Jackson's princi-] 
pal — here is his only merit. He was ' 
honest in his determination; he was 
sincere in his wish — it was iiis hohby 
to fight, at any price, at any hazard. 
And this as you triilv say, decided the 
fate of the campaign — 'Mt tauglit the 
enemy to respect our courage; it led | 
liini to overrate our numbers, and i 
made iiim wait."' Tlius far I agree] 
with you. But tl)e judicious choice ! 
of the position after th(; attack, was 
not tiic General's choice. His inten- 
tion, well known in tlic httle band un-| 
der his conimand, was to renew tiie 
•ittack after the dawn of day; and not 
until he learned that two thousand 
men more had landed from the British 
fleet; not until you had pres.-cd upon 
him the cxpcdieiicy of sending fori 
Maj. St. Genic, an experienced French ! 
odicer, who comniand,cd (he second 
company, the dismciuntcd dragoons in 
Plauche's battalion; not until he had 
cautioned the General against the risk ] 
of being surrounded by ;i force treble] 
in numbers, did you succeed in pre-; 
vailing upon him to retreat before day- j 
light, and to take up the subsequent i 
position, which Maj. St. Gcme had 
pointed out, in accordance with the i 
opinion of Gen. Moreau, v.ho a few 
years before, had visited and surveyed i 
the country, and whose experienced j 
eye had pitched upon it, as the one af- 
fording the greatest facilities for de-| 
fence, being little more than half n. 
mile in breadth, bordered upon oncj 
side by an impenetrable wood, on the 
other i)y _ tiie river. Here again was! 
your advice of infuiitc value to thC' 
country; and althougli yon have sac-! 
rificed on the altar of your idol, every j 
personal credit which you could have, 
claimed on the occa-ion. it is not the| 
Jess due to you. But iierc. too. I must; 
take leave of every sliareof credit that i 
should l)elong to jou. I 

To use again your own words: — ! 
"Let us examine what followed."; 
Yes, let us examine those acts, in which | 
you think the General evinced all 
those great qualities, for which it is 
impossible to lind in his own history, 
before and atlcr the defence of New-' 



Odcans, eitlier precedent or parallel; 
and whilst we proceed to this exami- 
nation, do not let us overlook that 
empty oratorical flourish, that at the 
very moment you were on your legs — 
to use the fashionable parliamei.tary 
language, "a scene was exhibiting at 
New-Orleans, which coald have done 
honor lo the classic days of Greece."' 
What, the intoxication of hall a dozrn 
militia oflicers, the shouting of a negro 
rabble, the hollow verbosit}' of your 
brotlier-iii-law,.Mr.Davez;iC,thespeech- 
yfying attempts of the illiterate Marig- 
ny, done honor to the classic days of 
Greece? The declaration of manial 
law at New-Orleans, shortly after the 
Generafs arrival, in 1814, was a most 
salutary, a saving measure in a commu- 
nity made up of so many heterogene- 
ous material-, as liie New-Orleans com- 
munity was at tliat period, and wiih 
-ome modllications for the better, is 
still. The knowledge of the adoption 
of such a measure alone, was suflicient 
— it acted upon the timid, it gave con- 
fidence to the courageous, and unity to 
tiic military measures whicli were a- 
doptcd, and in wliicli the civd aulliori- 
ties heartily concurred. Let it be re- 
membered, that there was not a sinule 
occurrence which rendered its exer- 
cise necessary ; the good sense of the 
better portion of the community ga\c 
an example to the rest; and every body 
felt, that Zf^al and alacrity in the de- 
fence of the country, were its only -al- 
valion. Tiic end whicli the General 
had in view, and in the attainment of 
which everv body lent a helping hand, 
had been arcomplislicd; the remnant 
of the British force had been embark- 
ed, and the Gcncrars ollicial despatch- 
es to government, contained ttiosc 
memorable words: "In my opinion, 
there is but little doubt (hat the ene- 
my's last exer(io!is have been made in 
this quarter, at any i^te for (he present 
season." Tlie Bri(isl, haxing carried 
away some slaves fron> the few planta- 
tions upon which tliey had been en- 
camped, you were sent by Gen. .lack- 
son to visit your old friend Admiral 
Cochrane, in company with Mr. R. D. 
Sju'pherd and Mr. M. Wiiite. to make 
an attempt at redeeming them; and on 
your return from this visit to the Bri! 



JACKSON AND LIVINGSTON. 



209 



liih fleet, you brouglittlicdlUci.il account | and actually French subjects, and had 

not taken the oath of allegiance to the 
United States; whereby (hey would, 
It was generally understood, become 
exonerated tVotn the jien'ormance of 
militia duty. The French Consul, re- 
lying upon the GeneraTs permission, 
obejed his instructions; but the Gen- 
eral, declaring that he had not, to be 
sure, objected to the issuing of those 
ceriiticates, but that he had not 
pledged himself to respect them, disre- 
garded the enoouragem<;nt which he 
had given; and now the -'cloven foot** 
began to be exhibited — the arrests com- 
menced. Mr. Louaillier, a member of 
the Legislature, was arrested on the 
5th of March (fully three weeks after 
the General knew of the signing of the 



of the signint; of the Ghent treaty, 
fihicli Admiral Co( hrane liad put into 
your hands. Messrs. Shepherd and 
tVhite were not restrained from telhng 
this piece of intelligence, but nolhing 
authentic could be known from Head- 
quarters — tlic General's aulic council 
sat in conclave, and with him, as 
well as witii his volunteer-aids, the 
leading sentiment was regret at the 
necessity of relinquishing so soon, '>the 
little brief authority"' which had been 
assumed. (2) 

It was now that the citizens of New- 
Orleans were told that the ivhok town 
formed a part of the General's camp, 
and that they were to feel the severity 
of martial law. On the 21st of Janu- 



ary, the encampment below the city, Ghent treaty) for complaining of the 
which had been so emphatically called I General's treatment to the French sub-» 
"Jackson Linos," was abandoned. — jects: Judge Dom. A. Hall was ar- 
The troops actually engaged in the ' rested for issuing a writ of habeas 
delence of that position, were march- 1 fo;]p!<s for Louaillier; the District 
ed into town — the reg ilar troops into i Attorney, Mr. Johti Dirk, was ar- 
the barracks — and a part of the un-i rested for having applied to Judge 
disciplined militia of the city (the 1 Lewis for a writ forjudge Hall; tlie 



regiments of Colonel Dcjan rt nl.) be- 
cause they had, together with some 
drafted militia from Kentucky and 
Louisiana, run away on the 8th, from 
tlie unfinished breastwork on the right 
bank of the river, when turned by the 
British infantry, were to be punished 



French Consul was exiled from the 
city, with a number of refractory 
Frenchmen as they were called, and a 
Mr. Hollander, a respectable peace- 
able inhabitant, was arrested for the 
simple obscrv;ition, which happened to 
escape him at one of tlie corners of the 



for their cowardice, by an order to j streets before some busy friends of the 
march into and watch the old encamp- General's, that the encouragement 
ment on (he left, after the General ■ given by the General to the French 
had bimsell'declared "that the enemy's I Consul to issut; cerlilicales, with the 
last exertions had been made in tliat secret motive of learning tlie names of 
quarter." A great part of these militia- 1 the applicants, was "a dirty tric'<''! 
men were shop-keepers and mechanics, | This was inirnediatelv reported at 



whose families were dej)e:ident upon 
the yieldings o: their induslrv and 
manual labour — manv of (hem French 



Head-quarters — Hollander was arrest- 
ed upon a charge of " disrespect to his 
superior officer, with an avowed ob- 



subjects, and not naturalised in this ject to excite mutiny in the camp," 
state — tiiey felt the hardsiiip of their 'and only released upon signing a bond 
situation — they applied to the Fiench j t'oi one (Iniusand dollar>, that he would 
Consul for relief, and (he French a!)ide by tlie result of his trial before 
Consul promi^ed it, after having made; a Court-Martial. Tiic bond was 
the General acquainted with the in- 1 drawn up by yavrsc/f, Sir, in j/oiir ovn 
structions which he had received (mm ihund-HTUiiij^, the very morning of Hol- 
tlie Frcncli Minister at Washington, ' lander's arrest; and notwilhstanding all 
and obtained his permission to issue | this, the same individual was arrested 

a second time, on the s^ime day. w'liilst 

at dinner, by Major Augustus Davezac, 

your brotlicr-m-law, a volunteer Aid of 

I the Grueral's like yourself, sl-nUti-ng 



certificates to those amongst them 
who could prove themselves virtually 

(2) Sen \onemnT. No. J. 



210 



JACKSON AHD LIVINGSTON. 



with his cpauletsbefore a file of soldiers, 
because it had been reported sit Head- 
quarters, that an application had been 
made iora writ o( habeas orpus. The 
trial actually coinnicnced before a 
Courl-Martial, Major Davezac con- 
ducting the proceedings as Judi;e-ad- 
vocate; and when the news of peace, 
and its ratification, arrived from 
Washington, Hollander as well as 
other "military olTenders of the same 
sort, were graciously pardon'.'d."' This 
fact may artord some elucidation of 
your comment, that not a single punish- 
ment was inflicted for a military ollcnce 
during the campaign. And now. Sir. 



the younger Lafitte, likewise a nolon- 
oils pirate/ — When both of you were 
the never-tailing source of relief to the 
Domini>iues, the Beluches, the Ganibas, 
the Lafittes, and the rest of the pirati- 
cal crew? Have you forgotten, that 
at the very time of General Jacksone 
arrival in this country, in December, 
1814, Dominique Von, the pirate, now 
one of the Cunimittcc of Vigilance of 
tixe General's Iriends, was in jail upon 
a charge of piracy ? That you were 
employed, upon conditions not general- 
ly known, but fairly guessed at, to re- 
lieve him and the partner of his toihs 
and of his profits, (the very Major 



was it by means like these that the ! St. Geme, commander of the dismounl- 
country was saved ? Was it by acts of ', ed dragoons in Plauchc's buttallion, 
this description, hy such wanton ag- 1 whose able roun-cl you advised the 
gression, that the '-spirit of the law was ' old General to follow) from the inevita- 
preservcd," as you have the hardihood 1 ble infamy that awaited them! Here 
to assert? (3) Another still more im-jWas the opportunity to indulge your 
portant fact deserves to be generally I charitable dispositioa; to render 

known, for amongst all the misropre- | " Some gracious service imexpre5>.'i! 

sentations of which your speech | "Ami from itsVige* only to be guc^AI,- 
abounds, it is the grossest. 1 allude. and to do also some ser\ice to the 
to your account of the GeneiaPs ap-i country. It is a deception to say, that 
pearance before Judge Hall, to an-' these pirates would have had it in their 
swer for his contempt of the laws. You ' power to assist the invasion of the 
speak of the silence which he imposed British. But that they were usefully 
on "the murmurs of an indi^^nanl audi- 1 employed in the service of the country, 
encc," of his oiler "to inter|)os<' liis admits of no doubt. It was not. af 
person to protect the tribunal from you have thought proper to say, "that 
disturbance." Infamous deception! j moral force which is inspired by a love 
It is only necessary to say who com- of country"' — for what country do 
posed this a-idicnce, from what source I pirates acknowledge? but it was the 
proceeded these "indignant inunnurs,"! love of life, the promised exemption 
to understand at once the harefared-' from the gallows, that drove tiiem trom 
ness with which tliis falsehood is pro- 1 the post of danger; and whilst they 



claimed to tiic world. Have you for 
gotten, Sir, those piratical times, wlien 
the self-stiled Ilinpcror Lafittc, your 
client, had hi> 1 lead-quarter.; at Barra- 
taria; when every inlet, everv creek 



saved their necks by your assistance, it 
will give me pleasure to learn that your 
pocket was not assisted by blending the 
salvation of their necks \>ith the salva- 
tion of the country. AViiat else cculd 



in tliis state, was infested with his j these people do. than hasten to the 
gang; when lo^cihcr with your United Slates" l^istrict Court, when 
broiher-in-law (^omctimes Doctor, , Judge Hall [who, iiy the bye, attached 
sometimes Major, sometimes Alder- 1 but a partial share of blame to the Gen- 
man) Davezac, you were the constant :cral for the intemperance of his 
leg il adviser, the permanent counsel measures, and chielly laid it at your 
of those pirates that occasionnllv fell ' door, never failing to consider you, and 
into the hand> of Justice? Whoii this the late A. L. Duncan, as the perfidi- 
unexicptional'le model of a husl)aiKl. ous counsellors whose pernicious ad- 
ofainan of honor. Doctor, Major, Aider- vice had led to them] what else, said I, 
man, was seen in daily company with, could they do, than till the Court and 

1 raise those "indignant murmurs"" when 

(3) Per Appcnilix. No. III. their great liberator, the old General, 



JACKSON ANB LIVINGSl'ON. 



2tt 



was summoned before the authority of 
the law, to answer (or its violation? 
The Court was tilled, not indeed with 
disinterested spectators, but with the 
members of St. Geim.'s comi)any, chief- 
ly made up of smugglers and jfirates, 
marshalled by your brother-in law, 
Au-i'istus Davezac, the Major and 
Judge-advocate par cxieUen'e; and 
when the General left the Court-house, 
it was not, as you pretend to say, a 
crowd of "grateful citiz.Mis" that bore 
him off in triumph, but these very men, 
(hese "acquitted felons,'' andiioother, 
who were bid to do so by your fellow- 
aid, then Major and Doctor Davizac, 
and now. neither the one nor the other, 
nor indeed any thing thai would entitle 
him to something beyond tiie passing 
notice of idle curiosity. That Gen. 
Jackson paid himself the fine which he 
was cond'-mncd to pav. a fine ef one 
thousand dollars, which you call heavy, 
when, had it been a fee, particulaily 
tVom a pirate in jail, you would have 
called it light, is perfectly true. But 
that the offer to reimburse him was 
from the inlmbilants, that it was unani- 
mous, is a fresh departure from 
truth. Your fellow-aid, llie late A. L. 
Duncan, who had enjoyed bis share of 
applause "for his cool bravcrv and in- 
tn.'pidity,"' v,'ben neither 30U nor him 
were to be seen in camp on the "glori- 
ous 8th of January,"' and Mr. Joseph 
Saul, cashier of the Bank of Orleans, 
were the prime movers, the great 
originators of a subscriplion to niise 
the amount of the fine of one thousand 
dollars. It was understood that no 
body would be allowed to subscribe for 
more than one dollar, in order to give 
to it the aspect of unanimity amongst 
the inhabitants. The expedient failed. 
The present Marshal of the United 
States District, Mr. John ^l'icholsoli, a 
nephew of the late A. L. Duncan, was 
seen skipping about the streets, the 
list in his hand, and collecting the 
signature of almost every clodpate he 
■ rnct in congenial mood. With all this 
exertion of his activit}T lie gath.ercd 
about 400 subscribers only, and ocea- 
.lionally a dollar wiiiiout a signature 
was tendered to him. Amongst the 
persons to whom he applied, was Mr. 
Peter Roche, the captaio of the flank 



company in Plauche's battalion, called 
Carabinicrs. "If the General wants a 
dollar" — said the worthy officer — "I 
will give it to you with pleasure, but I 
will not swell the list by my name.'' 
Mr. Nicholson's reply was, that it was 
his name, and not his dollar, that was 
wanted. Was this unanimity? Anoth- 
er instance of the real feelings of the 
community, on the subject of the Gen- 
eral's unnecessary acts of oj)prcssion, 
deserves to be rescued from oblivion. 
'■ When the confirmation of the news of 
i peace arrived from Washington, your 
' great idol "graciously pardoned"' all 
j offenders, against the military authori- 
't}'. One of these offenders, whose 
i punishment from confinement in the 
barracks had been commuted into ex- 
ile beyond the limits of the camp, was 
I Judge Dom. A. Hall. He was at that 
I lime living at a plantation about four 
'nilles above the city. Some of the 
I most respectable citizens, IMr. R. D. 
Sbepheui, Mr. Wm. Nott, and many 
others, immediately determined to form 
a cav;Ucade and escort the Judge to 
town. At the head of this cavalcade, 
composed of about sixty gentlemen ot 
the first respectability, was to be seen, 
I and much to his credit, Mr. John R. 
|Giymestlie late District Attorney for 
ttie Lhiiled Stales, who, at the very 
time, was. like yourself, one of the five 
volunteer-aids to Gen. Jackson, and the 
j only one amongst them to whom the 
f praise of bravcrv and intrepidity Ii«d 
! been justly due; for on every occasion, 
'during the short campaign, had he been 
'seen anxious to seek a post of honor 
and of danger, disdaining to resort to 
the batteries of inkstands, and to the 
mining in the secret recesses of the 
Camp. (1) 

I How lar the same spirit animated 
I you, may be judged from the circum- 
stance th:U as soon as it was known in 
' the General's family, from the commu- 
nications of the late Major-general 
, Laronde, who on the Cth of January, 
i had dined at his own country seat, 
; with (ieneral I'ackenham and the rest 
i of the British stalHand in the course of 
the Till, brought the intelligence that. 
a general attack was intended to be 

(•<) See Appendix, No. H. 



2i: 



JACKSON AKD t,IVI.\GSTO:i. 



made on the 8lh, n bowel-complaint • on the carpet, the vote of Kentucky 
took vou at once to the city on the) became of importance; nothing was 
evening of the Tlh, and that you did I left untried to put the people of that 
not re-appear at head quarters until jSl;ite in a good humour- Thus it is 
the afternoon of the Sth — a long time found that at the close of your oration, 
after the fate of the day had been de- la higii compliment is paid to the brave- 
cided, which you accidentally learnt | ry of the Kcntutkians. which you say 
on the balcony of your residence in j your constituents would blame you lor, 
Conde street, en robe de chamirc. An- 1 were it omitted. The Kentucky mili- 
other of the volunteer aids, the late tia. properly armed and commanded. 
A. I- Duncan, was likewise to be 'as it was under Gen. Adair, behaved 
seen in the city during the whole mom- as well as any other troops on the 
ing of the "glorious eighth,'' galloping ground : and that the drafted militia on 
up and down the streets, and bcati:g the right bank, armed with pikes and 
lip for reinforcements amongst the old hay-=takcs, under no command, would 
■women, with or without petticoats, have run away when there was no of- 
who met at ti)e corners of the streets, ficcr to stop them, might have been 
This was '"cool bravery'' indeed! , expected. 

1 shall say nothing of those patches \ I have called you the father of thp 
of scarlet, witii which you have plan to raise Cieneral Jackson to the 
thought lit to ornament the General's Presidency, and the first whispers that 
uniform — of those traits of humanity were circulated in Loiii>iana, even be- 
to which you allude — for tliere is no fore it had been ascertained what ( f- 
man in his senses who can be deceived feet the deliverance of N.Orleans would 
by so shallow an artifice, and think the have at Washington, are in every body's 
deep stains which the habitual barbari- remembrance. This prospect gave the 
ty of his character, the Indian massa- first relief to the almost desperate 
cres, the unnecessary murder of Am- situation in which the struggle for the 
brister and Arbuthnot, and other in- possession of the Batture. and other 
stances of the kind, have left in the scheme?, had left you; it was thesheet- 
midstof theorbofhis military glory .well anchor of your hopes and expectations, 
■wiped otT by the trilling exertion to the corner-stone for the re-conslructiou 
exempt the British prisoners, enlisted j of your fallen fortunes. To a certain 
by General Humbert, from punish- ^ extent you liave succeeded — the idol 
ment; by the tritling attention paid to of Juggernaut triumphantly rides on 
the British woundeil. left behind by the necks of the repulilican partv; but 
Major-general Lambert, and especinlit/ ; whether they will continue to worship 
reronimcrK/f/ to his care and protection, i an idol whose tnices are blood — 
Fudge! To w-iid up, it may not be , whether they will consent to remain 
unnecessary once more to expose the 1 prostrate before the man, who, in the 
pliancy, t!ie flexibility of your time-; midst of so many vices, possesses but 
serving policy. In the military ardour , one solitary redeeming tjuality which 
wiiich pervaded vour breast aflcr the. can be called his own, martial intre- 
eighth of January, whilst penning the , pidity, and, w iih a childish loudness for 
otKrial account to government, a cliange, desert another, whose many 
severe censure escaped you upon the ', private and political virtues ought to 
unarmed Kentuckians who deserted j endear him. wheresoever the unavoid- 
the mud bank on the right shore of ablealloy of the common foibles of maii- 
the Mississippi — sometliing was said kind, from which he is no more exempt 
about " ingloriou* llight.'' This was t!ian any other human being, does not 
too strong for the stomach of the j throw a temperorarv shade over their 
Kentuckians — they talked of tarring mild and benignant liffht; who. unfortu- 
and feathering: the old General, who. ; nately for himself, >l\\] more unfortu- 
for some years, avoided the limits ol j nately for his cause — which is the cause 
tlwit state. Hovr the times are altered! I of his country — is deficient in political 
Ever since the elevation of the Gener- 1 :act, but certainly not in rectitude^ 
nl to the I'rcsidercy, w as brought up- ' time alone.will show;< 



JACKSON AVD tlViyGSTOJf. 



213 



APPENDIX. 

No. I. 
The reader may justly doubt the evidence of 
his seni-cs, when he learnt that ihi- news ol° the 
Eigning of the Ghent treaty, reaelietl Ne^r-Or- 
leaDs on the 15lli of February; tliat Mr. Liv- 
ingston was the bearer of it; that the arrcrtof 
Judge Hall took place on the oih oi March, 
three weeks afterwards; aiid that lo these 



•' 'Tis not in mortals to command success," 
Say.s Addison, but it may be deserved 
as well as usurped. The history of 
our days has furnKlied striking in- 
stances of the truth of this obser- 
vation, and were those men who, 
like yourself, pull the wires of the 

great political puppet show, entitled high hamied lueHsures, to the.-e wanton viola- 
te that faith to which VOU have long' tj""' o' the oouslitution of the Lj.ued States, 
, . ., J •, . ,1 I hecould, 13 vears alterwards, unblustungly as- 

since forfeited every claim, the cata-| ^^^^ ^^^^ i.rc.ervation oi "the spirit of the 

logue of heart-sickening anomalies of j laws" by the very man who has never failed 
this kind, would be likely to receive a <o tfample them under his feet, whenever he 
. , ,,.,. , ^1 1 ,■ r r' could do so, without open rebelhoii. r rnm the, 

fresh addition by the elevation Ol Oen. I Louj^ana Gazette of the 22d Kebruary, 1815, 
Jackson to the Presidency. But no! [ published by Godwin B. Gotten, at New-Or- 

Thc sober sense of the great American , l^an/. ' transcribe the following article : 

, t , . r "On I uesday we published a small handbill, 

community may be led astray lor f» i containing such information as wc had conceiv- 
while, but cannot, for any length o( n\ correct, respecting the signing of prelimi- 
time, be deceived, much less silenced 1 ''aries of peace between the American and 
, ' I- • r- r* - -1 British commissioners at Ghent. We hare 

by any combination ol immorality and , ,j„^p ^^^^^ informed, from Headquarter,, that 

of thoughtlessness, by any compromise i the information therein cout.im d, inncorreet, 

between depth of design and igno- j and we havebeen orrffrtrf to pubHsh thdollow- 

. . /»• It „„„ J. .11 in<r, lo do away the tnV that might arise from 

rance, by any traffic between dull- ^,-' ,„,p„rf,„^. Every man may read for 

headed integrity and unprincipled am- , himsell, and 'Jdnk for himself; (thank God: our 
bition. These are the discordant ' thoughts are as yet unthackl.d : :) but as we 
. . I , r I ■ V ,_„,_!.' have been officially informed that the city of 

materials Ollt of which your party \S i Se^.OrW^^nf i. a camp, our readers must not 
made up — I call it your s, because it expect us to take the liberty of expr.ssing our 
owes its birth to you— it lives by your opinion at we u-ight in a free city. We cannot 
r . ' -i. * (T _ • ~ submit to have a fC7i5or o/"£/ie iire« in our ofijce; 

fostering care— It IS your oflVpnng, I ^ ^, ^.^ ^^^ ordered not to publish any re^ 
possessing every legal qualitication, 1 ,„arks without authority, we shall submit to be 



without one particle of legitimacy 

Here I shall take my leave of you. 
Personal motives in addressing you this 
letter, 1 have none. I have said al- 
ready that your splendid talents have 
commanded my admiration — I may 



silent, until we can speak with safety — excipt 
making our paper a sheet of slircdi and patches 
— a mere adifrtiscr for our mercartilc frienUsl* 



" HEAD-quABTEBS, ' .11 MiUtary District, 

.Xew-Ortcmi., Feb. 21, 1815. 
"Sib — It is expected that you wi I give im^ 
mediate publicity te the inclosed, by prinliii? 
, , ., ^ . 1 ,. . . if in hand bills as you have printed Mai which 

.idd, that your social <)uahtics have ; y,-, .^ „,^„„^ t„ c„;;,„^ract: and also, by in- 
endeared you to my recollection, whilst Ucriing it in your next paper, 
the bilent appeal of your worldlv vicis-j . ^ JOHN JREED, Aid-decamp, 

., , 1 r L . .1 i ■ J . I J'ir. Colter), Editor of the Louiuana Gazitte. 

situdcs and misfortunes to tlie kindest, ■' 



feelings of human nature, has not yet 
lost its effect upon my brea?l. But 
your political depravity deserved ex- 
posure — censure would be too mild a 



H Q. 7(!i Military District, 

Acu-Orleani, Feb. -21, 1815. 
Sib — Tbe Commanding General having seen 
a publication which issued from your press to- 
day, stating "thnt a flag had just arrived from 
, , , .r iU 1 Admiral Cochrane to Gen. Jackson, iflicially 

term: and the contempt, if not the ex- j „„„o,jncing the corulusion of peace at Ghent, 
ecration of everv friend to his country, | between the United States and Great Britain, 
ought to be the ultimate reward of that 1 •''"'' rirtuatly rf,u«hns a suspemion of arms,'' 
^ , ii Li . • .• 1 1 requires that you will hasten to remove any im- 

man, whose flexible patriotism has ever 1 p,^,,^ impression which so unauUtonzcd and in. 

lorrect a statement n.ay have raade. 

No request, either director virtual, has been 
made to him by the commander of either the 
land or Da\al force of Great Britain, for a sus- 
j pension of arms. The letter ol "Bathurst to 
'-he Lord Mayor," which furnishes the only 
ojicial information that has been communi- 
cated, will not allow the supposition th;it a 
•uspension of hostilities is meant or expected, 
T ntil the treaty signed by the respective Com- 
missioners, shall have received the ratification 
"ftbe Prince-Regent and of the President of 
the United States. 



received its peculiar stamp and direc 
tion from the impulse of necessity, and 
whose political ambition leaves the eye 
of scrutin}' to seek in vain for that 
distinguished quality, which, to use 
the language of Lord Chatham, 

" " alone makes its virtue the sense 

of honor." 

W. 
Xaldiez, lOlh March, 1828- 



-JU 



JACKSON AND IaVl^'GSTO^. 



A copy OF THAT LLTTER HAD T.EEX SOME I tal punishment, was only equal to bU stt-rlinq 
DAVS EEFOKE, BROUGHT BY Mn. Livi>csTO.\, j integrity, the JuJge was lelt with the choice 
FROM THE English fleet, and publisu^d | of an alternative of epithets, -'un malheutev 
i.v THE ciTi'. tquine connait pas se» deToirs" or "uu misera- 

The commandinp; General again culls upon , ble qui les oublic." Accordingly "The Friem' 
bis fellow citizens and soldiers to recollect that , of the Laws," of the 28th March, 1815, appear- 
it is yet uncertain whelhur the articles which j ed with the following Editorial article : 
hi>ye been signed «t Ghent for the re-establish- ., gentleman, for whom I entertain a. mucl, 
ment of peace, will be approved by those whose „,^^S ^^ ^„ Saturday la=t, 

approba .on IS necessary to give efficacy to „„ ad,ertisen.ent. which I declined publishing 
them. Until thnt approbation .s given, and These are my reasons: The object of this a^^- 
proper y announced, he would be wanting to i •"""- ""^ •": '^ !.„.,„.„ .i„, ^ .li.. 

!u . „. . »-. ..,1 ;-k k,.,„ k „ „i- I vertiiemcnt w as to make it Known that a uiii- 

the important interests which have been conn- ,, , . „f ,„.>„.■•(,.. im.' 

, . . L- . .- -i-k ■** J 1 ner would lie iriveu in honor ol a man wno hat- 

ded to his protection, if he permitted any relax- :: T. J » ", . j , ,- „ ,k„ lUii, ;, 

.r ' . .' ,•' ., been nicked ai', dead aru'U, Iroin the nitli in 

ation in the army under his command. How 'r ' . J ,\ ,j. /-,„■.,,., i.nc 

,■ /-I 11 1 . 1.4 .k f'the streets; who like n. cowardly J iigilne, hat 

disgraceful as well as disastrous would it be, if | V ' ,, , .• k „-^ .i.„ .„„ 

. ° J • 1 1111 been been icnoblv dcscrtin? hs post the mo- 

by surrendering ourselves crcdulou'^ly and "=>-" "->-» 'b'"'"'.' k . r.Ai .... i „«,«■ 

•' , , , » ., , f. ■' ment the first cannon shot was fired, and ncvci 

weakly to newspaper pub ications — often pro- ! . i i i i i i ■„ tk,».„ir,^ - 

..-',. • 1^ ' "^ . , ,- ' , I stopping untillic had succeeded in throwing ;. 

rom Ignorance, but more Irequcnt y ' 7 i-<i i i < .i i^ii.„„h i,;m 

9 . ' . ^ ■' space of laO nil cs between tlic balls and nim- 



ceediu 

from dishonest designs — we permitted an enemy 
whom we have so lately ana so gloriously beat- 
en, to regain the advantages he has lost, and 
triumph over u- in turn I 

The General Order issued on llic i9lli inst. 
expresses the feelings, the views, and the hopes 
which the Commanding General still enter- 
tains. 

Henceforward, it is expected that no publi- 
cation of the nature of that herein alluded to 



self; who as long as he had it in Ins power, 
never could find irons, bolts and chains enough 
to weigh down somo brave fellows (i. c., the pi- 
rates, friends aud clients of .Messrs. L and D.) 
who, in half an hour, have rendered more im- 
portant services to this country, than a thou- 
sand individuals similar to the one in whose 
honor the dinner is to be given, would be able 
to render during tlio whole course of their lives; 



, J 11 f ... 1 of one of those beings, finally, who, like the 

undcensured will appearinany paper of tlus , „„,erM.ow themselves on the 

city, unless the editor shall have previously as- j , g^,^, J^^^, „,g ,- j,^ ^^ ;„ „,j,., ,„ 

sharpen their impure beaks and their rapacious 
claws upon an easy prey. J. Leclehc." 

.4nd the blackguard that could pen such a 
paragraph, who was considered no unwelcome 
guest in Mr. Livingston's house, had just re- 
ceived (throu^-U the protecting influence of 
Colonel Eihvard Livingston and of jVo/or .Au- 
gustus Davezac) several hundred dolljrs of pub- 
lic money fur a few handbills officiaili/ printed 
for Geu. Jackson. 

A few years afterwards, his skeleton corpse 
was discovered on an old matrass, in a vessel 
found in the Gulf of Honduras, without a liv- 
ing soul on board, dthello's occupation was 
gone — his gibes and his jests uo longer finding 
bidders at New -Orleans, with some of his pirat- 
ical friends he proceeiled to join Aury's cang 
at Old-Providence, where he was made Judge 
of a mock Court of .\dmiralty. A learned and 
nghUous Judge indeed! whose decisions not 
unfrequtntly verified the words of a Kreiicli 
poem, once circulated at New I'roviJtoce 
during Napoleon's belligerent day.s, 

'^ leJu^c, sans fox, ct d'un ariir nurcenain . 

I'artage sanspudcur lesproJ'iU du Corsairc.^'' 



ocrtained its corrertness, and gained permission 
(or its !>uf r/ion, from the proper source. 
By command, 
JOHN REED, Aid-de-Camp. 
Jtr, Collen, Editor of Ihc Louisiana GaselU. 

NO. n. 

Amongst the daily visitors of .Mr. Livings- 
ton's (amily at that period, was a fellow by the 
name of /<ec/f)c, the Editor of a French paper 
t:alled I'Jimt des-his — a man of some wit and 
readiness at repartee, but of the utmost vulgar- 
ity of manners, low and contemptible in his 
habits, and in daily association with the La- 
fittes, the Beluche?, and other pardoned pirates, 
yet admitted at the dejeuners a la fourdielle of 
Madam L. (the New-Orleans parody of the 
Parisian beauty, Madame Rccauiier) when 
they would ply him with Charnpaignc, permit 
him to talk ad lil/iium, and allow every license 
to his tongue — " lioumic d'un genie extraordi- 
naire, d'un esprit superieur, on doit tout lui 
pardoner" — this was the cant apology for the 
pleasure with which his most licentious obser- 
vations and sayings were listened to and re- 
ceived. I'pon Judge Hall's return to the city, ' 
his personal friends, and the friends of order j 
aud constitutional riglits, proposed to eive him , 
<i public dinner — an advertisement to that ef | 
I'ect was sent to all the editors of the New-Or- 1 
leans papers of that period, and it could not I 
possibly be supposed, that the Editor of- 7'/ii | 
Friend of the Lairs''^ would have lie.'.itattd a- ) 
bout publishing it. Diit poor Judge Hall wa~ i 
no favourite at the dijcuners a la fourehrlte in 
Condrt street — the clients of Mr. Livingston, ! 
th; bosom fiicnds of Maj. Davezac, the daily 
associates of Leclcrc, had been in irons — the 
Judge always deeliniiic to admit thcui t > bail. 
These were mortal oH'enccE, that could not be 
pardoned at immaculate dejeuners., and the 
Judge, whose vigncity in iliscoveriiig tin* 
drift of those shifts that were resorted to fur 
^ho purpose offcrceniug the pirates from capi- 



NO. 111. 
The reader will not forget that the arrest ui 
Mr. Louaillier, and Judge Hall, took place on 
the Jth of March. On tho 6th, fif irry ner 
dnfi. General Jackson wrote us follows to M;: 
jor-general Lambert; 

'■'■Head Quarters, ti/A Mareh, 18l.i. 

".^IR — I have just received intellitencc from 
Washington, which leaves little doubt in my 
mind, that the treaty signet! at Ghent, between 
the I'nited States and Great Britain, has been 
ratified by the President and Senate of tin' 
United States; but," ic. &c. 

Vet, on thi^s same day, the arrest of Mr 
Dick took place, and he was confined in tho 
barracks until flic l9Ui of ."Vlnrch. On the 3th 



TRUE CHARACTER OF GENERAL JACKSON. 



a 1,1 



of March, the Gcoeral rescinded the order by 
which the "refractory Krenchmeu" were exiled 
to Baton-Rouge; but he made an exception 
with the Cons^ul, the Chevallier dc Tousard, 
against whom he felt, lor some reason or other, 
peculiar spite. All this was done, no doubt, as 
Mr Livingston said, to "preserve the spirit of 
the law." 



TRUE CHARACTER OF GENERAL 
JACK.SON. 

Tlie fiistory of the world, as well as 
the experience of an ordinary life, es- 
tablishes tlie fact, that individuals often 
obtain a high name, and extensive rep- 
utation, from accidental circumstances 
rather than real merit. Such usually 
figure for a short time; bright and at- 
tractive as a meteor. Their course is as 
soon at an end: but its progress is al- 
ways full of mischief. Every commu- 
nity, whether a great nation or a small 
village, is, at times visited by one of these 
meteoric characters. Sornctimes a 
hero, sometimes a politician, some- 
times a clergyman or a physician. — 
And whilst his day lasts, he is the uni- 
versal favorite, endowed, for the time, 
with every virtue and every talent; 
and set up as a Sibboleth to be lauded 
by all who would stand in favor witli 
the multitude. 

If we take but a glance at that por- 
tion of history with which all are fami- 
liar, we shall find these characters in 
great numbers. The Jews were con- 
tinually running astray after Korahs. 
Dathans and Abirams, Absalom, and 
puch like men. Ro.nie had her Man- 
lius, her Gracchi, her Claudius and ma- 
ny more. Greece was ever distracted 
by characters like Akibiades. The 
Thomas .\ Beckcts, John Wilkses and 
Lord George Gordons of England fig- 
ure through her whole history. The 
U. States, as a nation have but just ac- 
quired somethirig like the vigor of man- 
hood, and have their General Jackson. 
Look at the separate states and we 
shall see the Bidwells of Mas.sachusetts, 
the Tompkinses of New- York, the 
Findlays of Penn.sylvania, the Deshas 
of Kentucky, each the Hero of liis day, 
and the man of the People. Descend 
still lower into the scale of communi- 
ties. We have liad our Gazlay in Cin- 
'Snnati. our neighbours of Greene 



county have had and still enjoy their 
Gardiner. In all these cases the indi- 
vidual's extraordinary popularity, was 
the result of accident. It grew up sud- 
denly, no one knew why, liourished iL« 
season out, and when at an end, was 
remembered only as a source of morti- 
fication and shame to those who had 
been its instruments. 

In no case, however, has the popu- 
larity of an individulal, been raised so 
suddenly to the same height, as that of 
General J.ackson. When war was de- 
clared in 1812, he was only known, in 
Tennessee, and the VVeslern country. 
His character was that of a turbulent 
and fiery man. One who had princi- 
pally distinguished himself at the cock- 
pit, and on the race ground. One who 
had seduced his neighbor's wife, and 
made her his own; had killed his man 
in a duel, and had bullied his way thro" 
the world with little regard to the 
right of others, or his own duties as a 
citizen. That such was his general 
character where known, is within the 
recollection of all who knew him, and 
who now allow themselves to think 
justly and speak truly. 

The first year of the war transpired 
without any thing being done by Gen. 
Jackson to benefit the country or ac- 
quire credit to himself. He obtained 
a General's command of a body of 
volunteers, whom he marched from 
Nashville to Natchez, at a great 
public expense, and no public benefit. 
' .\t Natchez he committed an act of 
'open mutiny, and set an example, 
I which led afterwards lo the most dis- 
lastrous result, within his own com- 
{mand. He marched back his men at 
' the public expense and discharged 
j them to rest and amuse themselves. 
1 This was his first campaign. His sec- 
ond was against the Creek Indians. 
J He subdued them. The country knew 
j nothing of the mean.s or the cos!; but 
they rejoiced, and praised General 
Jackson. The government gave him 
a Major Generars command and he was 
followed by the public applause. He 
commanded at New Orlean?. and was 
j again succes-ful, and again his '.-uccess 
I was, without scrutiny,rcceivcd asproof 
I of merit. Here closed the career of 
General Jackson's usefulness. Hi= 



VI 6 



TRUE CIIAn\CTKR OF GENERAL JACKSON. 



subsequent history is but a repetition of] taking to himself reputation for that 
wrongs and outrages. | which he did not perform. He was 

At the close of the war the impres-! known to be rash and violent in his 
bion was almost univer-^al,that Gen. i temper, and to have committed several 
Jackson had displayed high military ; excesses, which were by most men, at- 
taleiits, in his war with the Creeks, tributed to meretemporary excitement, 
and in his defence of New-Orleans. How stands his character now, that it 
The details were unknown, but the has been subjected to the ordeal of 
results were certain. His public cor-, strict scrutiny and close investigation? 
respondence was written with force; What has been his private life? 
and precision, and though not eitlier He commenced by invading the sancti- 
accurate or elegant, was respectable. ; ty of his neighbour's matrimonial 
He obtained credit for the authorship, couch. A legislative act, and judicial 
and was thus placed before the nation record have been produced, predicated 
as one of her most eminent citizens, upon his criminahly, and fastening up- 
The opinion tims received, it was the: on him the oH'ences of seduction and 
wish of no one to have shaken, until adultery. His white-washers have 
Gen. Jackson, by sulfering hims Jf to been compelled to acknowledge thi- 
be put up a candidate for the otlice of' fact, and attempt its palliation. Yet so 
President, made it the duty of every ] strong is their sense of its enormity, 
considerate and reflecting citizen to that the newspapers that support him, 
examine the re;d and true nature of his no longer feel at liberty to notice a ca>e 
pretensions. This investigation was of seduction, or publish a trial foi 
commenced witii reluctance, and pro- adultery. This fact should sink deep 
ceeded tardily, uniil the extraordinary into the minds of all thinking men. 
violence of the General's supporters, HeJastened a quarrel upon Dickin- 
and the alarming practices they adopt- ,son about a horse race, and killed him 
ed, have stimulated inquiry to all tlie in a duel, under circumstances that ex- 
active exertions necessary to dcvelope cited a strong sensation in the commii- 
and make known tiie truth. Much is nity : and then attempted, by bullying, 
now generally known of Gen. Jackson, to prevent a token of respect to hi- 
which was known to very few at the ■ memory. 

adjournment of Congress, in March, | He was prosecuted for an assault 
1827. Fourteen months of scrutiny, j witii intent to kill, for stabbing Samuel 
have produced a great change in public' Jackson, and was acquitted, as was 
sentiment, with respect to the true Aaron Burr, and many other notorious 



character of Gen Jackson 

The combination to promote his 
election to the Presidency, was com- 
pleted at Washington, in Feb. 1827. 
The plan of carrying him on tlic 



felons. 

He incurred strong suspicions of 
having been associated with Aaron 
Burr, inhis treasonai)le enterprise, and 
of having saved himself, like Wilkin- 



shoulders of the pe;>ple by means of i son, by becoming an informer, 
public me(;tings, was lliere concluded He engaged in land speculations of 
upon, and in March, 1 827, its openi-| a most fraudulent <haracter,and upon a 
tions commenc<'d in Baltimore. In the ' scale of great extent, wliiciiheabandon- 
same month, the While-washing com-| ed only, when the prospect of success 
miltee was organized at Nashville, and | became desperate, and whet^ there wa- 
in the same month. Maj. Henry Lee was I reason to fear, that further pposeculing 
de-pati lu'd to the Heriiiila^c, tosupcr- them, would interfere with his new 
intend the General's i orre-puiuli'iice. fornn d projects of ambition. 
At that time, most men looked upon He was in connection with a party 
General Jackson as a respectable man,; of slave dealers, and engaged in law 
highly gifted with military genius, pos-! suits about the division of <he spoil, 
sessing a decent knowlcdgi^ of lilera-'And there is reason to believe, that 
fure, of unquestioned private and po- liis tiireat, to burn Silas Dinsmore and 
litica! inlegritv; alloirether above the j his agency house, originated in the 
vice of detraction, or the mcHnncs.s of fact, that Dinsmore'.) f lilbfiil execuliou 



J 



THUE f IIAUAC TEU OF GENERAL JACKSON. 



an 



of his duty, interfered with the iiiter- 
osts of the dealers in slaves. 

He has been engaged in nuiiiherless 
(juarrels, with those connected with 
him in business, and has only kept up-, 
on terms with men, who made them- 
selves mere panders to his interest and 
his passions. 

Such is a rapid sketch of his private 
fife as it has been more fully developed 
within the last year. 

VVhathasbeen his conduct asa poli- 
tician? 

He has held public stations, but he 
has distinguisiied himself for public 
usefulness in no one of them. He re- 
signed all, upon his own acknowledged 
ronviciion of incompetence to dis- 
charge the duties attached to them. 
Upon one subjectof vital pul)lic interest, 
the tariff, he has meanly attempted to 



ficc, he has lent himself to the basest 
purposes of faction, and has descend- 
ed to employ the most discreditable, 
weapons of electioneering. 

He has been exhibited to the world 
as the principal author and promulga- 
tor of an atrocious slander against Mr. 
Clay,insimiated at various times and pla- 
ces to various persons, whicli he at last 
partly conlirnied by an open publica 
tion. The utter falsehood of his alle- 
gation has been made manifest, by the 
refusal of his own witness to support 
hmi, and by an overwhelming mass of 
contradictory tcstimon) . Yet he coun- 
tenances his partizans in repeating and 
reiterating the slander. 

He has been detected and exp